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Pharm Pharm Presentation Transcript

  • 1 Introduction to Pharmacology and the History of Drugs
  • Introduction to Pharmacology
    • Pharmacology
      • fascinating and multifaceted discipline
      • impacts
        • chosen career in health care
        • personal lives
      • plays a part in our lives
        • from our role as healthcare team members
        • to that of consumers
  • Introduction to Pharmacology
    • Study of pharmacology covers a broad spectrum of diverse, yet interrelated, topics:
      • botany
      • molecular chemistry
      • research
      • toxicology
      • legislation
      • patient education
    View slide
  • Introduction to Pharmacology
    • The study of pharmacology covers:
      • botany
      • molecular chemistry
      • research
      • toxicology
      • legislation
      • patient education
    View slide
  • Origins of Pharmacology Words
    • Pharmacology
      • the study of drugs and their interactions with living organisms
      • derived from
        • the Greek word pharmakon (meaning medicine or drug )
        • suffix –logy (means the study of )
  • Origins of Pharmacology Words
    • Molecular pharmacology
      • the study of the chemical structures of drugs and the action of drugs at the molecular level within cells.
    • Pharmacodynamics
      • the mechanism of action by which drugs produce their effects (desired or undesired) based on time and dosage
  • Origins of Pharmacology Words
    • Pharmacogenetics
      • how the genetic makeup of different people affects their responses to certain drugs
    • Pharmacogenomics
      • using genome technology to discover new drugs .
  • Origins of Pharmacology Words
    • Pharmacokinetics
      • how drugs move through the body in the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
    • Pharmacotherapy
      • using drugs to affect the body therapeutically.
    • Figure 1-1 Medications. Medications or medicines are drugs that are used to prevent, diagnose, or treat symptoms, signs, conditions, and diseases. Steve Bartholomew © Dorling Kindersley.
  • Medical Uses For Drugs
    • Drugs have three medical uses
      • prevent disease
      • diagnose disease
      • treat symptoms, signs, conditions, diseases
    • The study of these uses is know as pharmacotherapy .
  • Medical Uses For Drugs
    • Preventive Use:
      • prevent the occurrence of diseases or conditions.
      • prophylaxis (Greek origin: to keep guard before)
      • Examples:
        • prevent motion sickness prior to traveling
        • prevent pregnancy
        • vaccinations
  • Medical Uses For Drugs
    • Diagnostic Use:
      • by themselves
      • in conjunction with procedures/tests
      • Examples:
        • Radiopaque contrast dye
        • Cardiac Stress Test
    • Figure 1-2 Preventive use of drugs. Dramamine is an over-the-counter drug that is taken to prevent motion sickness and vomiting. The word vomiting does not appear on the drug package, but the word antiemetic, which means pertaining to against vomiting, appears at the top right.
  • Medical Use for Drugs
    • Therapeutic use:
      • used for symptoms, conditions, or diseases, to control, improve, or cure
      • Examples:
        • antibiotic drugs
        • analgesic drugs
        • insulin
  • Drugs in Ancient Times
    • Egyptians
      • treated diseases with
        • frogs ’ bile
        • sour milk
        • Lizards blood
        • pigs ’ teeth
        • sugar cakes
        • dirt
        • spiders ’ webs
        • hippopotamus ’ oil
        • toads ’ eyelids
      • applied moldy bread to abrasions
        • has some therapeutic basis
        • penicillin was extracted from a mold
  • Drugs in Ancient Times
    • Chinese
      • practiced healing arts
        • emphasized use of herbs and some minerals
          • herbal preparations were used in conjunction with
            • acupuncture
            • massage
            • exercise
        • few animal products
      • Shen Nong:
        • wrote first Chinese book on herbal medicine
        • contained 365 different herbal remedies
    • Figure 1-3 Chinese herbal medicines. This Chinese pharmacist prepares herbal medicines in much the same way that his ancestors did, by using dried herbs which are then crushed into powder. He is making four batches of the same medicine, each of which contains the same mixture of herbs. The wall behind him holds drawers of many different types of dried herbs. In 1970, the Chinese Academy of Medical Science compiled a collection of traditional herbal remedies. American pharmacists evaluated those remedies and found that 45 percent of them were therapeutic, according to Western standards of medicine. © Phil Schermeister/CORBIS.
  • Drugs in Ancient Times
    • Other Cultures
      • Native Americans of North America
        • Aztec Indians of Mexico
          • grew herbs with medicinal properties
          • Montezuma maintained royal gardens of medicinal plants.
      • Greeks and Romans
        • furthered the study of medicine
        • important first steps
  • Drugs in Ancient Times
    • Ancient drugs were prepared according to standard recipes
      • involved drying, crushing, and combining a variety of
        • plants
        • substances from animals
        • Minerals
    • The symbol Rx
      • Latin word for recipe (meaning take)
      • indicates a prescription
        • the combining of ingredients to form a drug.
  • Drugs in Ancient Times
    • Because little was known , it was a matter of much guessing
    • Some drug ingredients
      • based on medical lore and superstition
      • had therapeutic value
      • others were worthless or harmful
    • Figure 1-4 Foxglove plant. This beautiful wild flowering plant is commonly known as foxglove, but its scientific name is Digitalis lanata. The drug digitalis (which is no longer in use) came from this plant, as does the modern drug digoxin (Lanoxin), which is used to treat congestive heart failure.
  • Modern Drugs Derived From Natural Sources
    • Drugs Derived from Plants
      • foxglove plant
        • derivative, drug digoxin (Lanoxin) for congestive heart failure
      • belladonna plant
        • original source of two drugs
          • atropine
          • scopolamine
  • Modern Drugs Derived From Natural Sources
    • Drugs Derived from Plants
      • opium poppy
        • used as a painkiller
        • recreational drug
        • sap from the seedheads contain opium
          • source of illegal street drug heroin
          • source of the prescription drug morphine
  • Modern Drugs Derived From Natural Sources
    • Drugs Derived from Plants
      • Colchicine
        • drug used to treat gout
        • derived from autumn crocus known as Colchicum autumnale
      • Ephedrine
        • present in the leaves of a bushy shrub
        • Chinese burned leaves to treat respiratory ailments
        • ephedrine present in over-the-counter bronchodilators
      • Yams
        • estrogen hormone replacement therapy drugs
  • Modern Drugs Derived From Natural Sources
    • Drugs Derived from Plants
      • daffodil bulbs
        • The Alzheimer ’s drug galantamine (Razadyne)
      • Drugs dissolved into plant sources
        • gums
        • oils (many drugs contain a type of oil)
        • bases
  • Table 1-1 Other plant sources of some modern drugs Getty Images, Inc.
  • Modern Drugs From Natural Sources
    • Drugs Derived from Animals
      • Thyroid supplement drugs
        • composed of dried (desiccated) animal thyroid gland tissue
        • used to treat hypothyroidism
  • Modern Drugs From Natural Sources
    • Drugs Derived from Animals
      • Pregnant Mare ’s urine
        • drug Premarin, a female hormone replacement
          • used to relieve the symptoms of menopause
          • Pre gnant Mar e ’s Ur in e
  • Modern Drugs From Natural Sources
    • Drugs Derived from Animals
      • Lanolin
        • common ingredient of topical skin drugs
        • obtained from the purified fat of sheeps wool
      • Insulin
        • In the past, only source from ground-up animal pancreas
    • Figure 1-6 NPH Iletin II insulin. The drug label clearly shows that the source of this insulin is from pork (in vertical capital letters). Copyright Eli Lilly and Company. Used with permission.
  • Drugs Derived from Minerals
    • Minerals
      • individual dietary supplements
      • Potassium: potassium chloride
    • Trace minerals
      • included in many multivitamin supplements
      • quinapril (Accupril) contains red iron oxide as an inert ingredient
  • Drugs in the 1800s and 1900s
    • Pharmacists prepared the drugs they dispensed
      • apothecary system of measurement
        • minims
        • drams
        • ounces
        • grains
        • scruples
  • Drugs in the 1800s and 1900s
    • Much has changed since then
      • Many now completely synthetic
      • Other natural drugs, to create new drugs, have undergone
        • chemical modifications
        • molecular restructuring
      • Pharmacists no longer prepares medications
        • dispenses them
        • provides patient information and education.
  • Mislabeled and Dangerous Drugs
    • Most physicians attempted to treat patients accurately
      • based on what little scientific knowledge was available
      • 2100 B.C., the Code of Hammurabi gave severe penalties for malpractice
      • throughout medical history ineffective, mislabeled, and dangerous drugs have been manufactured, advertised, and prescribed
  • Mislabeled and Dangerous Drugs
    • During the 1700s and 1800s
      • commonly sold without regulation
      • accompanied by extravagant claims of cures
      • often contained addicting ingredients without its presence being listed
        • opium
        • morphine
        • cocaine
    • Figure 1-7 Cocaine in a common drug. This 1885 advertisement was for the drug Cocaine Toothache Drops. It was not known at that time that cocaine was a highly addictive drug. Children as well as adults became addicted to this drug. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mislabeled and Dangerous Drugs
    • Consumer warnings did not exist:
      • against the misuse of drugs
      • possibility of addiction
      • dangerous drug side effects
      • prevailing dictum was “Let the buyer beware”