GROUP MEMBERS NO. NAME MATRIC NO. 1. NUR SYUHADA BINTI ZAKARIA DD110052 2. NUR SHAFIKAH BINTI AHMAD MAULANA DD110102 3. SITI NUR HASRAT BINTI ABDUL HALIM DD110110 4 MOHD SYAFIQ BIN MOHD YASSIN DD110126NEXT
INTRODUCTIONWhat is a problem? Problem solving is the art of finding ways to get from where you are to where want to be. The problem, therefore, is the gap between the present situation and a more desirable one. – Vincent Nolan (1989) A problem must be perceived or recognized by somebody, otherwise, it is not a problem. Problems are everywhere, depending on one’s perception to the problem that it is a problem. We may not realize that we have a problem, but that does not stop us from having one. NEXT
Kepner-Tregoe Problem Solving and Decision Making (KT) The KT Problem Solving & Decision Making methods are systematic techniques that guide critical thinking to maximum expertise and use data effectively. Implementing the KT approach harnesses critical thinking and diverse expertise and directs it at your most pressing issues. The KT methods have been used globally to save billions of dollars and improve quality, productivity, profitability, market share, customer satisfaction and other key measures.NEXT
8 Disciplines Problem Solving Process Eight Disciplines Problem Solving is a method used to approach and to resolve problems, typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals. Its purpose is to identify, correct and eliminate recurring problems, and it is useful in product and process improvement. The disciplines are: D1. Use Team Approach D2. Describe the Problem D3. Implement and Verify Short-Term Corrective Actions D4. Define and Verify Root Causes D5. Verify Corrective Actions D6. Implement Permanent Corrective Actions D7. Prevent Recurrence D8. Congratulate Your TeamNEXT
TRIZTRIZ presents a systematic approach for analysing the kindof challenging problems where inventiveness is needed andprovides a range of strategies and tools for findinginventive solutions.
COMPARISON BETWEEN PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT [PDCA] MODEL and GROW MODELNEXT
Plan-Do-Check-Act [PDCA] ModelPDCA (plan–do–check–act or plan–do–check–adjust)is an iterative four-step management method used inbusiness for the control and continuous improvement ofprocesses and products. It is also known asthe Deming circle/cycle/wheel, Shewhart cycle, control circle/cycle, or plan–do–study–act (PDSA).NEXT
Step 2: Do•Generate possible solutions.•Select the best of thesesolutions, perhaps usingtechniques like Impact Analysis toscrutinize them.•Implement a pilot project on asmall scale basis, with a smallgroup, or in a limitedgeographical area.
• The number of areas for improvement you have identified, and the scope of the whole initiative, you may decide to repeat the "Do" and "Check" phases, incorporating your additional improvements.• Once you are finally satisfied that the costs would outweigh the benefits of repeating the Do-Check sub-cycle any more, you can move on to the final phase.
• Implement your solution fully. • If you are using the PDCA as part of a continuous improvement initiative, you need to loop back to the Plan Phase (Step 1), and seek out further areasSTEP 4 : ACT for improvement.
When to Use PDCA• As a model for continuous improvement.• When starting a new improvement project.• When developing a new or improved design of a process, product or service.• When defining a repetitive work process.• When planning data collection and analysis in order to verify and prioritize problems or root causes.• When implementing any change.
• Daily routine management-for the individual and/or the team • Problem-solving process • Project management • Continuous development • Vendor development• Human resources development • New product development
GROW Model Problem developed technique solving UK Goal settings Used extensively in the corporate coaching market in the late 1980s and 1990s. GROW is very well known in the business arena but it also has many applications in everyday life. The particular value of grow is that it provides an effective structured methodology which both helps set goals effectively and is a problem solving process.NEXT
GOAL – This is the end point, where the client wants to be.WAY - The Options then need to be converted into actionsteps which will take the client to their goal. OPTION - Once Obstacles have been identified, the client needs to find ways of dealing with them if they are to make progress.OBSTACLE - There will be Obstacles stopping the clientgetting from where they are now to where they want to go. NEXT REALITY - This is how far the client is away from their goal.
STRENGTH OF GROW MODEL It can be used by anyone without special training. While there are many methodologies that can be used to address problems, the value of grow is that it is easily understood, straight forward to apply and very thorough. In addition it is possible to apply it to a large variety of issues in a very effective way.NEXT
Example: GOAL - Bring my weight down to 60kg in three OBSTACLE – No food, months and keep it down busy, lazy to exercisesREALITY - What their weight is now? OPTION – manage time for exercise, pyramid of food, diet WAY – Go to gym, diet, exercises 10 min per day
PROCESSES OF GROW MODEL1. Establish the Goal Define and agree the goal or outcome to be achieved. You should help your team member define a goal that is specific, measurable and realistic. In doing this, it is useful to ask questions like: "How will you know that you have achieved that goal?" "How will you know the problem is solved?“2. Examine Current Reality Too often, people try to solve a problem without fully considering their starting point, and often they are missing some of the information they need to solve the problem effectively. Useful coaching questions include: "What is happening now?" "What, who, when, how often" "What is the effect or result of that?"
3. Explore the Options meaning, all the many possible options you have for solving the problem. Help your team member generate as many good options as possible, and discuss these. Typical questions used to establish the options are: "What else could you do?" "What if this or that constraint were removed? "What are the benefits and downsides of each option?" 4. Establish the Will So your final step as coach is to get you team member to commit to specific action. In so doing, you will help the team member establish his or her will and motivation. Useful questions: "So what will you do now, and when? "What could stop you moving forward?" "And how will you overcome it?" "Will this address your goal?" "How likely is this option to succeed?"NEXT "What else will you do?"
DISCUSSION PDCA CYCLE give clear identification of the problem andmetrics, a prototyping of the solution, evaluation of thechanges and subsequently, a full-scale implementation ofthe success. Use Plan-Do-Check-Act, or PDCA. Without fullyunderstanding the cause of what is happening in asituation, an organization will not have the control in itsprocesses in order to sustain lean. NEXT
The GROW process has been presented sequentially here. In practice, it is a much less linear process which may start anywhere and revisit each of the stages several times. Often when we have lost our way in a session or got stuck, we should turn to The GROW Model to check out where we need to put our attention As with many simple principles any user of GROW can apply a great deal of skill and knowledge at each stage but the basic process remains as we have discuss before.NEXT
CONCLUSION Use visual management and standard work tools to catch problems before we start adding up. Build the skills, tools and systems needed to deal with those problems as soon as possible. Understand that the small problems are a valuable contribution for future results Each creative solving problems have their own advantages, we just need to choose the suitable for our own good. Always thinks creative to solve problem.NEXT