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What Is ADA? Regulations Relating To ADA Compliance States and the ADA including Title 24 Understand General Terminology Signage Design Restrictions What Areas Require ADA Compliant Signage? How To Make A Photopolymer Sign. Understanding Photopolymer And Its Applications 5 Course Objectives
What is ADA? What is ADA?
What is ADA? The Americans with Disabilities Act was signed into law in July 1990 by former President George H.W. Bush. In July 1991 the ADA legislation and supporting guidelines were published in the Department of Justice Federal Register. The ADA protects the civil rights of people with disabilities in employment and access to good and services.
What is ADA? The ADA is broken into sections (Title II, Title III) and enforced by the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Department of Transportation (DOT).
Title III of the ADA applies to places of public accommodation and commercial facility open to public access and is enforced by the DOJ. Title III includes, but is not limited to, restaurants, schools, museums, public office buildings, retail and social service establishment.
What is ADA? The most prevalent area of signage affected by the ADA under Title III is Room Identification and Wayfinding. The ADA create the opportunity for people with disabilities to navigate the built environment.
What is ADA?
Under the ADA any person may file a federal lawsuit, either for individual discrimination or as a class action.
Under the ADA any person may request the DOJ to investigate and act upon an ADA discrimination claim.
The attorney General may also file a civil action suit in cases of general public importance.
What is ADA? Legal Remedies Although the ADA covers all public facilities, the court can order any facility ADA accessible. The court can also award monetary damages of up to $55,000 for the first ADA violation and up to $110,000 for each subsequent violation, emphasizing the importance of understanding how to comply with ADA laws.
Why ADA Signs Are Important Without proper signs a blind person cannot find their way around a building. By not being able to find doorways and other amenities; they face functional barriers. These barriers are every bit as daunting as structural barriers are to those who require a ramp to access a building but it is not there.
ADA: The Two Groups There are two primary groups of people the ADA focuses on relating to signage; the blind and the visually impaired.
The Blind The functionally blind make up 2-3% of the population and cannot see signs, interior changes, color, or type. When walking, they expect information to be where their hands fall and where their feet and cane follow.
The Visually Impaired The visually impaired can distinguish type and color, but with an increased level of difficulty thus requiring different means of accessibility. People with visual disabilities make up at least 25% of the population and among people older than 65, this figure can be as high as 75%.
ADA Regulations… The Process
American Nation Standard Institute The American Nation Standard Institute ICC/ANSI A117.1 The ICC/ANSI A117.1 primarily provides the basis of the accessibility sections of the International Building Code (IBC) and is the basis for the federal ADAAG published by the Access Board. The A117.1 Committee consists of several trade organization, design associations, disability advocacy organizations, and other experts.
American Nation Standard Institute The American Nation Standard Institute ICC/ANSI A117.1 The A117.1 Standard is available for adoption by jurisdictions internationally and is intended to be used as a reference in accordance to establishing the jurisdictions law as in the case of the ADAAG. The ANSI A117.1 - 2003 Standard was approved on November 26, 2003 and was used to develop the 2004 ADAAG from the US Access Board.
American Nation Standard Institute The American Nation Standard Institute ICC/ANSI A117.1 The committee recently concluded the 2008 cycle which will undoubtedly be seen in a future version the ADAAG. Changes Relating to Signage involve regulating VMS (Variable Message Signs).
United States Access Board The ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) The Unites States Access Board develops the ADAAG. These guidelines serve as the baseline for standards used to enforce the ADA by the DOJ and DOT. The ADAAG derives from an earlier Federal standard called the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS). Source: American with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines
United States Access Board The ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) The Board’s guidelines serve as the baseline for standards used to enforce the ADA. It is these standards, not the Board’s guidelines, which the public must follow. Source: American with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines
United States Access Board “Guidelines” … “Standards” … what’s the difference? Guidelines versus standards … Guidelines are issued by the Board, standards by designated agencies such as DOJ and DOT. Standards are what the public must follow to comply with the laws; the guidelines are what these agencies must follow in setting or updating their standards. Source: American with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines
United States Access Board 2010 ADA Standards On July 23, 2010 the DOJ signed final regulations revising the ADA to include the 2004 ADAAG. This was published in the Federal Register September 15, 2010 and will take effect March 15, 2012.
United States Access Board 2010 ADA Standards Compliance with the 2010 Standards for Accessible Design is permitted as of September 15, 2010, but not required until March 15, 2012. The 2010 ADA is not NEW rather an update to the ADA which the DOJ will enforce as the revision follow the 2004 ADDA.
States and the ADA
States and The ADA The DOJ has been enforcing the original ADA and the new 2010 Standard are not mandatory until March 15, 2012. While all projects are subject to the Federal ADA many states have already adopted the newer 2004 ADAAG or, in the case of California, have their own state regulations. A state can modify their building codes as long as they get approval from the DOJ.
States and The ADA Enforcement of state codes is done by local state officials who interpret the codes and guidelines. If there is any discrepancies or confusions as to what the code means, then consulting with your local official to get his or her interpretation is highly recommend.
States and The ADA Some state have adopted the 2004 AADAG while others have been enforcing the original ADA. The 2010 Standard will eliminate much of the confusion behind which codes states are following.
California Codes - Title 24 Title 24 contains the regulations that govern the construction of buildings in California. As noted, states can modify their respective building codes. Title 24 has a few important differences related to signage. While there are others, we're going to focus on three key areas relating to permanent room identification signage.
California Codes - Title 24 The first deals with Grade II Braille. Grade II Braille incorporates the use of 189 contractions and short-form words, and is now the standard Braille used in most applications across the states. Title 24, which uses Grade II Braille, requires in section 1117B.5.6 that the spacing of the individual Braille cells be further apart than what is required under the original ADA.
California Codes - Title 24
California Codes - Title 24 The second difference in Title 24 relating to Braille is the placement of Braille on the sign. All codes require Braille to be a minimum of 3/8" from tactile characters and raised boards. Title 24 in section 1117B.5.5 however places a maximum distance of 1/2" from the raised characters.
California Codes - Title 24 The third point of interest is the requirement for all accessible toilet and bathing facilities to have the “International Symbol of Accessibility” mounted on the door leading into the facility.
California Codes - Title 24 The men’s sanitary facilities are required to be identified by an equilateral Triangle ¼” inch thick with edges 12” inches long and a vertex pointing upward (see figure 2.1). figure2.1
California Codes - Title 24 The women’s sanitary facilities are required to be identified by a Circle, ¼” inch thick and 12” inches in diameter (see figure 2.2). figure2.2
California Codes - Title 24 Unisex sanitary facilities is required to be identified by a Circle ¼” thick, 12” inches in diameter with a ¼” thick Triangle superimposed on the circle and within the 12” inch diameter (see figure 2.3) figure2.3
Signs Covered by ADA
Signs Covered by the ADA Wall Mounted
Identification of permanent rooms & spaces
Directional & Informational Signs
Ceiling or Projecting Wall Mounted
Directional & Informational Signs
Exempt from ADA Requirement These are considered “Temporary” and are not required to comply with ADA guidelines.
Hours of Operation, etc.
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted What constitutes a permanent room or space? Where tactile signs required? Restrooms Exits Room Numbers Other room designations not likely to change
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted Current Guidelines: Required to be Tactile with 1/32” minimum raised copy, accompanied by Grade II Braille. Tactile character height minimum is 5/8”, maximum 2”
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted New provision for Separate Tactile and Visual Messages. This is becoming highly recommended as part of the new ADA code. The attributes that make type legible to the visual reader are different than for the tactile reader. Example
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted New provision for Separate Tactile and Visual Messages, are to detach the needs of the blind and the needs of the disabled. A. Tactile characters shall be: 1/2 inch minimum height. 3/4" maximum height. Not required to contrast with the background. Example
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted B. Visual characters shall be: Uppercase and/or lowercase. Style shall be conventional in form. Simple serifs are allowed. Stroke thickness shall be 10 percent minimum and 30 percent maximum of the letter height. Spacing between characters shall be 10 percent minimum and 35 percent maximum of the character height. Min. character height is 5/8", providing height above floor is below 70 inches and min. viewing distance is 6 feet or less. *If minimum viewing distance is greater than 6 feet, increase letter height by 1/8 inch for each foot.
VISUAL: Serifs, Upper & Lower Case, Variable Stroke Width, Color, etc… TACTILE: Requires tracing finger along a thin character bead with very wide letter spacing. Braille Placement - Directly below corresponding text.
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted GUIDELINES: Wide Kerning - No less than 1/8” between the 2 closest points of adjacent characters.
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted 703.3.2 Position. Braille shall be positioned below the corresponding text. If text is multi-lined, Braille shall be placed below the entire text. Braille shall be separated 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) minimum from any other tactile characters and 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) minimum from raised borders and decorative elements.
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted EXCEPTION: Braille provided on elevator car controls shall be separated 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) minimum and shall be located either directly below or adjacent to the corresponding raised characters or symbols.
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted Braille Placement - Directly below corresponding text. Not Allowed Correct Not Allowed
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted The law requires that signs be configured and displayed as follows: Permanent room I.D. signs must be mounted on the latch side of the door, 48" minimum and 60” maximum from the finished floor to the bottom baseline of text.
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted What if there is no wall space on the latch side of the door? Double Doors?
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted 703.4.2 Location. Where a tactile sign is provided at a door, the sign shall be located alongside the door at the latch side. Where a tactile sign is provided at double doors with one active leaf, the sign shall be located on the inactive leaf. Where a tactile sign is provided at double doors with two active leafs, the sign shall be located to the right of the right hand door.
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted 703.4.2 Location. Where there is no wall space at the latch side of a single door or at the right side of double doors, signs shall be located on the nearest adjacent wall. Signs containing tactile characters shall be located so that a clear floor space of 18 inches (455 mm) minimum by 18 inches (455 mm) minimum, centered on the tactile characters, is provided beyond the arc of any door swing between the closed position and 45 degree open position. EXCEPTION: Signs with tactile characters shall be permitted on the push side of doors with closers and without hold-open devices.
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted FINISH & CONTRAST: Characters must be eggshell, matte or non-glare finish. Characters must contrast with background (light on dark) or (dark on light)
Permanent Room ID - Wall Mounted PICTOGRAMS: 703.6.1 Pictogram Field. Pictograms shall have a field height of 6 inches (150 mm) minimum. Characters and Braille shall not be located in the pictogram field.
Directional & Information Signs – Ceiling or Projecting Wall Mount FINISH & CONTRAST: Characters & background must be eggshell, matte or non-glare finish. Characters must contrast with background… (light on dark) or (dark on light)
Directional & Information Signs – Ceiling or Projecting Wall Mount SYMBOLS: The size of symbols used for directional signs is not regulated.
Directional & Information Signs – Ceiling or Projecting Wall Mount TACTILE? / MINIMUMS:
Obviously not required to be tactile.
Min. to be 2” height, providing sign is no higher than 10’ above
floor. Min. character heights established based on viewing distance.
Mount high enough so that 80” clear head space is maintained.
Note: Old ADDAG required minimum height to be 3”
Directional & Information Signs – Ceiling or Projecting Wall Mount MINIMUMS: Letters Minimum to be 2” height, providing sign is no higher than 10’ above floor. Minimum character heights established based on viewing distance.
Photopolymer & It’s Applications What is Photopolymer? Photopolymer is a photo-sensitive synthetic compound that hardens when exposed to an ultraviolet light source. Photopolymer is available in both liquid and sheet form and has a number of applications that span a multitude of industries – ranging from flexographic printing, architectural modeling, rubber stamps and Architectural and way-finding signage.
Photopolymer & It’s Applications What is Photopolymer? A 1/32” clear, high resolution photopolymer layer of material is extruded to a variety of base substrates. The extrusion process combined with the cross linking of the photopolymer molecules creates a chemical weld between the two surfaces; creating an integral bond. Compared to the tedious routing and engraving methods, photopolymer signs are easily produced and cost-efficient and allow the creation of an integral sign, which is almost always what is specified in educational facilities due to vandalism concerns.
Photopolymer & It’s Applications Photopolymer is the predominant material used for manufacturing ADA-compliant signage. The ADA compliant sign material is manufactured by extruding a 1/32” photopolymer layer to a variety of base substrates. This process ensures a consistent an compliant height of all tactile areas.
Photopolymer & It’s Applications This material combines the moisture resistant durability of photopolymer (.001 moisture absorption ratio) with a hard acrylic-like PETG plastic base. The unique combination of PETG with a moisture resistant photopolymer layer makes the most versatile sign material on the market today. The PETG base of signs have the density of acrylic and the added benefit of heat forming capabilities without fragile handling characteristics.
Photopolymer & It’s Applications The signs are shatterproof and can be thermo or cold formed creating shapes and bends not possible with other materials. The PETG base is odorless and user friendly. It can be sheared, drilled, sawed or routed without chipping or breakage. Polymer layer will not decay in most environments and can be easily machined without cracking or chipping. All photopolymer sign material is not created equal. Make sure the material you are specifying or fabricating has a low moisture absorption ratio.
PETG Base Photopolymer
What is PETG? PETG, glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate, is a co polyester that is a clear amorphous thermoplastic. PETG exhibits has high stiffness, hardness, and good impact strength.
What is PETG? PETG exhibits good resistance to dilute aqueous solutions of mineral acids, bases, salts, and soaps. PETG also has good resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, and a variety of oils.
Clear Base PETG Photopolymer Photopolymer layer is a moisture resistant, with a Durometer hardness rating of 80 Shore D.
What is PETG? All sheets come with a high-tack back liner to prevent scratching. The clear PETG base of all sheets contains a co-extruded UV inhibitor to block unwanted light contamination.
What is PETG? Recyclable and Biodegradable PETG waste (such as small off cuts) can be sent to a recycling facility after the photopolymer has been removed. The photopolymer effluent is 100% biodegradable and can be disposed of into any public sewer system.
Codes Requirements: Flammability Signs made from photopolymer or PETG thermoplastic will meet all flammability requirements for light transmitting plastics specified by BOCA Building Officials and Code Administrators SBCCI Southern Building Code Congress International ICBO International Conference of Building Officials
Codes Requirements: Rate of Burn Signs made from photopolymer on PETG thermoplastic when tested according to ASTM D 635 will burn less than one inch. It therefore meets the requirements for classification CC1 at a nominal thickness of 1/16".
Codes Requirements: Vertical Burn Products made from photopolymer on PETG thermoplastic is classified by UL as 94V-2 in a thickness of 1/8" or greater. A sheet thickness less than 1/8" is classified as 94 HB.
How to Manufacture
Hot To Make Photopolymer Signs Photopolymer is an efficient, environmentally conscious and innovative material for way finding and ADA-compliant signage. Unlike other processes where the tactile area and Braille and applied with glue; photopolymer creates an integral sign as the photo reactive layer becomes one with a variety of base substrates. As the photopolymer cross-links when exposed to ultraviolet light, it hardens and etches into the base of the material.
Hot To Make Photopolymer Signs The 5 step process in making photopolymer signage: Step 3 - Wash in Plain Tap Water Step 1 - Contact with film negative Step 4 - Drying Step 2 - Exposure with UV Light Step 5 - Post exposure
Setting Up Photopolymer Panel For Exposure
Negative On Photopolymer Panel Under Vacuum
Photopolymer Panel After Washout
Photopolymer Panel In Dryer
Processed Photopolymer Panel
Efficiency, Cycle Time, Cost Control Based on the processing times of photopolymer, the fabricator can yield 11 production cycles through the equipment each hour. Based on an average sign panel size of 8” x 8”, the fabricator is capable of producing over 400 ADA compliant signs each work day. Using materials that have patterns or colors extruded into the material will also reduce the amount of time required to decorate the panel. Since signs are typically the last component to be manufactured, using a material that has a short cycle time will help in eliminating delays, while complimenting the design of your project.
Questions? Eight Evans Street Fairfield, New Jersey 07004 email@example.com NovaPolymermers.com
The clear solution for creative versatility Eight Base Gauges Clear PETG Base Multiple Finishing Applications PT-060 Subsurface Painted