Chapter I Introduction and Background of the StudyIntroduction Man has always wanted to communicate from afar. In the primitive ages,people have used smoke signals, jungle drums, carrier pigeons and semaphores toget a message from one point to another. And that is a clear evident that evenbefore, it is very important to communicate or to get messages from other places.That is why Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. Probably nomeans of communication has revolutionized the daily lives of ordinary people morethan the telephone. Telephone comes from the Greek word tele, meaning from afar, and phone,meaning voice or voiced sound. Generally, a telephone is any device which conveyssound over a distance. A string telephone, a megaphone, or a speaking tube mightbe considered telephonic instruments but for our purposes they are not telephones.These transmit sound mechanically and not electrically. As the year change, the telephone also evolved. From the tin can telephonesto the coin operated pay phone. Then there’s the pager and the bulky mobilephones. And today, cellular phones are the most rampant to use in this society. From the time it was out in the market, it never stops in developing. Italways finds a way to satisfy the necessity of its consumers. At first it was just witha non-colored screen until there’s the mobile phone with built-in cameras, musicplayer, internet and some with television in it. Now, we are dealing with mobile
phones with touch screens. Touch-screens phones have trickled down into themidrange handset category as well. Every company of cell phones is verycompetitive with each other. They are scrambling to make the best touch screenphone and that’s great news for us consumers. In our society, it is now considered that cell phones are one of the needs nota want. In fact, the Philippines have been crowned as the Texting Capital of theWorld due to the overwhelming number of SMS messages it sends each day. AnSWS survey conducted in 2001 strongly proves this point: ―Out of the 15 millionhouseholds in the Philippines, an estimated 2.5 million have a cellular phone, ofwhich 2.3 million have text-messaging capacity. Expect that every month, there arelatest models of cell phone. We cannot deny the fact that technology industry is very successful when itcomes to cell phone. And when a latest model is released, we, Filipinos willimmediately buy it. We do not want to be left behind. Sometimes, the unit of ourcell phone determines what our socio-economic status is. Often, we see the latest model of cell phones in the adolescents because theyare the one who are always eager to explore and try something new. And they arethe highlight of this research. Does the development affect them?
Theoretical Framework According to Adlers theory, each of us is born into the world with a sense ofinferiority. We start as a weak and helpless child and strive to overcome thesedeficiencies by become superior to those around us. He called this struggle astriving for superiority, and like Freuds Eros and Thanatos, he saw this as thedriving force behind all human thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Also, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can relate in this study. When the firstthree classes of needs which are the physiological needs, safety needs and need oflove, affection and belongingness, are satisfied, the needs for esteem can becomedominant. These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a persongets from others. Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, and respect from others. When these needs are satisfied, the person feelsself-confident and valuable as a person in the world. When these needs arefrustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless. In relation to this study, knowing that cellular phones nowadays are classifiedas needs, these might be connected in building self-esteem and confidence. Hull developed a version of behaviorism in which the stimulus (S) affects theorganism (O) and the resulting response (R) depends upon characteristics of both Oand S. In other words, Hull was interested in studying intervening variables thataffected behavior such as initial drive, incentives, inhibitors, and prior training(habit strength). Like other forms of behavior theory, reinforcement is the primaryfactor that determines learning. However, in Hulls theory, drive reduction or needsatisfaction plays a much more important role in behavior than in other frameworks(i.e., Thorndike, Skinner).
Conceptual Framework MODERN TECHNOLOGY Socialization Profile Self-esteem Adolescents Socio-economic status School performance PrioritiesStatement of the problem This study aims to find out the impact of technological changes to thebehavior of adolescents. Specifically, this study aims to answer the followingquestions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: a. Age b. Sex c. School d. Socio-economic status 2. How the technological changes affects the behavior of adolescents in terms of: a. Socialization b. Self-esteem
c. School performanceHypotheses There is no significant relation between the technological changes and the behavior of the adolescents.Significance of the study This study can be use as a reference for further studies conducted in thesame field. For some reasons, this study will be highly beneficial to the following: School administrators, teachers and guidance counselors. This will give thembaseline information with scientific results about the behavior, study habits, andattitudes of adolescents towards the growing technology industry specifically mobilephones. Psychologist and other concern professionals. This will assist them to define,assess, interpret and evaluate intensively the behaviors, study habits and attitudesof adolescents towards the growing technology industry specifically mobile phones. Parents and Guardians. They will be enlightened of the impact oftechnological changes to the behavior of their child. Adolescents. For whom the study is directly address, this will serve as an eyeopener.Scope and limitation
This study is to be conducted to determine the impact of technologicalchanges to the behavior of college students studying at the San Sebastian College-Recolletos in Manila. The aspects will look into the priorities, socialization, self-esteem and school performance. How they perceive on the rapid changes oftechnology.Definition of terms To facilitate better understanding of the study, the following terms aredefined:Touch screen - electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location ofa touch within the display area. The term generally refers to touch or contact to thedisplay of the device by a finger or hand. Touch screens can also sense otherpassive objects, such as a pen.SMS- Short message service; refers to the exchange of brief written messagesbetween mobile phones over cellular networks.Cellular phone- is an electronic device used for mobile telecommunications (mobiletelephone, text messaging or data transmission) over a cellular network ofspecialized base stations known as cell sites. Mobile phones differ from cordlesstelephones, which only offer telephone service within limited range, e.g. within ahome or an office, through a fixed line and a base station owned by the subscriberand also from satellite phones and radio telephones
Chapter II Review of Related Literature and StudiesForeign Literature Adolescence may be viewed as a transition age in human development fromchildhood to adulthood. During this period, an individual goes through manychanges including the formation of one’s values, attitudes and behavior to adaptand adjust behavior to culturally acceptable adult forms (Dusek, 1996). According to Hall (1904), he saw adolescence as a period of storm andstress. Many people still adhere to Hall’s view. However, Coleman (1978) clarifiedthat various stresses in adolescence do not occur at the same time. Rather,adolescents deal with one or two stressful events which alleviate the stress, thendeal with the others. The peak age for stressful situation varies. Adolescence seems to represent aseries of smoothly evolving changes in development. Changes that adolescence isexperiencing within them redefine their roles as members of their family, peergroup and society as they, in turn, perceive these changes (Dusek, 1996). Adolescents have a greater freedom to explore new situations. From AgenceFrance- Presse’s article in Washington on December 2009, there were threeteenagers who use cellular phone to sent semi-nude pictures. According to a survey
by a US family planning organization, published in 2008, 20%of Americanteenagers said they had participated in sexting- the apparently popular practice ofsending semi-nude or nude photos to friends by using a mobile phone. From the blog of Matthew Bishop he says that in rich countries, mobilephones can seem something of a mixed blessing – particularly if you are stuck on atrain next to a teenager with a Crazy Frog ring-tone. But in poor countries, mobilephones have no obvious downside and have already delivered remarkable beneﬁts,in terms both of economic growth and personal empowerment. They may evenenable poor countries to leapfrog over some of the traditional stages of thedevelopment process. The mobile phone has spread throughout much of the developing world morequickly and deeply than any previous technology-based product – not leasttraditional ﬁxed-line phones. This has been helped by the fact that rolling out amobile phone network is far cheaper than building a ﬁxed-line system. In Moroccoin 1995, for example, after decades of investing in the telephone infrastructure,there were only four ﬁxed lines per 100 inhabitants. In 2003, there were still fourﬁxed line subscribers per 100 Moroccans, but there were also 24 mobile phonesubscribers per 100 – up from zero in 1995, according to a recent study by theLondon Business School for Vodafone, the British global mobile phone giant. In thesame period, mobile phone penetration has risen from 0 to 36 per cent in Albania,0 to 30 per cent in Paraguay, 0 to 21 per cent in China and 0 to 9 per cent in India. In the past few years, Africa, so often left behind by other economicadvances, has seen the world’s most rapid growth in mobile phone penetration
(albeit from a very low base). Subscriber growth in several sub-Saharan Africancountries exceeded 150 per cent last year; there are now eight subscribers per 100people across the region, up from three in 2001. In Tanzania, it took just ﬁve yearsfrom the ﬁrst mobile phone call for the number of mobile phone subscribers per 100people to exceed the number of ﬁxed lines, compared with 15 years in a richcountry such as Britain. The true extent of mobile phone use in developingcountries is far greater than these ﬁgures suggest, thanks to all that phone sharing. When you get a mobile phone it is almost like having a card to get out ofpoverty in a couple of years.‖ So says Muhammad Yunus, the founder of the micro-credit provider, Grameen Bank, and its hugely popular mobile phone offshoot inBangladesh, Grameen Phone.Foreign Studies A study from Aligarh Muslim University, India said that the world isbecoming increasingly dependent upon technology. Technology is playing a crucialrole in contemporary society. It has transformed the world from a primitivecommunal to an industrialized world. The internet has become a major shareholder.Developing nations can derive tremendous advantage from this technology forupdating the knowledge of its researchers and scientists. Even educationalorganizations are influenced by the development of information technology. Themost obvious example has been the introduction of information technology relatedcourses.
This study concluded that society expects to be able to manipulate theinformation it has for its own benefits, to increase understanding and discover newrelation. Another study by Ben Meadocroft said that technology influenced theinteractions between the individuals. It has been enhanced by the development;the individuals then have the ability to communicate through e-mails, chat rooms,and social net workings. Common Sense Media in San Franciso USA recently released the results of anational poll on the use of digital media for cheating in school(2009). The poll,conducted by The Benenson Strategy Group, revealed that more than 35% of teensadmit to cheating with cell phones, and more than half admit to using the Internetto cheat. More importantly, many students don’t consider their actions to becheating at all. The results highlight a real need for parents, educators, and leadersto start a national discussion on digital ethics. In this poll, kids reveal that they’retexting each other answers during tests, using notes and information stored ontheir cell phones during tests, and downloading papers from the Internet to turn inas their own work. Because the digital world is distant, hard to track, and mostlyanonymous, kids are less likely to see the consequences of their online actions,especially when they feel they won’t get caught. These are the result of the study conducted: -41% of teens say that storing notes on a cell phone to access during a testis a serious cheating offense, while 23% don’t think it’s cheating at all.
- 45% of teens say that texting friends about answers during tests is aserious cheating offense, while 20% say it’s not cheating at all. - 76% of parents say that cell phone cheating happens at their teens’schools, but only 3% believe their own teen has ever used a cell phone to cheat. - Nearly two-thirds of students with cell phones use them during school,regardless of school policies against it. - Teens with cell phones send 440 text messages a week and 110 a weekwhile in the classroom. According to the London Business School study, this looked at 92 countries,rich and poor, between 1980 and 2003. Overall, says the study, in a typicaldeveloping country, a rise of 10 mobile phones per 100 people boosts the rate ofgrowth of GDP by 0.6 percentage points a year. That may not seem much, butcompounded over a few years it can add up to a big increase in living standards.Those developing countries that have higher levels of mobile phone penetrationmay become the success stories of the coming decade. For instance, notes thestudy, the Philippines had 27 mobile phones per 100 people in 2003, compared withIndonesia’s nine. If that gap remains, the Philippines could expect its GDP to growby one percentage point a year faster than that of Indonesia.Local Literature From the journal of Jerry Liao of Manila Bulletin, technology has brought a lotof benefits to mankind. It made most of us more effective and efficient both in ourprofessional and personal tasks. But as much as there are a lot of advantages,
there are still those who are more innovative than others - like using technology insome other ways, the bad ways. From Ronald S. Lim’s journal, the temptation tocheat is even easier for today’s technologically-advanced youth. With mobilephones making the transmission of messages easier and the Internet making thesharing of information much quicker, today’s Filipino student can just as easilydownload his answers from a computer as he can from looking at his seatmate’sanswers. However, it would seem that the tried and tested technique of looking at theanswer of seatmates, passing around notes, and ―reliable‖ classmates are themethods preferred by today’s young Filipinos.Technology, particularly mobilephones, once again came under fire because of the Pinoy youth’s new texting style.Now a national phenomenon (or a national plague?), the Jejemons’ improper use ofwords have caused alarm among parents and teachers alike. Teachers havecomplained about their students’ adapting this newfound language in their regularschoolwork. In this case, instead of making things better, technology has beendistorted and has caused bad influence on today’s generation. However, also from Manila Bulletin, a journal of Angelo G. Garcia, saysthere’s a lesson from mobile phones. Technology has done more good than harmfor the youth admittedly. The advent of e-book readers, for instance, has madebooks more available to everyone with just a touch of a button. Laptop computersare being used as an affordable education device to children around the world. Evenmobile phones are now channels to teach children.
In 2003, Nokia, the International Youth Foundation, Pearson, and the UnitedNations Development program conceptualized the global BridgeIT program whichuses cellular technology to bring educational materials to the developing world. Theprogram was pilot-tested in the Philippines on the same year and the Text2Teachprogram was born. “Text2Teach is now an evolution of what we have in the past. What we have now is the ability to download these videos, at very high speeds using the cellular network. The beauty of this is you can take the program, and take it to those areas that are very, very rural and don‟t have access to the internet. It is much easier with a cellular tower and with that speed and you can serve the entire community with this content to help the teachers,‖ saysNokia Europe Community Involvement head Patrick Gonzales.Using the mobile application Nokia Education Delivery (NED) installed in specialNokia phones, teachers are able to download and choose educational audios andvideos on Math, Science and English specifically created for the program. “One of the differences of Text2Teach is that learning has become more mobile. For example I‟m a teacher, I can download the materials today, I will teach it tomorrow, I can study the materials tonight, at home or wherever I am because it‟s in the mobile phone. It could be the advent of one day, students having their own mobile phones, downloading educational video materials over the mobile phone. Text2Teach actually creates that culture of learning in a mobile way,” explains Globe Telecom Corporate Social Responsibility head Jeffrey Tarayao.The videos are specifically produced by SEAMEO INNOTECH, with the help ofteacher-experts, for the program based on the Department of Education’s Basic
Education Curriculum on Grade 5 and 6 Math, Science and English. The programalso uses real time technology where it utilizes the fast 3G network of Globe for fastdownload of the educational materials. “This program is based in real-time so they can download updated content from the server. In the case of DVDs, you have to. That‟s the benefit of this technology,” explains Nokia Asia Pacific Community Involvement head Jenny Lim.Many of the materials are preloaded in the mobile device and because of the TVconnection capability of mobile phones, it can be then connected to the televisionfor viewing.More recently, the Text2Teach program was launched in Ligao City, Albay. Twentyfour out of 49 public elementary schools in the area were given Text2Teachpackages that included a Nokia N86 8MP device, — with special TV out feature —preloaded with almost 400 educational audio and video materials on Grade 5 and 6Math, Science and English curriculum. It also included a Globe prepaid SIM cardand a 29-inch color television provided by Kolin Philippines International.Although Ligao City division has improved its performance indicators amongstudents over the past years problems in drop-outs and low participation rates arestill evident. In the latest performance indicator given by Ligao City Division, inschool year 2008-2009, out of 18,202 enrolled elementary students in publicschools, the participation rate is at 82.22 percent with drop-out rates of 0.18percent. That’s 372 students who dropped-out from school in the whole divisionthat school year.
The division’s quality indicator in English (56.12 percent), Science (50.07), andMath (57.73) is something that they hope will improve with the introduction of theText2Teach program. “With the introduction of Text2Teach, we hope for a significant improvement in the academic performance of the pupils because we expect that our students will be benefiting much from this. Unlike in the normal method of teaching, which is simple lecturing, this time subjects like Mathematics, Science and English have become more lively, more enjoyable because. And leaning will become meaningful and lasting with the students we are hoping for that direction,” Palencia shares.The schools that will benefit from the program are: Amtic Elementary School,Barayong ES, Basag ES, Baligang ES, Herrera ES, Paulog ES, Abella ES, Francia ES,Ligao East ES, Maonon ES, Tupas ES, Oma-Oma ES, Bacong ES, Paulba ES,Cabarian ES, Tiongson ES, Busac ES, Tandarura ES, Tula-Tula (G) ES, Tastas ES,Allang ES, Cavasi ES, Tula-Tula (P) ES, and Culiat ES.The local government of Ligao is also active in helping improve education quality intheir city. Mayor Linda Gonzalez gave P738,000 for the program as the localgovernment’s counterpart funds to implement Text2Teach.Since its launch, more than one million public elementary school students andalmost 2,000 teachers and school officials in 350 schools in different parts of thecountry have benefited from the program. And the Text2Teach team is happy tosay that impact on the students has been significant.―In the case of Text2Teach, we measure the impact, by looking at the schools thatactually use of the program. Over the past years we have had two third party
evaluations. There have been an improvement on what they call the learninggauge, in other words when you compare the scores of the kids after they haveused Text2Teach compared to before they used it there was a significant difference.We noticed that there was a big difference especially in schools that started withvery low scores. Like schools in Mindanao, very large jump from the base core, tothe score after they have used the program,‖ Deriquito shares.Among the program’s beneficiaries are the 11 schools in Dagupan City, Pangasinanthat implemented the program last January. School officials in Dagupan visitedLigao City to share the positive experience they got from Text2Teach. “Ang laki ng impact ng Text2Teach sa aming school. At ang enrolment po namin nag increase, nilampasan po namin ang enrolment ng central school by 50 pupils. Nagustuhan din po ng mga parents ang program,” shares Carael Elementary School principal Manuel Ferrer.According to him, Carael Elemetary School improved its National Achievement Testscores to eight percent after only using it for a several months. “Practical itong Text2Teach, kasi nagke-cater sa maiksing attention span ng mga estudyante. Maliit „yung time na nacoconsume pero „yung impact sa bata malaki. May nakikita po kami, in terms of performance like in Mathematics, significant po ang difference compared sa dating performance nila,” explains DepEd OIC-Schools Division superintendent, City Schools of Dagupan Dr. Donato D. Balderas, Jr.Moreover, the partners of the program believe that Text2Teach program will notsolve all the problems of the country’s education system, this is just their share insomehow improving it – for the children.
He also adds that they also have plans to expand the program to lower gradelevels. ―Another finding was, the longer children, they had the chance to observechildren that have undergone Text2Teach for one year, are exposed to Text2Teach,the larger the learning gauge. That is why one of the things we’re discussingText2Teach is the possibility of extending the program to the lower level. We knowthat it is good to extend it to the lower Grade level so that the children will havelonger exposure to the process.The group is also hoping that someday, DepEd can mainstream the program andintegrate it into the national education system to cover all the schools in thecountry. “Another potential, it may be forward looking but by using this mobile phone and accessing the network, they will be able to come out with user-generated content. If the Text2Teach content is coming from one server, one day, others may come up with materials about other cultures, make a video out of it and it may be viewed by schools in other areas or other countries, who knows. That‟s the difference of Text2Teach, it is the mobility of it, it‟s in your hands,” Tarayao says.Local Studies In the Philippines, records from the National Statistics Coordination Board(NSCB) show that in 2006, cell phone use while driving ranked as the 12th mostcommon cause of traffic accidents. From 2001 to 2006, traffic accidents caused bycell phone use while driving increased more than five times in the Philippines, thehighest increase among causes of traffic accidents. There are now 40 countriesworldwide restricting or banning the use of cell phones while driving. Sadly, the
Philippines is not one of them. Many appear unaware, however, that the MMDA hasan existing ban, issued since 2007, on the use of cell phones and hand-held radioswhile operating or driving motor vehicles in Metro Manila. The cities of Makati andCebu have also imposed the same ban. Hopefully, our congressmen and senatorswill find time to finally enact a law that will effectively make the ban nationwide.Many appear unaware, however, that the MMDA has an existing ban, issued since2007, on the use of cell phones and hand-held radios while operating or drivingmotor vehicles in Metro Manila. The cities of Makati and Cebu have also imposedthe same ban. According to the studied conducted by Cecilia Alessandra S. Uy-Tioco of NewSchool University(2004), cellphone technology has broken through class divisions.Because of pre-paid numbers, people without credit history, reasonable incomes, orpermanent addresses have been able to obtain cellphones. For a country that issocially stratified, this is very empowering. Having the capability of owning andusing a technology that the rich use is very empowering for the lower and lower-middle classes. Cellphones in the Philippines are not age-specific nor are they gender-specific. While countries like Japan and Finland attribute text messaging as aphenomenon dominated by the youth, in the Philippines, young and old alike sendand receive text messages on a regular basis. The young may tend to use theircellphones more to make friends, for idle chat, or to make plans with friends; andolder people tend to use it for work, to keep in touch with family members, and forkeeping up with what is going on in the country. The youth may be the quickest to
learn a new technology, but in the Philippines, it is not unusual to seegrandmothers, society ladies, or priests and nuns tapping away at their cellphones. While there is no study that measures the cellphone uses between the sexes,Pertierra, et al believe that is neutral about gender.92 Men may text more sexuallyexplicit messages, and women more gossip, but the frequency seems to be similar.Because the medium has allowed non-confrontational communication, men andwomen can pursue normally tabooed topics such as sexuality. Certainly this smallSoutheast Asian nation has been a major test site for new cellphones. To many,this is a sign of modernity, of being not too far behind the developed nations. Theability to communicate with others across the world in real time through textmessaging gives a sense that the Filipino is present in the global stage. Widespread cellphone use has resulted in the blurring of the private andpublic spheres. While the cellphone is a private technology in that it iscommunication between two people at a time, it also is a public one because wereceive the calls outside the privacy of our offices, our homes, or phone booths. Ithas become acceptable for Philippine society to take cellphone calls or to check textmessages while eating or in a meeting. Visit the Makati nightspots and one willnotice the proliferation of cellphones on the tables in restaurants. Or you will noticethat not everyone in the table is engaging in conversation. Instead, some aredistracted by the constant beeping and ringing of their cellphones. Movie theaters,banks, gas stations, and places of worship have been actively campaigning for thesilencing of cellphones in their premises. Countries like Germany have bannedcellphone use inside restaurants. But in the Philippines, it is part of daily life.
With the popularity of text messaging as the main use of the cellphone,many have become concerned on its effects on language. Already many havebegun using text shorthand in their email messages. Paul Anthony Villegas (2000), a teacher at the Ateneo de Manila High Schoolnoticed that his students have been using shortcuts in their compositions. Inaddition, text messaging has become the new way of cheating. Students sendquestions and answers to each other during exams. To combat these, elementaryand high schools have prohibited the use of cellphones during and in-between classhours. That cellphones have deeply affected the lives of Filipinos should by now beevident. The Knowledge Institute of SGV & Co, Ernst & Young’s Philippine partner,credits the growth of the cellphone industry to its mass-market appeal, itsaffordability, and the convenience of a pre-paid service. Despite the fact that 40%of the population lives on less than $1 a day, cellphones have had remarkablemarket penetration at 25%. This paper has shown that the cellphone has made anenormous impact on Philippine culture and society. But more than that, researchhas revealed that there are cultural reasons unique to Philippine society that haveallowed cellphones to take root in the country. The success of any medium,certainly the enormous success of the cellphone, means it has survived a humantest. One social impact of widespread cellphone use is that the technology hascrossed boundaries of class, gender, and age. Filipinos of all sizes, shapes, andbackground have adopted this technology. Unlike other nations where the youth
dominate the text messaging phenomenon, in the Philippines, both young and old,male and female use this technology extensively. Cellphone technology has also allowed a developing nation like thePhilippines to participate in the global village. Not only is the Philippines up to speedin cellphone technology, it is even ahead of some developed nations. The cellphonehas also given the Filipino a way of keeping in touch with people around the globe.Since Internet use is not as widespread (4 million Internet users versus 22 millioncellphone subscribers), the cellphone is the medium that lets the citizens of thenation join the information superhighway. Since the cellphone is ubiquitous and is used by people from all sectors ofsociety, it has also become a tool for social change. Yet the possibilities of using thecellphone in other ways that can result to the betterment of the community and thenation are being explored. While there is still no way to measure the success of thegovernment and non-government groups’ efforts, the opportunities are exciting. There are traits and characteristics of Philippine culture that have allowed thecellphone, particularly text messaging, to flourish. These are the importance offamily, ―hiya‖ (meaning shyness or embarrassment) and the need to be in theknow. The family is still the center of Philippine society and the cellphone hasallowed them to keep in touch and to communicate regularly. Despite the distancesof time and space, text messaging holds the family together. When faced withemotions, confrontations, or demands, the Filipino is shy and embarrassed. Textmessaging allows the user to hide behind a mask instead of engaging in face-to-
face conversation. This is especially true when dealing with the opposite sex ordating, parents, superiors at work, etc. Filipinos also like to always be in the know. We may be shy about telling aparent we love them or asking the boss for a raise or telling a guy we are attractedto him; but we are definitely curious about the day-to-day lives of the peoplearound us. Years of colonization and oppressive governments have also created anair of suspicion towards the media and the government. The cellphone has allowedpeople to verify news and information through a network of friends and family. While the tremendous impact of the cellphone on Philippine society andculture cannot be denied, there have also been impacts on the economy. Since thederegulation of the telecommunications industry in 1994, the industry has spawneda host of entrepreneurial activity in areas such as application programming formobile content (ranging from simple ringtones and phone logos to Java-basedgames for General Packet Radio Service [GPRS]) and new cottage industriesdevoted to pre-paid call and text card sales, handset and accessory sales, servicecenters, and others. There is room for growth in creating more content for mobilephones whether it be games, advertising, new features, etc. As prices of cellphonesand the cost of making calls and texts go down, combined with growth in thePhilippine economy, the cellphone’s future looks bright. As more and more peopleuse this technology, more impacts on society and culture can be studied. This thesis aimed to examine the impact of cellphones on Philippine cultureand society. Much further study can be made in this area. An in-depth study of thedifferences or similarities in the use of cellphones by men and women would be
interesting. While currently there is no evidence of a disparity in the amount ofcellphone use between the sexes, it would be fascinating to see if there are anydifferences in the kind of use. While this thesis briefly touches on the impact of text messaging onlanguage, it would be of value to do a more in depth study on the matter. It wouldbe interesting to see conclusive data on how much speech, spelling, and writing hasbeen affected by shorthand text messages. In addition, a study on the textinglanguage and etiquette that have resulted from cellphones and text messagingwould be valuable. Much can indeed by studied and written about cellphone use in thePhilippines. This paper only provides a general overview of the impacts and reasonson why the cellphone has been so successful. Good or bad, there is no turningback. The cellphone is here to stay and will continue to be an essential technologyfor Philippine society and culture.Relevance to the present study The reviewed literature and studies are significant. This might help in seekingthe answer to the problem of this study. Moreover, it gives the researchers theoverview and idea of the benefits and disadvantages of technology in differentaspects of society.
Chapter III Methodology This chapter describes the operational plan of work or strategy. A number ofactivities in the plan of work include the following operations: a) research design;b) population (sampling size and techniques); c) research instruments; d) datagathering procedures; e) statistical treatment of data.Research design The researchers will make use of descriptive method of research. Thismethod gives emphasis of what actually exist such as current conditions, practices,situations and any given phenomenon. It gives a better and deeper understandingof a certain condition on the basis of an in-depth study. It determines the truenature of the problem and accurately describes the process that will be use. Itreveals problems so that remedial measures will be instituted and formed. Since this study is concern with the impact of technological changes to thebehavior of the adolescence, to obtain concrete fact and strong-based informationabout the subject, the gathered data needs to be interpreted and validate properly.
Population The subject to be studied is the college students raging from 16-20 years oldstudying at the San Sebastian College- Recolletos in Manila. Selecting respondentsto this study is through the use of Slovin’s formula. n= N (1 + Ne2) n = Number of samples N = Total population e = Error toleranceResearch Instrument Normative survey will be use to gather data. Questionnaire is the datagathering instrument to be employed. This is so because it can gather data fasterthan any other method. A survey is a method of collecting information about ahuman population. In a survey, direct (or indirect) contact is made with the units ofthe study (e.g., individuals, organizations, communities) by using systematicmethods of measurement such as questionnaires and interviews.Data gathering procedures The respondents will be chosen through the Pure Random Sampling. Eachindividual is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each individual hasthe same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process, andeach subset of k individuals has the same probability of being chosen for the
sample as any other subset of k individuals (Yates, Daniel S.; David S. Moore,Daren S. Starnes (2008).Statistical Treatment of Data Data gathered through the instrument was subjected to statistical treatmentto test the alternative hypothesis advanced in this study. The following statisticaltreatments are to be use: 1. The frequency distribution will be use in order to show the number ofrespondents according to how they view their work. Such frequency distribution willbe made for interpreting the data and representing it, which will make it easier toanalyze, handle, and interpret. 2. To be able to know the average (mean) and percentile rank, the followingformulas are made. X= ∑fx %= ∑x x50 N 1500 wherein: N= total number of cases ∑x =sum of scores 3. In testing the null hypothesis that there is no significant relation betweenthe technological changes and the behavior of the adolescents, the researcher willmake use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient with the formula: r= N∑XY- (∑X)(∑Y) √ [N (∑X2) – (∑X2)] [N (∑Y2) – (∑Y2)]
References:Limpingco, Tria: Personality, 3rd ed. Ken Inc., 2006Agence France-Presse. Sexting teenagers sue over porn charge 2009. Inquiry.net.2009Dusek: Impact of Information Technology on Societal Development and E-governance Vibha Gupta, Research Scholar Department of Library and InformationScience, Aligarh Muslim University, India. 2007Cecilia Alessandra S. Uy-Tioco: CELLPHONES AS A CULTURAL TECHNOLOGY:NewWays of Communicating in the Philippines, Master of Arts in Media Studies, NewSchool University. April 2004Ben Meadrowcrof. The Impact of Information Technology on Work and Society.http://www.benmeadowcroft.com/reports/impact/http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/208045/survey-shows-teens-use-mobile-phones-cheathttp://www.developments.org.uk/articles/loose-talk-saves-lives-1/http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/273707/lessons-mobile-phonehttp://www.mb.com.ph/node/229095