Mayumi Hayashi: Lessons from Japan on social care reform

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In this slideshow, Dr Mayumi Hayashi, Leverhulme Early Career Fellow, Institute of Gerontology, King’s College London, gives an overview of social care reforms in Japan, and outlines the achievements, …

In this slideshow, Dr Mayumi Hayashi, Leverhulme Early Career Fellow, Institute of Gerontology, King’s College London, gives an overview of social care reforms in Japan, and outlines the achievements, challenges and lessons for England.

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  • 1. Shifting values: how should we care for older people in society? The Daiwa Anglo-Japanese Foundation 2013 Seminar Series with the Nuffield Trust 6 November 2013 Dr Mayumi Hayashi Institute of Gerontology King’s College London
  • 2. Outline • Experience - ・ 2000-2005: Expansion phase ・ After 2005: Reforms • Comprehensive support network • Achievements • Challenges • Lessons for England? 2
  • 3. 2000-2005: Expansion Phase Achievements: • Expansion in service users & reduction in unmet need • Success in shedding stigma of public care • Growing sense of entitlement & willingness to pay premiums Concerns: • Soaring expenditure requiring increased funding (i.e. taxes & insurance premiums) • Abuse of services (unwarranted use of home care by less needy) 3
  • 4. After 2005: Reforms • Government measures to ensure sustainability - Means-tested accommodation fees in nursing homes - Clarified and reduced services for less needy, emphasising ‘no-frills’, rehabilitation-led preventative services • Slowed growth of users and of service use, permitting stabilised expenditure 4
  • 5. New comprehensive approach • Municipalities responsible for low-level and preventative support • Seniors encouraged to offer voluntary support, promoting healthy, active lives & earning credits towards their own insurance premiums • Extended the system’s scope, offering comprehensive support to entire older population 5
  • 6. System Achievements • Financial sustainability – world’s most generous long-term care system (outside Scandinavia), within controlled, stable increases in expenditure • Universal coverage fostered higher service quality (and user expectations) • Promoted prevention and active ageing • Shift in attitudes towards responsibilities for care (people now prefer public care to family care) 6
  • 7. System Challenges • Maintaining financial sustainability – requires higher premiums/taxes/user-fees or cutting services (popular?) • Unequal service distribution - shortages of nursing homes, burden on family carers remains heavy • Increased financial burdens on low income groups • Shortages of care workers 7
  • 8. The lessons from Japan? • Cost control possible, but requires negotiation and trust in system • Universal entitlement important, reinforcing quality and ‘consumerism’ • Clear, agreed definitions of eligibility and service content necessary • Strong central government control, flexible funding and system structures & clear role and autonomy for municipalities crucial 8