ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL: THE PROMISE OF PHARMACOGENOMICS
INTRODUCTION• Pharmacogenomics is a science that examines the inherited variations in genes that dictate drug response and explores the ways these variations can be used to predict whether a patient will have a good response to a drug, a bad response to a drug, or no response at all.
Gene Variations And Drug Response• SNPs (pronounced "snips"), can be used as a diagnostic tool to predict a persons drug response. • A persons DNA is sequenced for the presence of specific SNPs. • DNA microarrays (or DNA chips) make it possible for doctors to examine their patients for the presence of specific SNPs quickly and affordably.
Pharmacogenomics and Drug Development• Pharmaceutical companies could exclude from clinical trials those people whose pharmacogenomic screening would show that the drug being tested would be harmful • Clinical trials become smaller and cost effective.• Increase a physicians confidence in prescribing the drug and the patients confidence in taking the drug,
Is pharmacogenomics in use today?• The cytochrome P450 (CYP) family of liver enzymes is responsible for breaking down more than 30 different classes of drugs.• Less active or inactive forms of CYP enzymes that are unable to break down and efficiently eliminate drugs from the body can cause drug overdose in patients.
Anticipated benefits of pharmacogenomics• Pharmacogenomics has the potential to provide tailored drug therapy based on genetically determined variation in effectiveness and side effects.• More powerful medicines• Better, safer drugs the first time • More accurate methods of determining appropriate drug dosages
RECENT STUDIES• Pharmacogenomics has also been used for cancer treatment.
LIMITATIONS• Complexity of finding gene variations that affect drug response • Complexity of finding gene variations that affect drug response • Disincentives for drug companies to make multiple pharmacogenomic products • Educating healthcare providers