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Chapter 5 facist japan

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  • 1. Crisis and Conflict An Enquiry Approach to Modern World History Secondary 3 Chapter 5:Authoritarian Regimes — Case Study: Fascist Japan
  • 2. 2 Was the rise of Fascism in Japan inevitable?What led to the failure of the What led to the rise of democratic government in Fascism in Japan? Japan? Factors that contributed to Factors that assisted the rise the failure of democracy in of Fascist factions to gain Japan control of Japan Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 3. 3 In a Nutshell  The 1920s saw the spread of Fascist ideas around the world.  Fascism grew to be a popular alternative to democracy.  People began to lose confidence in democratic leaders when they saw that they were not able to handle the economic problems that came after the 1930 Great Depression.  In Japan, Fascist ideas were strongly influenced by its powerful military.  Another idea advocated by the Japanese Army officers was Japanese superiority over other Asians.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 4. 4 The beginnings of Fascism  The term Fascism, was first used by Mussolini who founded the Fascist movement in Italy, 1919.  Fascists believed that all individuals and groups in a nation should put aside their interests and look after the needs of the nation first.  Power and violence were advocated by the Fascists. These seemed very attractive to young people and World War I veterans.  Fascists also believed that a nation’s goal was to grow strong and expand. People began to feel that Fascism gave them a sense of belonging to a great nation.  Events such as World War I and global unemployment increased the popularity of Fascism.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 5. 5 What led to the failure of the democratic government in Japan? Democratic The Diet’s leaders failed limited power to solve Corruption economic damaged problems democracy’s reputationCrisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 6. 6 The Diet’s limited power The Diet/Parliament was set up in late 19th century. Real power however remained in the hands of the Emperor and genro. The Diet did not have the power to make decisions or policies. The members of the Diet did not even have control over the nation’s budget. Furthermore the Diet could not control the ministers as they were directly under the control of the Emperor. Limited power of the Diet made it possible for the military faction to grow unchecked. BackCrisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 7. 7 Corruption damaged democracy’s reputation Corruption among the politicians was common during the 1920s. In order to fund their election campaigns, many democratic leaders turned to zaibatsus, or powerful and wealthy Japanese companies, for sponsorship. These zaibatsus were able to influence the policies of the government. Such close ties led to many rumours of corruption within the government. The Diet was hence unable to gain support of ordinary Japanese due to its negative image. BackCrisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 8. 8 Democratic leaders failed to solve economic problems The workers’ difficult The farmers’ working conditions difficult living conditions Democratic leaders failed to solve economic problems Trade imbalance Great DepressionCrisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 9. 9 The farmers’ difficult living conditions Less than half of the farmers had less than one and one quarter acres of land. Most of the land belonged to landlords who rented out the land at exorbitant prices. Between 1920 and 1929, rice prices fell sharply, further reducing farmers’ earnings. Disputes between tenant farmers and landlords were common throughout the 1930s. BackCrisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 10. 10 The workers’ difficult working conditions The workers in Japan were unhappy with the democratic government for lack of improvement in their working and living conditions. Workers lived in crowded, miserable conditions. Many joined trade unions, some of which were supported by Communists. Frequent strikes were common. Such activities affected the government’s stability. BackCrisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 11. 11 Trade imbalance While Japan’s economy was growing, there was a trade imbalance. Japan’s exports were electronic products, china, porcelain and textiles. However Japan needed many raw materials for their major industries. Most of the raw materials had to be imported. The trade imbalance grew further when Japan had to import more food to feed its growing population. BackCrisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 12. 12 Great Depression 1929 The Wall Street Crash in the USA triggered a world wide economic depression. It also led to a fall in Japan’s exports due to protectionism (especially in the USA). Due to protectionism, countries such as the USA imposed high taxes on Japanese goods like silk. This led to a fall in demand for silk. Silk farmers in Japan suffered the most. As economic problems mounted, many farmers joined the Army or patriotic societies.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 13. 13 Great Depression 1929 Loss of paper Crash Less demand Lower prices profits Less bank Less money in Less Less credit circulation employment productionLess building Less of factories Depression employment and homes Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Back Copyright 2006
  • 14. 14 What led to the rise of Fascism in Japan? External Internal reasons reasonsCrisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 15. 15 American expansion in Asia-Pacific region threatened Japanese plans to control the region Since 1853, American businessmen had taken interest in doing business in the Asia-Pacific region. The USA took control of many tiny islands and used them as bases for American trading ships. By 1930s, American control spread to the Philippines. Japanese militarists believed that the economic and military interests of Japan and the USA would run into conflict over who would control this region.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 16. 16 Paris Peace Conference, 1919 Japan had fought alongside the Allies during World War I. During the Paris Peace Conference, Japanese representatives made a request that the League of Nations formally recognise that all races were equal. This was however rejected making Japan feel discriminated.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 17. 17 Washington Naval Conference, 1921-1922 This was held between 1921 and 1922. The Conference aimed to reduce naval forces of major naval powers. The ratio of warships that were allowed for Japan was lower than that of the USA and Britain. Many Japanese felt that this was an unfair treaty aiming at restricting Japanese power.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 18. 18 London Disarmament Conference, 1930 This was held in 1930. Many Japanese were unhappy that PM Hamaguchi Osachi agreed to further limit the number of Japan’s battleships as he wanted to improve ties with China. In addition to that, he tried to solve the problems of the Great Depression by reducing spending on the Army. He was accused of being too soft and trying to betray Japan.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 19. 19 Immigration laws in the USA in the mid-1920s In 1924, the USA tried to prevent Asian immigration as part of its isolationist and protectionist policies. Asian immigrants could not become citizens even if they had stayed in the USA for a long time. In California, the California Alien Law ordered that all Asian children attend schools separate from the Americans. Such laws angered the Japanese who formed the main bulk of the immigrants. They saw such laws as regarding them as being inferior. This combined with other factors such as the Great Depression, made many Japanese turn away from democracy.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 20. 20 Resurgence of Chinese nationalism Since 1894, China had been weakened by many internal struggles. This however changed in 1927 when the KMT and CCP formed an alliance to eliminate all internal enemies like the Chinese warlords. General Chiang gained control of China and demanded an end to all concessions that foreign powers had enjoyed in China. Frequent strikes and boycotts of Japanese goods hurt Japan’s economy. The Kwantung Army stationed in Manchuria proposed that Japan occupy Manchuria and North China before anti-Japanese feelings became too strong. This was supported by many Japanese. BackCrisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 21. 21 The Showa Restoration From the 1930s, the education system of Japan emphasised nationalism, loyalty to the Emperor, self- sacrifice and obedience. Japan’s response to the Great Depression and foreign opposition to Japan’s growing empire was the inauguration of the Showa Restoration. This movement characterised all things Western in a negative light and stressed the glorification of the Emperor. This movement produced youths who were blindly loyal to the nation. This further developed Japan’s militarism.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 22. 22 Patriotic societies Patriotic societies had been growing since the 1920s in Japan. Many of them had close connections with the Army. They were extremely nationalistic and wanted Japan to adopt an aggressive foreign policy. Some societies such as the Black Dragon Society wanted to eliminate democratic leaders so that Japan would adopt a more aggressive foreign policy.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 23. 23 Army’s and Navy’s great influence over the government The Army and Navy had great influence over the government. Since the late 19th century, they had been pressing the government to acquire more colonies like what the Western nations were doing. Military successes in Manchuria and parts of China made them even more ambitious to pursue an expansionist policy. Leaders who did not support the military ambitions were often the subjects of assassination attempts.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 24. 24 Army’s and Navy’s great influence over the government 1894–1895 : Sino-Japanese War. Japan gained Taiwan and parts of the Liaodung Peninsula. 1904–1905 : Russo-Japanese War. Japan was the first Asian power to defeat an European power. 1905 : Japan gain rights to build a railway in Manchuria. It also gained the southern Sakhalin Island. 1910 : Japan gained full control of Korea. 1914 : Japan joined the Allies in World War I and occupied German territories in Shantung and parts of the Pacific Islands. 1915 : Japan issued 21 Demands on China.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Back Copyright 2006
  • 25. The considerable successes of the military made many 25people in Japan think that supporting the military wouldsolve many of Japan’s economic problems. Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 26. 26 Military takeover of Japan In 1930, the Army brought down Hamaguchi’s government. He was shot and wounded. He died a year later of the wounds. Hamaguchi’s assasins were left off with a light jail sentence. In May 1932, the Army assassinated PM Inukai for criticising the Kwantung Army’s actions in Manchuria. Succeeding PMs either felt pressured to support the Kwantung Army or were already strong supporters themselves especially after the Mukden Incident in 1932.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 27. 27 Impact of growth of Fascism in Japan on the World For Japan For the next 13 years, Japan became more aggressive in its foreign For Germany and Italy policy. Japan started to forge closer It disregarded the Washington ties with these Fascist States. Naval Conference and expanded its Navy. For the USA, Britain and France These countries were too For China preoccupied with the Great Japan became bolder towards Depression. China and took steps to expand Furthermore they had a common Further into China. enemy in the Communists. They were hence generally more cordial.Most importantly, it was the growth of Fascism in Japan that led Japan into World War II.Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006
  • 28. 28Failure of democratic government• Weakness of the Japanese parliament Summary• Corrupt politicians Impact of economic problems• Lacked support of workers • Problems at the end of World and farmers War I • 1929 Great Depression What led to the rise of Fascism Fear of Chinese Nationalism • Anti-Japanese protests in Japan? Unhappiness with former Allied Powers Unhappiness with Japanese • 1919 Versailles Treaty leaders who wanted friendly • 1921–1922 Washington Naval Conference ties with former Allied Powers • Mid-1920s immigration issues Crisis and Conflict: Fascist Japan Copyright 2006