Pathophysiology Primer Johis Ortega, PhD, ARNP-BC Carmen Presti, ACNP-BC
What is Pathophysiology? <ul><li>Pathophysiology deals not only with the cellular  and organ changes that occur with disea...
Breaking it down further… <ul><li>Physiology of altered health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathology  (from the Greek  pathos , ...
Etiology Factors (Causes of the Disease) <ul><li>Biologic Agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria, viruses </li></ul></ul><u...
Some Definitions <ul><li>Pathogenesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of cellular and tissue events  that take place from t...
Definitions <ul><li>How do we know a person is sick?  How do they look, what are their complaints? Do they have a fever? S...
Sign or Symptom? Correct Answer: Sign!
Clinical Manifestations-continued <ul><li>Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compilation of signs and symptoms that characteri...
Down Syndrome
Complication VS Sequelea Drug Reaction after penicillin use Complications of diabetes mellitus Sequelea would be if Right ...
Clinical Course <ul><li>The way a disease evolves in a person </li></ul><ul><li>This can occur as an acute, subacute, or c...
Levels of Prevention of Disease <ul><li>Though we are concerned with disease identification and treatment, nurses and heal...
Levels of Prevention of Disease <ul><li>Primary Prevention  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens at level of community, outside o...
Studying Tips for Pathophysiology <ul><li>This course is designed differently from other nursing courses.  Your other cour...
Studying Tips for Pathophysiology <ul><li>In your prerequisite Anatomy and Physiology courses, you learned the  “normals”....
Studying Tips for Pathophysiology <ul><li>Study smarter, not harder.  You will be learning about many diseases over the co...
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Pathophysiology primer

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Pathophysiology primer

  1. 1. Pathophysiology Primer Johis Ortega, PhD, ARNP-BC Carmen Presti, ACNP-BC
  2. 2. What is Pathophysiology? <ul><li>Pathophysiology deals not only with the cellular  and organ changes that occur with disease, but with the effects that these changes have on total body function. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathophysiology  also focuses on the mechanisms of the underlying disease process and provides the background for preventive as well as therapeutic heath care measures and practices </li></ul>
  3. 3. Breaking it down further… <ul><li>Physiology of altered health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathology (from the Greek pathos , meaning “ disease ”) deals with the study of the structural and functional changes in cells, tissues and organs of the body that cause or are caused by disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiology deals with the function of the human body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiologic changes that occur as a result of disease </li></ul>
  4. 4. Etiology Factors (Causes of the Disease) <ul><li>Biologic Agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria, viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trauma, burns, radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical Agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poisons, alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutritional Excesses or Deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that predispose to a particular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congenital (born with) vs. Acquired (obtained by other mechanism) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Some Definitions <ul><li>Pathogenesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of cellular and tissue events that take place from the time of initial contact with an etiologic (causative) agent until the ultimate expression of a disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the fundamental structure or form of cells or tissues </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Definitions <ul><li>How do we know a person is sick? How do they look, what are their complaints? Do they have a fever? Sore throat? If we drew blood work, what would their laboratory results tell us? If we did x-rays, what would they show? </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Manifestations is the way a disease manifests, or appears in a person. </li></ul><ul><li>These Clinical Manifestations appear as Signs and Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Sign and Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign - Manifestation that is noted by an observer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Reddened throat, Fever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms - Subjective complaint that is noted by the person with a disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Patient states: “My throat hurts”, “My body aches all over” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Sign or Symptom? Correct Answer: Sign!
  8. 8. Clinical Manifestations-continued <ul><li>Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compilation of signs and symptoms that characterize a disease-Certain disorders present with various signs and symptoms, that when clumped together, meet the disease criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complications - possible adverse consequence of disease or treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: drug reaction: itchy skin and hives after new antibiotic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sequelae -impairment following disease or caused by disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: diabetes mellitus is #1 cause of blindness </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Down Syndrome
  10. 10. Complication VS Sequelea Drug Reaction after penicillin use Complications of diabetes mellitus Sequelea would be if Right Foot would need to be amputated
  11. 11. Clinical Course <ul><li>The way a disease evolves in a person </li></ul><ul><li>This can occur as an acute, subacute, or chronic course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute disorder can be severe but is self-limiting (will not continue to progress) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: fractures after motorcycle accident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic disease can run a continuous course or have periods of exacerbations (heightened symptoms) and remissions (decrease in symptoms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subacute disease is not as severe as acute or as long lasting as chronic…is intermediate in duration and severity </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Levels of Prevention of Disease <ul><li>Though we are concerned with disease identification and treatment, nurses and healthcare providers are involved in prevention of disease as well. This can happen in the community at health fairs, doctor ’s offices, hospitals, schools, on the job, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>If a disease has not occurred and our aim is prevention, we are involved in Primary Prevention . </li></ul><ul><li>If a person is at risk for certain diseases and we are screening them so they can have early treatment, we are involved in Secondary Prevention . </li></ul><ul><li>If the person is now diagnosed with a disease or disorder, then we want to help the client manage their disease as effectively as possible. This is Tertiary Prevention . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Levels of Prevention of Disease <ul><li>Primary Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens at level of community, outside of hospital setting. Aim is to remove risk factors for disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folic acid to pregnant women to prevent certain diseases in fetuses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immunizations to children to prevent communicable diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of seat belt use, healthy lifestyles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects disease early when patient has no symptoms of disease so that treatment can cure or stop progression of disease. Occurs in clinical setting, so nurses are involved heavily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Papanicolau (Pap) smear to detect cervical cancer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colonoscopy to detect colon cancer, abnormal growths in intestine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lab tests to check for high cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tertiary Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical interventions to prevent further deterioration after diagnosis of disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pressure management after a heart attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin protection after skin cancer diagnosis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Studying Tips for Pathophysiology <ul><li>This course is designed differently from other nursing courses. Your other courses have a focus heavily on your role as a nurse. This course provides a foundation of knowledge that will aid you in how to assess and treat your client. In order to know what to do as a nurse, you need to know what is happening with the client. Therefore, nursing actions will not be emphasized as much as the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatments of the different disease processes you will be studying. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Studying Tips for Pathophysiology <ul><li>In your prerequisite Anatomy and Physiology courses, you learned the “normals”. You will not receive an in-depth review of this information, since the focus will be on the “abnormals”. If you need to refresh A & P, please take time to do this now. </li></ul><ul><li>Get familiar with the textbook. If you think the text is overwhelming, consider a Review book that may be easier to read-though you may have to refer to the text for information that may not be provided in a Review book. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Studying Tips for Pathophysiology <ul><li>Study smarter, not harder. You will be learning about many diseases over the course of the semester…there is no way to memorize this information. You need to understand and conceptualize the differences between the diseases, and sometimes they are very similar. Draw pictures, charts, use flashcards, techniques to help differentiate, compare and contrast the concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Don ’t sweat the small stuff. What’s common is common in medicine-don’t waste time fretting over rare complications or findings…stick to what is emphasized in lecture, syllabus. </li></ul>

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