Finland Address Tood 2009 Presentation Final


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Seeking the Meaning of the School Library Dr. Ross Todd, chef för Center for international Scholarship in School Libraries vid Rutgers University, New Jersey

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Finland Address Tood 2009 Presentation Final

  1. 1. Dr Ross J Todd Director, Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey [email_address] “ CELEBRATE SCHOOL LIBRARIES: Agents of Learning" 
  2. 2. Rita Dove US Poet Laureate 1993-1995 &quot;The library is an arena of possibility, opening both a window into the soul and a door onto the world.&quot; <ul><li>Roger Rosenblatt </li></ul><ul><li>US Author / Essasyist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;A library should be like a pair of open arms.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Stay Focused Pick one Card It is YOUR card Think about YOUR card for 20 seconds Stay focused on YOUR card
  4. 4. Ross is now going To remove YOUR Card!
  5. 5. YOUR card has been removed
  6. 7. School Libraries and Learning: 50 years of Evidence tell us that school libraries impact student achievement
  7. 8. “ With the school library literally the heart of the educational program, the students of the school have their best chance to become capable and enthusiastic readers, informed about the world around them, and alive to the limitless possibilities of tomorrow.” Mary Gaver, 1958 Gaver, M. Every child needs a school library. Chicago, ALA, 1958 Gaver, M. Effectiveness of Centralized Library Service in Elementary Schools. Rutgers University, 1963
  8. 9. Student Achievement Through School Libraries <ul><li>School libraries as powerful and engaging places in the lives of students do not happen by chance or force. </li></ul>
  9. 10. School Libraries and Learning <ul><li>Research shows that quality school libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Improve student achievement as measured by standardized scores </li></ul><ul><li>Develop students as capable and avid readers </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a range of information scaffolds to help students interrogate multiple, diverse and conflicting sources of information into deep knowledge </li></ul>
  10. 11. School Libraries and Learning <ul><li>Quality school libraries have: </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date resources – virtual and print </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified school library educators </li></ul><ul><li>Budget allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Access to information technology to find information and to create products </li></ul><ul><li>Active instruction in information literacy, critical thinking and knowledge construction </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrant reading programs </li></ul><ul><li>Teams of teachers and librarians working to create high-quality learning experiences based on curriculum standards </li></ul>
  11. 12. Student Achievement <ul><li>Learning outcomes are achieved through deliberate actions and instructional interventions of school administrators, teachers and school librarians </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATIONAL – TRANSFORMATONAL – FORMATIONAL </li></ul>
  12. 13. How do effective school libraries help students? <ul><li>25,574 students tell us! </li></ul><ul><li>1,812 teachers tell us! </li></ul>
  13. 14. 3 Studies: Student Learning Through School Libraries <ul><li>Ohio (USA): 13,123 valid student responses and 879 teacher responses (39 schools) (2003-4) </li></ul><ul><li>Australia: 6,718 valid student responses and 525 teacher responses (46 schools) (Lyn Hay, 2004-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Delaware (USA): 5,733 valid student responses and 408 teacher responses (13 schools) (2005-6) </li></ul>
  14. 15. 7 Sets of “help” <ul><li>how helpful the school library is with getting information you need </li></ul><ul><li>how helpful the school library is with using the information to complete your school work (l.L skills) </li></ul><ul><li>How helpful the school library is with your school work in general (knowledge building, knowledge outcomes) </li></ul><ul><li>How helpful the school library is with using computers in the library, at school, and at home </li></ul><ul><li>How helpful the school library is to you with your general reading interests </li></ul><ul><li>How helpful the school library is to you when you are not at school (independent learning) </li></ul><ul><li>7. General school aspects –Academic Achievement </li></ul>
  15. 17. How School Libraries Help <ul><li>Provides access to information technology (sources and tools) necessary for students to complete their research assignments and projects successfully </li></ul><ul><li>Provides up-to-date diverse resources to meet curriculum informational needs </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional intervention focuses on the development of an understanding of what good research is about and how you undertake good research </li></ul><ul><li>Engages students in an active process of building their own understanding and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates the link between school library services and learning outcomes </li></ul>
  16. 18. The Students’ Voices <ul><li>777 When I was working on a project about science I had no idea what I was doing I asked my library teachers for help they helped and by the end of the day I felt so much better!!! And from that day on I knew what I was doing on that project and I got a A I was so proud of myself and my confidence went up a whole lot and now when ever I do a project I know I have a lot of power now to do well on projects!!! </li></ul><ul><li>The school librarians don’t help me at all like they make me do all the stuff myself and wont tell me where the things are even when I already looked – they show me and make me learn how to find the stuff myself and its hard work!!!! You gotta use your brain, they say </li></ul><ul><li>1015 I I would have never have found the sources I needed for the paper if not for the school library, the public library, and the helpful people who staff those places. They even showed me steps to work through to do the research and complete it. They ran some classes specifically for us and they were very very very helpful </li></ul>
  17. 19. Students’ Voices <ul><li>3532 I was working on History project and we had to have several sources (primary documents) and the librarians instructed the students on how to go about finding the information we needed and compiling it into something worthwhile. I was able to combine everything together and earn a good grade. </li></ul><ul><li>1075 Well one time was when we had to do a report on Animals and I had no clue how to find information about my animal. So Mrs. X helped me find the information on the computer. On the internet if its true or false – to learn that is very important at school. </li></ul><ul><li>100 I needed help doing a project for government that had to do with presidents and they had so many books and then the librarian helped me find web sites. But then they gave me ways of sorting through all the ideas to extract the key points so I could get my head around it all </li></ul><ul><li>66 I needed to write a paper and I went to the Library where I was ultimately able to write a paper successfully. My ideas were a mess and talking to the librarian gave me a way to organize my ideas and present the argument. I did really well!! I’ve never forgotten that – used it to do many other assignments. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>433 It helped me find info on racism for a 10th grade project, and made me really think about that, especially I didn’t realize how racist some of my ideas were </li></ul><ul><li>6256 Sometimes I argue with my parents about things and use the library to check if my opinions are true </li></ul><ul><li>1408 One time, I wanted books on Teen Suicide and they were able to get some for me. It was helpful of them as my cousin died that way and I could figure it out a bit more for me. </li></ul><ul><li>6110 I guess I’ve discovered one thing. When I do my research well, and do the proper thing with note cards and writing in my own words, I seem to just get to know the stuff and that makes a big help when I talk about the stuff in class. </li></ul>Students’ Voices
  19. 21. <ul><li>“ Because of the school library, I was able to research the African Hindu Tribes of my native country. This proved extremely helpful in my search for self acceptance. I have searched many months through books of all sorts never stumbling upon anything remotely near what I needed. Even the tour I took to the museum and the Epcot center couldn’t clearly explain in full detail what it felt like to be a true African. I would have never felt in place without this necessary information.” </li></ul>Developing knowledge, understanding, and a sense of self. Listen to the Voices
  20. 22. School Libraries at the heart of learning <ul><li>Learning to Read </li></ul><ul><li>SCHOOL LIBRARIES </li></ul><ul><li>Reading to Learn </li></ul>
  21. 23. New Jersey Research <ul><li>10 New Jersey diverse public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced and expert school librarians </li></ul><ul><li>10 school librarians working on curriculum projects with 17 classroom teachers </li></ul><ul><li>574 students in Grades 6 – 12; range of disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Key question: Did they learn anything? What did the learning look like? </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in knowledge </li></ul>
  22. 24. Changes in Knowledge <ul><li>Two distinctive approaches to knowledge construction: </li></ul><ul><li>-- Transport </li></ul><ul><li>-- Transform </li></ul>
  23. 25. “ Transport” Approach to Knowledge Construction <ul><li>Gathering facts, then more facts, then more facts </li></ul><ul><li>Stockpile of facts, even though facts were sorted, organized and grouped by end of task. </li></ul><ul><li>Remained on a descriptive level throughout </li></ul><ul><li>Limited intellectual engagement with the ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Surface knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Saw the collection of facts as the end of the research </li></ul>
  24. 26. “ Transform” Approach to Knowledge Construction <ul><li>Initial: superficial sets of properties </li></ul><ul><li>Moved beyond gathering facts: </li></ul><ul><li>- building explanations </li></ul><ul><li>- address differences in information </li></ul><ul><li>- organizing facts in more coherent ways </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret information </li></ul><ul><li>Establish personal conclusions and reflections </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting facts was the beginning and not end </li></ul><ul><li>Facts were the basis for personal choice </li></ul>
  25. 27. THE SCHOOL LIBRARY …. <ul><li>What is a School Library? </li></ul><ul><li>the school’s physical and virtual information-to-knowledge commons where literacy, inquiry, thinking, imagination, discovery, and creativity are central to students’ learning in all curriculum areas </li></ul><ul><li>BUILDING KNOWLEDGE </li></ul>
  26. 28. Björk “New Worlds” in “ Selmasongs” album <ul><li>“ If living is seeing </li></ul><ul><li>I’m holding my breath </li></ul><ul><li>In wonder – I wonder </li></ul><ul><li>What happens next? </li></ul><ul><li>A new world, a new day to see” </li></ul>
  27. 29. Key Challenges <ul><li>From Information to knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence-based practice </li></ul><ul><li>Building teams and partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Web 2.0 tools to develop deep inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Re-imagining school libraries </li></ul>
  28. 30. Key Challenges <ul><li>From Information to Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence-based practice </li></ul><ul><li>Building teams and partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Web 2.0 tools to develop deep inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Re-imagining school libraries </li></ul>Without inquiry, there is no reason for school libraries Without evidence, it is just another opinion Without teams, there is limited capacity for change Without Web 2.0, missed opportunity for situating learning in the real world of kids Vision for the future: you create the vision. Without vision, you walk in darkness
  29. 31. <ul><li>CHALLENGE 1 </li></ul><ul><li>SCHOOL LIBRARIES AS KNOWLEDGE CENTERS, NOT INFORMATION PLACES </li></ul><ul><li>Building knowledge, not finding information </li></ul>
  30. 32. The Information-to-Knowledge Challenge Now I am really confused!
  31. 33. The Information-to-Knowledge Challenge No Wonder I am lost!
  32. 34. The Information-to-Knowledge Challenge A knowledge society? Such insight!!!
  33. 35. From Information to Knowledge: Research <ul><li>Children using libraries less since they first began using internet research tools </li></ul><ul><li>Search engines are the primary starting point for information searching </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal information seeking: skim viewing a small number of pages then ‘bounce’ out </li></ul><ul><li>Spend very little time on e-book and e-journal sites, and databases in school libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in “power browsing”: rapid scanning, quick decisions and clicking extensively – limited evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Make little use of advanced search capabilities; tendency to use simple search strategies; preference for natural language </li></ul><ul><li>Squirreling behavior: stockpiling content in the form of downloads </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The TRANSPORTATION of Information </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The TRANSFORMATION OF Information </li></ul>The answer is already there
  35. 37. From Information to Knowledge <ul><li>Focus of the school library: moving from information finding and gathering, to enabling the construction of deep knowledge and understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on INQUIRY : questioning, discovery, critical thinking, reflection, building deep knowledge of topics </li></ul><ul><li>Educational systems globally embracing Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>School library as a KNOWLEDGE CENTER, AN INQUIRY CENTER, and not an INFORMATION CENTER </li></ul>
  36. 38. Schooling in the Twenty-first Century
  37. 39. Library Policy Tagcloud
  38. 40. The role of the school library TRANSFORMATION
  39. 41. <ul><li>CHALLENGE 2 </li></ul><ul><li>EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE </li></ul><ul><li>How do our school libraries contribute to L earning, L iteracy, and L iving </li></ul>
  40. 42. Key Questions <ul><li>Why do school libraries matter? </li></ul><ul><li>Are school librarians necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we ensure that our libraries survive? </li></ul><ul><li>How do school libraries impact on student learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How do school libraries help students learn? </li></ul><ul><li>What / how do school libraries add to personal, social, cultural and global growth of our students? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW DOES MY SCHOOL LIBRARY CONTRIBUTE TO: </li></ul><ul><li>- Learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>- Living </li></ul>
  41. 43. Evidence-Based Practice <ul><li>Evidence FOR Practice: use research to inform our day-to-day practice </li></ul><ul><li>- reading, information literacy, information technology, instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence IN Practice: gather data from our practice, and using data within our schools </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence OF Practice: impacts of our libraries on student achievement; gathering local evidence as well as country evidence </li></ul>
  42. 44. Evidence <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Number of classes in the library </li></ul><ul><li>Number of library items borrowed </li></ul><ul><li>Number of students using the library at lunch times </li></ul><ul><li>Number of items purchased annually </li></ul><ul><li>Number of web searches </li></ul><ul><li>Number of books lost </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding how school libraries help kids learn: Learning outcomes in terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge outcomes – deep mastery of content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information-to-knowledge processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading comprehension and enrichment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes and values of information, learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self concept and personal agency </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><li>CHALLENGE 3 </li></ul><ul><li>BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS AND TEAMS </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated as a high priority for school librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Important dynamic in student achievement (eg Lance) </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels of collaboration are documented (Callison, 2005, Todd 2005) </li></ul>
  44. 46. Instructional Collaboration Study <ul><li>CISSL study of school librarian-teacher collaboration, 2004-2006 </li></ul><ul><li>85 school librarians (65%) and 45 teachers (35%) </li></ul><ul><li>To develop a deeper understanding of classroom teacher-school librarian instructional collaborations: </li></ul><ul><li>- their dynamics, processes, enablers, barriers, impact on learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>- their role in continuous improvement and school change </li></ul>
  45. 47. What participants hoped the students would gain through the collaboration <ul><li>Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>students to develop knowledge of curriculum content </li></ul><ul><li>increased information literacy skills; critical thinking; problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Increased depth and better quality of learning </li></ul><ul><li>School Librarians </li></ul><ul><li>students to develop information literacy </li></ul><ul><li>students to develop a better perception of the library and the librarian </li></ul>Common Goals? KNOWLEDGE OUTCOMES
  46. 49. Shared Learning Teams <ul><li>Take advantage of varied experiences and expertises that exist in a school community </li></ul><ul><li>“ Occupational Invisibility” (Hartzell) Do not see depth, breadth and importance of what SLs contribute </li></ul><ul><li>  flexible team approach; alliances for shared learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Alliances within / outside school </li></ul><ul><li>- Instructional expertise </li></ul><ul><li>- Subject expertise </li></ul><ul><li>- Technical expertise </li></ul><ul><li>- Reading / Literacy expertise </li></ul><ul><li>- Student expertise </li></ul>
  47. 50. Teams - “Don’t Water Rocks” <ul><li>Principal? </li></ul><ul><li>Technology leader? </li></ul><ul><li>Maths teacher? Other teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum coordinator? </li></ul><ul><li>School counselor? </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy / reading specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Special needs teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>Parent organization? </li></ul><ul><li>Community experts? </li></ul><ul><li>Public library / museum experts? </li></ul><ul><li>Teen social networkers? </li></ul><ul><li>Education system leaders? </li></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>CHALLENGE 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Web 2.0 tools to develop deep inquiry </li></ul>
  49. 52. <ul><li>Web-based environments which seek to facilitate community, communication, collaboration and creativity between users. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture of participation: users generate content rather than consume content Web 2.0 = people </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to engage with tools of knowledge building: blogs and online diaries, wikis, podcasts, videoblogs, content creation mechanisms, syndicated content feeds, folksonomies and user tagging </li></ul>Capitalize on the Web 2.0 Opportunities
  50. 57. Web 2.0 Tools <ul><li>Blogging: logs / journals/ diaries on the internet; chronological, single authorship; multiple forms, with plug-ins (widgets) for mixing of content, links </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis: collaborative, editable writing spaces: collective knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting: distributing compressed audio across internet; screencasting, videocasting </li></ul><ul><li>RSS: Real Simple Syndication / Rich Site Summary: feed of content collected and organized through aggregators </li></ul><ul><li>Social Networking; Social Bookmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Online photo galleries: publishing, creating, using images online </li></ul>
  51. 59. Blogs: Knowledge Spaces <ul><li>What constitutes a sustained response? Whose voice is being heard? </li></ul><ul><li>Expository response: provision of information </li></ul><ul><li>Explanatory response: focus is on explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Critical response: addressing postings with argument / evidence analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical response: comparison, analysis, identifying patterns, trends, themes, issues, associations across postings </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetical response: Developing conclusions, establishing personal viewpoints and perspectives, generating position statements from multiple postings </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective Response: my learnings; identifying implications </li></ul>
  52. 60. Wikis <ul><li>Collaborative, editable spaces: collective knowledge (eg Wikipedia: eg Tsunami 2004 – 9hrs for first 76 word story; 48 hours later, 6,500 words and edited 1,200 times;; </li></ul><ul><li>Open, contributory, living documents; people work together to generate and maintain a document </li></ul><ul><li>Social construction of knowledge; negotiation of meaning: group’s best effort, not an individual; community watchdog, soft security </li></ul><ul><li>Working as a team / group / community in a shared information space: giving students control of knowledge construction and editorial control – responsibility and ownership </li></ul>
  53. 61. What to do with Wikipedia <ul><li>Students use W. to brainstorm ideas, build background knowledge – you will not stop it! </li></ul><ul><li>Take group through a key Wikipedia article on a topic related to class work, pointing out its strengths and weaknesses, and inviting the class to edit it </li></ul><ul><li>Students use other sources to determine accuracy of the facts in a Wikipedia article: </li></ul><ul><li>The class takes on creating specific Wikipedia articles related to class work and post to Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Watch what happens: modification, spammed, and how to deal with this </li></ul>
  54. 62. Scaffolds for Working in a Wiki: What does it take? <ul><li>Constructing the sustained response + creative + publishing competencies </li></ul><ul><li>How teams work together in safety and security </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with team issues, conflict eg someone edits without justification / explanation; arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation skills: negotiating to agree on correctness, meaning, relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Team management / project management: planning, timelines, role assignment, delegation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication eg explaining intentions behind edits </li></ul><ul><li>Document management / versions </li></ul>
  55. 63. <ul><li>CHALLENGE 5 </li></ul><ul><li>RE-IMAGINE SCHOOL LIBRARIES </li></ul>
  56. 64. Re-imagining School Libraries <ul><li>Learning Commons for knowledge building </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on inquiry, thinking, imagination, discovery, and creativity as central to students’ learning in all curriculum areas </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the information, intellectual and social tools to foster creativity, knowledge creation and production </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry Center: Instruction in thinking, analysis and synthesis, not just information finding </li></ul>
  57. 65. Great Minds at work? Building Effective Inquiry <ul><li>Learning habits </li></ul>
  58. 66. Hall of Fame Research “Greatness” <ul><li>Where/when born, died, lived </li></ul><ul><li>Education/Jobs/Career </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges overcome </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities that led to greatness </li></ul><ul><li>Awards/Commendations </li></ul><ul><li>Political offices held </li></ul><ul><li>Best remembered for what </li></ul><ul><li>Connection to NJ </li></ul> Grade 8 Research Project
  59. 67. Critical thinking and Deep Knowledge? <ul><li>Walt Whitman (Camden) Considered by many to be the most influential poet in U.S. history </li></ul>
  60. 68. Lonely, Nervous, Brave, Determined, Sassy Daughter of parents who filled their house with music Music must have filled her loneliness when her father died Moved to New York for a better life. Who loved the night magic of Harlem, Who loved the celebrities and begging for autographs with her friends Who really loved singing and scatting Who loved her Aunt that took care of her as a child. Who felt loss, when her mother died Who felt anger when she was put in an orphanage Who felt trapped in those walls but they couldn’t keep her down because she felt the pull of her song and the night magic of Harlem. Who felt nervous and fear at auditions Who feared not being able to sing because she had no one to care for her Who feared dying from diabetes and possibly going blind, Who feared whom she would pass her singing crown down to Who wanted to see someone take over her singing crown Who would have liked to have spent more time with her late parents Who wanted to work with the best bands Who changed the world of jazz and swing Who was very proud of her awards and achievements She was “The First Lady Of Song”; she was “Sassy” and a Legend of Jazz Born in Virginia, grew up in New York, adopted by the world. Ella was great Fitzgerald Ella
  61. 69. A TIME OF BOLD ACTION Edna St Vincent Millay 1892-1950 <ul><li>“ Upon this gifted age, in its dark hour </li></ul><ul><li>Rains from the sky a meteoric shower </li></ul><ul><li>Of facts, they lie unquestioned, uncombined. </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom enough to leech us of our ill </li></ul><ul><li>Is daily spun, but there exists no loom </li></ul><ul><li>To weave it into fabric. ” </li></ul>