WORLD HISTORY SECTION II Note: This exam uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E.(common era). These labels correspond to B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno Domini), which are used insome world history textbooks. Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-9. (The documents havebeen edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the Section II free-response booklet.This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents.Write an essay that: -Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents. ␣ Uses all of the documents. -Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply summarize the documents individually. -Takes into account the sources of the documents and analyzes the authors’ points of view. ␣ Identiﬁes and explains the need for at least one additional type of document.You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents. 1. Using the documents, Analyze Chinese peasantry’s motivations for the Yellow Turban Uprising in the later Han Dynasty.Historical Background: The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the YellowScarves Rebellion, was a 184 AD peasant rebellion against Emperor Ling of Han. It is named for the color of the scarves which the rebels wore about their heads.
Document One"Revolt in Han China `." Cultural China . Web. 9 Dec 2010. <http://history.cultural-china.com/chinaWH/images/arbigimages/8953d6c7a363fe9e6d951b4ac69bf162.jpg Document Two
Bentley, Jerry, and Herbert Zeigler . "Han Dynasty ." Early Han Policies . Third . New York,New York: McGraw Hill, 2006. Print. HAN POLICIES “During the early days of the Han dynasty, Lui Band attempted to follow a middlepath between the decentralized networks of political alliances of the Zhou dynasty andthe tightly centralized state of the Qin. Zhou decentralization encouraged politicalchaos, he thought, because regional governors were powerful enough to resist theemperor and pursue their own ambitions. Liu Bang thought that Qin Centralizationcreated a new set of problems, however, because it provided little incentive for imperial Document Three
"Yellow Turban Rebellion." Yellow Turban Rebellion 1.1 1. Web. 9 Dec 2010. <http://learnchinese.elanguageschool.net/yellow-turban-rebellion>.“Causes of the Rebellion The Yellow Turban Rebellion began when the Han government failed to do much to stopa famine. Many farmers in the north found their crops insufﬁcient to make a living so theyattempted to move south to ﬁnd work. However, few jobs could be found. When the YellowRiver ﬂooded during this time, even more jobs and crops were lost. Finally, the Hangovernment’s high tax rate on the peasants led to even more ﬁnancial stress. Around 170,landowners and peasants began forming small private bands to protect themselves and theirmeager resources from bandits. During this time, the Han dynasty began to weaken. The eunuchs held considerablepower at court, and the emperor even referred to one of the most powerful eunuchs as his fosterfather. This led to widespread corruption in the government, leading most government ofﬁcesand programs to become inefﬁcient and incapable. The various famines and the Yellow Riverﬂood even had some whispering that the Han had lost the Mandate of Heaven. The Zhang Jiao sect of the Yellow Turbans was the most active and was the ﬁrst to beginplanning a revolt. They worked to gain support throughout Northern China, and they even madesome allies in the court. Because of this, they were able to very effectively plan their rebellion.However, before the mass uprising could take place, the rebels were betrayed and many of theirmen in Luoyang were arrested and quickly executed. The rebel forces in some of the provincesalso began in early 184, a few months ahead of schedule. However, even though the rebel forceswere uncoordinated, their forces still numbers in the ten thousands, and they easily destroyedvarious government ofﬁces and outposts. In response, the government deployed the imperialarmy.
"Zhang,Brothers lead The Rebellion." Japanese Prints . Web. 10 Dec 2010. <http:// www.printsofjapan.com/Image%20File%201/Yellow_Scarves_Rebellion.jpg>.
Document Five"The Collapse of the Han and the Revolt of the Yellow Scarves." empire, long divided, mustunite; long united, must divide. 6/27/2003. n. pag. Everything2. Web. 10 Dec 2010. <http://everything2.com/title/The+Collapse+of+the+Han+and+the+Revolt+of+the+Yellow+Scarves>.“ Four centuries after the Supreme Ancestor founded the Han dynasty, in the reign of EmperorXian, the kingdom began its collapse. The past two emperors, Huan and Ling, allowed ﬂattersand eunuchs power, driving noble men from the court if not unto death itself. Omens andportents abounded, and Heavens mandate seemed to have forsaken the Han. The treacherouseunuch Cao Jie and his Ten Regular Attendants dominated the will of the emperor, spreadingcorruption across the land. Throughout the land, rebellious groups began to rise up, snatchingwhat power they might whilst the court was in shambles.Amongst these groups, a religious cult known as the the Way of Peace, founded by the Zhangbrothers of the Julu province, saw ample opportunity to seize power within the realm. Sendingtheir followers to raise yellow banners, they set a date for the rebellion and sent word across theland. Nearly a half million devotees bound their heads in yellow scarves and rose up to attacktheir local districts.In response, Regent-Marshal He Jin pleaded with the emperor to call the various districts toarms and issue a call for all courageous men to offer himself in distinguished defense of therealm. In Zhou county, 28 year-old Liu Bei, styled Xuande, lived a meager existence, weavingmats and selling sandals to support his widowed mother. Liu Bei, a great-great grandson of thefourth emperor of the Han, had chance to see the announcement.While reading the call for volunteers in the town center, Liu Bei encoutered a gruff man nearlyeight spans tall. The man, Zhang Fei, a pig butcher also from Zhou county chastised Liu Bei forhis lack of willingness to serve the emperor. Zhang Feis chiding encouraged Liu Bei to answerthe emperors call to arms, and they pledge to work together to recruit other able-bodied men tothe cause. While enjoying wine and a few catties of meat at a nearby tavern, they came upon aman of most regal bearing, nearly nine spans tall and wearing a two-foot beard. Introducingthemselves, the enthusiastic recruiters invited the stranger, Guan Yu, a noble expelled fromJieliang, to sit an share a few bowls with them.
Document 6 Source: Barrosse, Emily, Jerry H. Bentley, and Herbert F. Ziegler, eds. Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. Third Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print. “The Later Han emperors did not seriously address the problem of land distribution that had helped to bring down the Former Han dynasty. The empire continued to suffer the effects of banditry and rebellions organized by desperate peasants with few opportunities to improve their lot. The Yellow Turban uprising- so named because of the distinctive headgear worn by the rebels- was a particularly serious revolt that raged throughout China and tested the resilience of the Han state during the late century CE. Although the Later Han dynasty possessed the military power required to keep civil disorder under reasonable control, rebellions by the Yellow Turbans and others weakened the Han state during the second and third centuries CE.”"Yellow Turbans." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.<http://www.school.eb.com/eb/article-9077907>. Chinese secret society whose members uprising, the Yellow Turban Rebellion (184–c. 204 CE),contributed to the fall of the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE). Led by Zhang Ju, a Daoist faith healer who hadgained numerous adherents during a widespread pestilence, the rebellion was directed against the tyrannicaleunuchs who dominated the emperor. The rebels wore yellow headdresses to signify their association with the“earth” element, which they believed would succeed the red “ﬁre” element that represented Han rule. Tosuppress the uprising, which erupted in eastern and central China, the Han conscripted huge armies at great cost,but their efforts were hampered by inefﬁciency and corruption in the imperial government. Zhang Jue became illand died in 184 CE, but the rebellion was a continuing menace to the government for two more decades.
Document 7 Geographic, National, and Jared Diamond. 1000 Events That Shaped the World. Washington DC: National Geographic Society, October 2008. Print. “The Yellow Turban uprising broke out in eastern China in 184 C.E. against the imperial Han rule that was unable to regulate an equitable distribution of landCao ownership and government involvement. The peasant insurrectionists, discontented by Cao. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.<http://www.school.eb.com/eb/art-115354>. were raging through the countryside, wore economic disparities and epidemics that yellow headdresses representing the color of the Chinese earth. ” Document 8
"Yellow Turban Rebellion." ELANGUAGESCHOOL. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://learnchinese.elanguageschool.net/yellow-turban-rebellion>.“The Yellow Turban Rebellion began when the Han government failed to do much to stop afamine. Many farmers in the north found their crops insufﬁcient to make a living so theyattempted to move south to ﬁnd work. However, few jobs could be found. When the YellowRiver ﬂooded during this time, even more jobs and crops were lost. Finally, the Hangovernment’s high tax rate on the peasants led to even more ﬁnancial stress. Around 170,landowners and peasants began forming small private bands to protect themselves and theirmeager resources from bandits. During this time, the Han dynasty began to weaken.” Document 9 Document 10