Analysis sewing machine


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Analysis sewing machine

  1. 1. Sewing Machine INTODUCTION A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric and other materials togetherwith thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution todecrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. Since theinvention of the first working sewing machine, generally considered to have been the workof Englishman Thomas Saint in 1790, the sewing machine has vastly improved the efficiencyand productivity of fabric, clothing and needle industries. Home sewing machines are designed for one person to sew individual items whileusing a single stitch type. Modern sewing machines are designed in such a way that thefabric easily glides in and out of the machine without the hassle of needles and thimbles andother such tools used in hand sewing, automating the process of stitching and savingtime.Industrial sewing machines, by contrast, are larger, faster, more complex, and morevaried in their size, cost, appearance, and task. The fabric shifting mechanism may be a work guide or may be pattern-controlled.Some machines can create embroidery-type stitches. Some have a work holder frame. Somehave a work feeder that can move along a curved path, while others have a work feeder witha work clamp. Needle guards, safety devices to prevent accidental needle-stick injuries, areoften found on modern sewing machines. 1
  2. 2. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT SEWING MACHINE In the 1640s, Elizabethan Period and later in the time of King Charles I, people wereapplying for early patents or royal letters of protection and monopolies for weird andwonderful mechanisms. However we have no firm proof of the machines and as poor oldCharlie came a croper we shall never know. In 1649 they removed his head. Then, CharlesWeisenthal took out a patent for a needle to be used for mechanical sewing. In 1790 English inventor Thomas Saint was the first to patent a design for a sewingmachine but he did not advertise his invention. It was meant for leather and canvas. It islikely that Saint had a working model but there is no evidence of one; he was a skilledcabinet maker and included many practically functional features: an overhanging arm, a feedmechanism (adequate for short lengths of leather), a vertical needle bar, and a looper. (In1874 a sewing machine manufacturer, William Newton Wilson, found Saints drawings inthe London Patent Office, made adjustments to the looper, and built a working machine,currently owned by the London Science Museum.) An Austrian tailor Josef Madersperger began developing the first sewing machine in1807. He presented the first working machine in 1814. In 1830Barthélemy Thimonnier, aFrench tailor, patented a sewing machine that sewed straight seams using chain stitch. By1841, Thimonnier had a factory of 80 machines sewing uniforms for the French Army. Thefactory was destroyed by rioting French tailors afraid of losing their livelihood. Thimonnierhad no further success with his machine. The first American lockstitch sewing machine was invented by Walter Hunt in 1832.His machine used an eye-pointed needle (with the eye and the point on the same end)carrying the upper thread and a falling shuttle carrying the lower thread. The curved needlemoved through the fabric horizontally, leaving the loop as it withdrew. The shuttle passedthrough the loop, interlocking the thread. The feed let the machine down, requiring themachine to be stopped frequently and reset up. Hunt eventually lost interest in his machineand sold it without bothering to patent it. 2
  3. 3. In 1842, John Greenough patented the first sewing machine in the UnitedStates. Elias Howe, born in Spencer, Massachusetts, created his sewing machine in 1845,using a similar method to Hunts, except the fabric was held vertically. The majorimprovement he made was to have the needle running away from the point, starting fromthe eye. After a lengthy stint in England trying to attract interest in his machine he returnedto America to find various people infringing his patent, among them Isaac MerrittSinger.[5] He eventually won a case against patent infringement in 1854 and was awarded theright to claim royalties from the manufacturers using ideas covered by his patent, includingSinger. Trained as an engineer, Singer saw a rotary sewing machine being repaired in aBoston shop. He thought it to be clumsy and promptly set out to design a better one. Hismachine used a falling shuttle instead of a rotary one; the needle was mounted verticallyand included a presser foot to hold the cloth in place. It had a fixed arm to hold the needleand included a basic tensioning system. This machine combined elements of Thimonniers,Hunts, and Howes machines. He was granted an American patent in 1851 and it wassuggested he patent the foot pedal (or treadle) used to power some of his machines;however, it had been in use for too long for a patent to be issued. When Howe learned ofSingers machine he took him to court. Howe won and Singer was forced to pay a lump sumfor all machines already produced. Singer then took out a license under Howes patent andpaid him $1.15 per machine. Singer then entered a joint partnership with a lawyer namedEdward Clark. They established the first hire-purchase scheme to allow people to buy theirmachines through payments over time. Meanwhile Allen B. Wilson had developed a shuttle that reciprocated ("vibrated") ina short arc, which was an improvement over Singers and Howes. However, JohnBradshaw had patented a similar device and was threatening to sue. Wilson decided to try anew method. He went into partnership with Nathaniel Wheeler to produce a machine with arotary hook instead of a shuttle. This was far quieter and smoother than the other methods,and the Wheeler and Wilson Company produced more machines in 1850s and 1860s thanany other manufacturer. Wilson also invented the four-motion feed mechanism; this is stillseen on every machine today. This had a forward, down, back, and up motion, which drewthe cloth through in an even and smooth motion. Charles Miller patented the first machine 3
  4. 4. to stitch buttonholes. Through the 1850s more and more companies were being formed andwere trying to sue each other. This triggered a patent thicket known as the Sewing MachineWar. In 1856 the Sewing Machine Combination was formed, consisting of Singer, Howe,Wheeler, Wilson, Grover and Baker. These four companies pooled their patents, meaningthat all the other manufacturers had to obtain a license and pay $15 per machine. This lasteduntil 1877 when the last patent expired. James Edward Allen Gibbs (1829–1902), a farmer from Raphine in RockbridgeCounty, Virginia patented the first chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine on June 2,1857. In partnership with James Willcox, Gibbs became a principal in Willcox & Gibbs SewingMachine Company. Willcox & Gibbs commercial sewing machines are still used in the 21stcentury. In 1877 the world’s first crochet machine was invented and patented by Joseph M.Merrow, then-president of what had started in the 1840s as a machine shop to developspecialized machinery for the knitting operations. This crochet machine was the firstproduction overlock sewing machine. The Merrow Machine Companywent on to becomeone of the largest American Manufacturers of overlock sewing machines, and continues tobe a global presence in the 21st century as the last American over-lock sewing machinemanufacturer. In 1885 Singer patented the Singer Vibrating Shuttle sewing machine, which usedAllen B. Wilsons idea for a vibrating shuttle and was a better lockstitcher than the oscillatingshuttles of the time. Millions of the machines, perhaps the worlds first really practicalsewing machine for domestic use, were produced until finally superseded by rotary shuttlemachines in the 20th century. Sewing machines continued being made to roughly the samedesign, with more lavish decoration appearing until well into the 1900s.In 1905 Merrow wona lawsuit against Willcox & Gibbs for the rights to the original crochet stitch. 4
  5. 5. The first electric machines were developed by Singer Sewing Co. and introduced in1889. At first these were standard machines with a motor strapped on the side. As morehomes gained power, these became more popular and the motor was gradually introducedinto the casing.Before he died in 1867 Howe was collecting royalties of more than fourthousand dollars a week and he had realized about $2,000,000 in total royalties. The sewingmachine industry based on his original invention made possible the mass production ofclothing on a much larger scale than had ever been possible with hand-stitching. By 1905,Americans all over the country were beginning to sew with electrically powered machines.Today sewing machines in manufacturing plants use computer technology to createcustomized clothing with little human intervention. ANALYSIS OF THE SEWING MACHINEThere are three categories in the analysis such as :- Sewing machine needles. Sewing machine forms. Types of needle site1) Sewing Machine Needles. As we know, in the analysis of the sewing machine, the parts of the sewing machine is also taken into account. One of the parts of the sewing machine is the needle. A sewing needle is a long slender tool with a pointed tip. The first needles were made of bone or wood, modern ones are manufactured from high carbon steel wire, nickel- or 18K gold plated for corrosion resistance. The highest quality embroidery needles are plated with two-thirds platinum and one-thirds titanium alloy. Traditionally, needles have been kept in needle books or needle cases which have become an object of adornment. 5
  6. 6. Sewing needles can also be kept in an etui, a small box that held needles and otheritems such as scissors, pencils and tweezers. A needle for hand sewing has a hole, calledthe eye at the blunt end to carry thread or cord through the fabric after the pointed endpierces it. Type of earlier hand sewing and sewing machine needle Type of latest hand sewing and sewing machine needle 6
  7. 7. Types of hand sewing needles. Name Description 1. Appliqué - These are considered another all-purpose needle for sewing, appliqué, and patch work. 2. Embroidery - Also known as crewel needles, identical to sharps but have a longer eye to enable easier threading of multiple embroidery threads and thicker yarns. 3. Milliners - A class of needles generally longer than sharps, useful for basting and pleating, normally used in millinery work. 4. Easy- or Self- - Also called calyxeyed sharps, side threading, and spiral eye needles, threading these needles have an open slot into which a thread may easily be guided rather than the usual closed eye design. 5. Beading - These needles are very fine, with a narrow eye to enable them to fit through the centre of beads and sequins along with a long shaft to thread and hold a number of beads at a time. 6. Bodkin - Also called ballpoints, this is a long, thick needle with a ballpoint end and a large, elongated eye. They can be flat or round and are generally used for threading elastic, ribbon or tape through casings and lace openings. 7. Chenille - These are similar to tapestry needles but with large, long eyes and a very sharp point to penetrate closely woven fabrics. Useful for ribbon embroidery. 8. Darning - Sometimes called finishing needles, these are designed with a blunt tip and large eye making them similar to tapestry needles but longer; yarn darners are the heaviest sub-variety. 9. Doll - Not designed for hand sewing at all, these needles are made long and thin and are used for soft sculpturing on dolls, particularly facial details. 10. Leather - Also known as glovers and as wedge needles, these have a triangular point designed to pierce leather without tearing it; often used on leather-like materials such as vinyl and plastic. 11. Sailmaker - Similar to leather needles, but the triangular point extends further up the shaft; designed for sewing thick canvas or heavy leather. 12. Tatting - These are built long with an even thickness for their entire length, including at the eye, to enable thread to be pulled through the double stitches used in tatting. 7
  8. 8. 2) Sewing Machine Forms and Specification. In this technological era, a variety of facilities including a sewing machine created. Likeother technologies, sewing machine also renewed with the changing times, from time totime. Changes were made, including improvements in terms of usability, physical and others.The picture below is the comparison between a sewing machine in the past and present. Before Now Need a manual method also. easy-to-use sewing machines that produce consistent stitches and take away guesswork when adjusting settings. Require more care and sensitivity to A color touch screen makes it easy change position stitches. to change and adjust stitches. For some first machine, a machine is only This feature works so well that owners for a certain type of fabric. say the machine does a great job with jeans hems. Typically a challenge for any sewing machine 8
  9. 9. For old sewing machines, to alter or Electronic machines to mechanical sewing adjust the stitch length and width shall machines:- remove the buttons in the correct changing stitches or adjusting stitch position. length and width can be done with the push of a button. There are a number of old machine Compared with the old sewing machine, designs or size is large. in terms of sewing machine recently the improved ergonomics, it is difficult for the lift to terms of flavor, an important criteria be carried anywhere. and it can be readily brought about elsewhere. For old sewing machine, using a This sewing machine also has adjustable rotation system on the foot pedal that foot pressure, another good feature for should be moved to run the machine quilters or others who work with different types of thicknesses of fabric.4) Types of Needle Site On the needle and thread position located on a sewing machine, there is a container for needle control called "needle site". At the time of the ancients, is the site of the needle only use one form or design. Than at present, technology is growing rapidly, as well as the needle site. They create different types or designs of needle sites and have their own uses of it. There are various types of needle site. Below are some of the types and specification of the needle site. 9
  10. 10. TYPE OF SITE SPECIFICATION Site: Site Piping Machine type: Industrial Uses: To stitch finishing kun, rope or sewing stitches heap at the connection. Site: Site Wrinkles Machine Type: Industrial Purpose: To make stitches wrinkles. Example Valance. Site: Site Wrinkles Machine Type: Industrial Purpose: To make stitches wrinkles. Example Valance. Site: Site Teflon Machine Type: Industrial Uses: For stitching on smooth surfaces. Examples of the types of smooth lycra fabric, fabric t-shirts and plastic Site : Site Zip Machine Type : Industrial Uses : To stitch zip finish. 10
  11. 11. Site : Zip Hide Sites Machine Type : Industrial Uses : For concealed zip finishes seam. Site: Site Button Hole Machine Type: Industrial Uses: To make button holes. SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION After we analyzed the innovation of sewing machine, we realize that sewing machinetechnology have grows rapidly as telephone, television, and others gadget. There have a lotof patent of sewing machine with various of brand. We also knew that to sew each type ofstitch different types of sewing machines is needed. Besides that, each patent of sewingmachines has its own function and advantages. Not everybody can use all type of patent andbrand even the common user. There have different skill or step to use the sewing machine.Sewing is fun when the machine works with you to create anything you want. Therefore, wehave some suggestion and recommendation to improve the sewing machine. 11
  12. 12. Type of machine by stitch: TYPES OF STITCH TYPES OF MACHINE Straight/interlock Sewing machine Edging sewing machine (normal) Edge (normal) Edging sewing machine Edge Embroidery sewing machine Embroidery filigree embroidery hemstitch By hand eel bone By hand To get a simple ‘baju kurung’, ‘kebaya’ or ‘baju melayu Johor’ a tailor use more thanfour types of stitch including straight, edge, hemstitch, eel bone and others. Then imagine ifthe cloth has embroidery, beads and others. How many types of stitch will be used? Then,how many sewing machine will a tailor should have if each stitch need specific machine? 12
  13. 13. Therefore, we suggest to design sewing machine that have all the function andcontrol by computer to call the program. The tailor does not have to setting the needle andthreads each time to change the types of stitch. The design also should have hemstitch andeel bone program too. A lot of time could be save. By handAdvantages of the design : 1. We could complete a cloth quickly by replace hand sewing with machine. 2. We do not have to change the needle and threads each time to change the type of stitch and colour. 3. Only a small place will be need if only a machine will be used rather to use two or more types of machines. 4. It also can prevent any bad effect such as back pain when sit too long while sewing and sore eyes if the light not enough or too long see the small thing. By setting the program, all the work will be done by the machine quickly and easily. 5. Increasing the productivity. 13