Pharmacogenomics
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Pharmacogenomics

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Pharmacogenomics Pharmacogenomics Presentation Transcript

  • ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL: THE PROMISE OF PHARMACOGENOMICS
  • INTRODUCTION• Pharmacogenomics is a  science that examines the  inherited variations in genes  that dictate drug response  and explores the ways these  variations can be used to  predict whether a patient  will have a good response to  a drug, a bad response to a  drug, or no response at all. 
  • Gene Variations And Drug Response• SNPs (pronounced "snips"),  can be used as a diagnostic  tool to predict a persons  drug response. • A persons DNA is  sequenced for the presence  of specific SNPs. • DNA microarrays (or DNA  chips) make it possible for  doctors to examine their  patients for the presence of  specific SNPs quickly and  affordably. 
  • Pharmacogenomics and Drug  Development• Pharmaceutical companies  could exclude from clinical  trials those people whose  pharmacogenomic screening  would show that the drug  being tested would be  harmful • Clinical trials become  smaller and cost effective.• Increase a physicians  confidence in prescribing  the drug and the patients  confidence in taking the  drug, 
  • Is pharmacogenomics in use today?• The cytochrome P450  (CYP) family of liver  enzymes is responsible for  breaking down more than 30  different classes of drugs.• Less active or inactive  forms of CYP enzymes that  are unable to break down  and efficiently eliminate  drugs from the body can  cause drug overdose in  patients. 
  • Anticipated benefits of  pharmacogenomics• Pharmacogenomics has the  potential to provide tailored  drug therapy based on  genetically determined  variation in effectiveness  and side effects.• More powerful medicines• Better, safer drugs the first  time • More accurate methods of  determining appropriate  drug dosages
  • RECENT STUDIES• Pharmacogenomics has also been used for cancer  treatment.
  • LIMITATIONS• Complexity of finding gene variations that affect drug  response • Complexity of finding gene variations that affect drug  response • Disincentives for drug companies to make multiple  pharmacogenomic products  • Educating healthcare providers  
  • REFRENCES • http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Geno me/medicine/pharma.shtml • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/About/primer/pharm.ht ml • http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician- resources/medical-science/genetics-molecular- medicine/current-topics/pharmacogenomics.page • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12618310? dopt=Abstract