11:45-12:30 Friday 5/13Youngblood - Issues and Implications of World Englishes for Teachers
Example of SinglishLah adds a level of emphasis, stress to a phrase such as “very” or “really”Our aim today is Jenkins often talks about how people attempt to correct her spelling/term Englishes
Cannot speak of EIL without mentioning Braj B. Kachru. He is the Director of the Centre for Advanced Study at the University of Illinois, Champaign, USA. He is the world's leading scholar in the field of world Englishes; he has pioneered, shaped, and defined the linguistic, socio-cultural and pedagogical ideas of World Englishes.Kachru has authored or edited over 20 books.The 3 circle model details the users of English, the number of speakers in each of these categories. This is important to discussing EIL because it forms the justification for discussing the ownership of English. English This 3-circle modelInner circle is where English is the predominant, native speaking countriesOuter circle is where English is not the native language, but is important because of colonization, history, and has an official roleExpanding circle is where English has no historical or official role, but is often used as a foreign language
Must define the terms that will be sprinkled throughout this presentation.
80% of the internet and electronic information is written in English; language of social media; 2 in 3 scientist/engineers conduct research/use English About 1 in 5 people in the world speak English with a level of competenceSpread: spoken & learned by all levels of socio-economic statuses, all ages, variety of jobs for different purposes; English is spoken alongside one’s native tongue as an add-on for the majority of learners, taken on as a second identity; English is learned abroad, taught by NNS and often is not the result of NS migration. Although it may have started from imperialism in the outer-circle varieties, the majority of speakers are in the expanding circle and did not acquire English from colonialism There are more English-users in the Expanding circles than in the inner and outer- circles COMBINED. The implications from this fact are important to consider! Who really owns English then??? Who makes the rules? English does not have the regulation equivalent of the Academiefrancaise, or the Real Academia Espanola
Randolph Quirk vs. Braj B. Kachru debated back and forth on this topic in the late 80’s early 90’s. As more resEFL = English as a Lingua Franca
Perception of why teach EIL framework for ELT
Challenges interlanguage in that the versions spoken in Expanding circles are becoming codified and standardized, therefore these varieties are not just fossilized versions of English, but a new version that allows for cross-cultural communication
Lexical innovations: Novel use of morphemes, WE often assigns meaning to function words. (Cake=Germany; back to=Korea, China, Taiwan; up yours=Taiwan)Grammar: use of the singular zero-marking in the 3rd person conjugation; reduction in article usage; intransitive passives; often use countable forms for non-countable nouns; increased explicitnessPhonological: final consonant deletion mainly d, s, t, p, kPragmatics: More research is coming forth in this area. Less use of indirect commands & requests are prominent in WEWriting: contrastive rhetoric is beginning to develop in that nns have different organizational patterns, styles, and approaches to argument development, audience, and structure.
SpeakingSinglish clip is from a university student’s production class as a response to Singapore’s Speak Good English Movement
The following slide will show charts demonstrate different viewpoints on English, its implications for culture and for the teaching of English from this perspectiveICE= International Corpus of English, a group striving to collect material in English for comparative studiesIE=International English, the English that is taught around the world based on inner circle varietiesBANA – British-Australian-North American research paradigm
OCE= Outer circle englishesWE = World EnglishThis viewpoint is clearly more socio-linguistic in perspective. Many educators and researchers find this paradigm difficult to embrace because they view it as anything-goes. They find it difficult to approach error correction within this framework. WE scholars argue that a teacher’s familiarity with local contexts and purposes will rectify this and aid the teacher to know hot to adjust curriculum and instruction to local contexts.
ELF= English as a lingua francaThis viewpoint takes into account the lingua franca aspect of English and seeks to create a standardized, codified alternative to English instruction that adjusts for the reality that Native like proficiency is NOT the goal of English language learning.
MATESOL programs need to prepare students for the type of English they will face when preparing to teach abroadFolse’s plenary dealt with a new undergraduate course in preparing students to teach abroad
Testing issuesInternational Teaching AssistantsEFL ESL context = challengesESL EFL context = okayError correction = even differences in British vs. American English
These are some of the ongoing projects that are currently (actually!!!) looking into issues in EIL
Whose standard of correctness?Even in the ESL, K-12 context, many ELLs learn British English outside of the U.S.
Issues and implications of world Englishes for teachers
Issues and Implications of World Englishes for TeachersMelanie C. Gonzalez & Alison Youngblood Sunshine State TESOL Convention Jacksonville, FL May 13, 2011
Objectives1. Background in how English became an international language2. Issues/attitudes/perceptions surrounding the role of English3. Pedagogical implications: EFL vs. ESL4. Further research
3-Circle Model of World English Created by Braj B. Kachru (1989) & cited in almost all the major studies of EIL Details the use of English in other countries Numbers in this circle are dated as of 2003 (Crystal).
Key Terms English as an International Language (EIL): the umbrella term to discuss the global status and role of English; mostly associate International English (IE): inner-circle English as purveyed by the field of ELT World Englishes (WE): all varieties of English, but often really targets the new Englishes English as a Lingua Franca (ELF): English used in the expanding circles as a common tongue Pakir, (2009)
How did English achieve this status? Global advancements in technology, business, science, culture, media Not an elite language Does not replace other languages Acquired in local settingsBrutt-Griffler (2001); Kachru (1989); Seidlehofer (2004; 2009)
Attitudes & Perceptions Expanding circle Englishes not on par with inner and outer circle varieties (Jenkins, 2009) Seen as norm-dependent, interlanguages ELF seen as “anything goes” English is in demand and desired (Pakir, 2009) Students “paid good money” (Quirk, as cited in Pakir, 2009)
Attitudes & Perceptions IE spread is a form of linguistic imperialism (Pennycook, 1994) Each emergent variety has potential to become standardized (Pakir, 2009) More interactions occur between NNS than between NS (Seidlehofer, 2009) Expanding circle users creatively use English & do not mimic NS (Pakir, 2009; Seidlehofer, 2009)
Implications for ELT New varieties of English include Changes in lexicon Changes in grammar Changes in phonology EFL vs. ESLJenkins (2000; 2006); Kachru (2009); Pakir(2009)
Examples of WE Lexicon Grammar Phonology Importancy; smoothfully She think… Fren = friend He buy… It was a cake. The book is on shelf. b/v; r/l I would like bottle of water. I back to Korea next week. The accident was happened last night. Actually = currently Informations, homeworks, vocabularies It’s up yours. / NATO Black color dressJenkins (2002; 2009); Matsuda (2003)
Examples of WE Singlish – great example of a World English from the Outer- circle; mix of English, Mandarin, Malay Singapore has two official languages: Mandarin & English Speaking Singlish (via YouTube)
English Instruction by ICE/IE/BANA From Pakir, A. (2009). English as a lingua franca: Analyzing research frameworks in international English, world Englishes, and ELF. World Englishes, 28(2), 224-235.
English Instruction by OCE/WE From Pakir, A. (2009). English as a lingua franca: Analyzing research frameworks in international English, world Englishes, and ELF. World Englishes, 28(2), 224-235.
English Instruction by ELF From Pakir, A. (2009). English as a lingua franca: Analyzing research frameworks in international English, world Englishes, and ELF. World Englishes, 28(2), 224-235.
Implications for EFL Awareness of local varieties of English important for teaching in outer and expanding circle countries (Seidlhofer, 2004; Vitanova, 2007; Pakir, 2009) Intelligibility vs. correctness debate (Jenkins, 2002 & 2009; Seidlhofer, 2004) Inner-circle English is becoming out-dated & native-speaker judge of proficiency is only suitable in ESL (inner circle) contexts (Matsuda, 2003)
Implications for ESL Intelligibility vs. correctness debate (Jenkins, 2002 & 2009; Seidlhofer, 2004) Error correction Validity of debate (Quirk vs. Kachru in the 1990’s) Motivations Future of ELT
Further Research Creating a WE corpora & ELF corpus in response to critics The ELFA Project: a 1 million word corpus of Academic ELF at the Universiy of Helsinki (Mauranen, Hynninen, & Ranta, 2010) VOICE Project: corpus of English used in China, Japan, Korea, & throughout SE Asia www.ied.hk/rcleams/research_projects.htm Jenkins’ research: books regarding phonology & morphology of ELF More research into what variety expanding students want to learn; many studies report desire for American & British varieties (Evans, 2010; Hino, 2009) Singapore’s Speak Good English movement Lamb’s research WE & ELF in reading and writing…most research seems focused on oral communication only
Last words, lah Important considerations for teachers: Local context: EFL vs. ESL? Pluralistic view of English? Intelligibility vs. correctness More NNS of English than NS
References Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language (2nd Ed.). Cambridge: Mauranen, A., Hynninen, N., & Ranta, E. (2009). English as an academic Cambridge University Press. lingua franca: The ELFA project. English for Specific Purposes, 29(1), 183-190. doi: 10.1016/j.esp.2009.10.001 Evans, B. (2010). Chinese perceptions of inner circle varieties of English. World Englishes, 29(2), 270-280. Matsuda, A. (2003). Incorporating world Englishes in teaching English as an international language. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 719-729 Jenkins, J. (2002). A sociolinguistically-based, empirically-researched pronunciation syllabus for English as an international language. Pakir, A. (2009). English as a lingua franca: Analyzing research Applied Linguistics, 23(1), 83-103. frameworks in international English, world Englishes, and ELF. World Englishes, 28(2), 224-235. Jenkins, J. (2006). Current perspectives on teaching world Englishes and English as a lingua franca. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 157-181. Pennycook, A.D. 1994, The Cultural Politics of English as in International Language, 1, Longman, London, New York. Jenkins, J. (2009). English as a lingua franca: Interpretations and attitudes. World Englishes, 28(2), 200-207. Seidlhofer, B. (2004). Research perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24(1), 209-239. Kachru, B. (1989). Teaching world Englishes. Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15(1), 85-93. Seidlehofer, B. (2009). Common ground and different realities: Kachru, B. (1990). World Englishes and applied linguistics. World World Englishes and English as a lingua franca. World Englishes, 9(1), 3-20. Englishes, 28(2), 236-245. Lamb, M. (2003). Integrative motivation in a globalizing world. Vitanova, G. (2007). English as an international language System, 32(1), 3-19. pedagogy: What teachers’ voices tell us. TESL Reporter, 40(1), 1-16.