Week 9  Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy & Developing a Dark Site This lecture is based on materials in  Ess...
Overview  <ul><li>Discuss two general concepts today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to come up with your criteria for choosing ...
Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy <ul><li>Two basic steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate a comprehensive set ...
Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy <ul><li>Deliverables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least three substantially dif...
Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy <ul><li>Three alternatives need to differ </li></ul><ul><li>Can differ by m...
Generating Alternative Design Strategies- by  Features <ul><li>Three alternatives by features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-en...
Drawing Bounds on Alternative Designs <ul><li>Minimum Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Goes by features and constraints, jus...
Drawing Bounds on Alternative Designs <ul><li>2. Constraints  on System Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><...
Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives <ul><li>Besides features, three other issues to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives - Sources of system <ul><li>Two Sourcing Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  I...
<ul><li>Sourcing Issues: Inside or Outside </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The practice of turning ove...
<ul><li>Types of outsourcing for evaluation:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single outsourcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitio...
<ul><li>IT outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single outsourcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big bang (common pre-1990) </li>...
<ul><li>Transitional outsourcing (common early 1990s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single outsourcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S...
<ul><li>Best-of-breed outsourcing (common throughout 1990s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple outsourcers </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>E-Business outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hosted off-site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You don’t buy anything and...
<ul><li>Shared services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insourcing within organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across large organ...
<ul><li>Sourcing Issues: Customized or Off-the-Shelf Software </li></ul><ul><li>If customized, who from? </li></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Sourcing Issues: Customized or Off-the-Shelf Software </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for Choosing Off-the-Shelf Softwa...
<ul><li>Sourcing Issues: Customized or Off-the-Shelf Software </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for Choosing Off-the-Shelf Softwa...
<ul><li>Validating Off-the-Shelf Software Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information from vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Existing Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information system staff is familia...
Part Two Operations:  Security and Disaster Recovery <ul><ul><li>Will discuss what a dark site is  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Operations:  Security and Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Security and disaster recovery: they are really 2 sides of a coin.   <...
Operations: Developing a Dark Site <ul><li>Reasons for Crisis Management </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Recovery </li></ul><ul...
Developing a Dark Site - Reasons for Crisis Management <ul><li>Dark site is a secret server set up to replace the regular ...
Developing a Dark Site - Disaster Recovery <ul><li>If there is a defect or emergency, the dark site may contain confidenti...
Developing a Dark Site - Online Experience  <ul><li>Two outcomes of different responsiveness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel:...
Developing a Dark Site –  Example, Pilgrim’s Pride Lunchmeat (10/14/02)   First day of recall, site was given major overha...
Developing a Dark Site - Strategic Planning <ul><li>8 steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular Risk Audit </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Developing a Offsite Recovery Plan <ul><li>Offsite Recovery - not like a Darksite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need a plan how to...
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  1. 1. Week 9 Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy & Developing a Dark Site This lecture is based on materials in Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design by Valacich, George, and Hoffer and/or Information Systems Management In Practice 6E by McNurlin & Sprague and the summary slides available on their website. However, some material herein also represents the perspective of Gregory Rose of Washington State University. Where materials are taken verbatim from the textbook slides, they represent the views of the book and are copyrighted by the authors and the publisher. Where the sequence or content differ, the content is considered the work of Gregory Rose with all copyrights reserved.
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Discuss two general concepts today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to come up with your criteria for choosing between your 3 alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What a dark site is for you to include in your project </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy <ul><li>Two basic steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate a comprehensive set of alternative design strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the one design strategy that is most likely to result in the desired information system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide requirements into different sets of capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify different potential implementation environments that could be used to deliver the different sets of capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose different ways to source or acquire the various sets of capabilities for the different implementation environments </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy <ul><li>Deliverables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least three substantially different system design strategies for creation or acquisition of the new information system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria for selecting between your three </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy <ul><li>Three alternatives need to differ </li></ul><ul><li>Can differ by many characteristics; I offer three </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If they don’t differ, they are not decision criteria but are requirements. You still need to go through this list to decide if you are going to go with a specific plan on each of these items or if you are going to select based on differences in them (ala the decision matrix) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Generating Alternative Design Strategies- by Features <ul><li>Three alternatives by features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides all required functionality users demand with a system that is minimally different from the current system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solves problem in question and provides many extra features users desire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midrange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise of features of high-end alternative with frugality of low-end alternative </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Drawing Bounds on Alternative Designs <ul><li>Minimum Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Goes by features and constraints, just like in decision matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory features versus desired features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms of features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User expectations on accessibility,response time and turnaround time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Low end needs to meet all minimum requirements. That is where you draw the bottom. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Drawing Bounds on Alternative Designs <ul><li>2. Constraints on System Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low end will meet every constraint. High end will push limits of many or most </li></ul>
  9. 9. Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives <ul><li>Besides features, three other issues to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Sources of system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Legacy Hardware and Systems Software Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Implementation Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be that these issues were resolved in advance of making feature-based alternatives (i.e., have static set and then differ on other factors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-or- they may show up as defining differences between the three alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-or- may be combination of any of these </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives - Sources of system <ul><li>Two Sourcing Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Inside vs. Outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Customized vs. Off-the-Shelf Software </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Sourcing Issues: Inside or Outside </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The practice of turning over responsibility of some to all of an organization’s information systems applications and operations to an outside firm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why use? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be cheaper because outsourcers offer economies of scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing firms typically maintain a high level of technical expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frees up an organization to focus on its core mission </li></ul></ul>Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives - Sources of system
  12. 12. <ul><li>Types of outsourcing for evaluation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single outsourcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best of breed outsourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Business outsourcing (SaaS, ASPs, Cloud) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared services (insourcing) </li></ul></ul>Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives - Sources of system
  13. 13. <ul><li>IT outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single outsourcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big bang (common pre-1990) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sell IT assets to outsourcer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move personnel to outsourcer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get fixed costs off books and change to variable costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcers took loss for 2 years and then got economy of scale to keep costs down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many problems with transition and culture shock of ex-employees being treated like “temps” </li></ul></ul></ul>Outsourcing Alternatives
  14. 14. <ul><li>Transitional outsourcing (common early 1990s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single outsourcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopgap outsourcing for a one-shot specific need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 1- Y2K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 2- Need to transition to new tech frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two strategies: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outsource maintenance of legacy systems to focus on building new systems in new frame (C/S or Internet) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or outsource development of new frame while maintaining legacy and then transition with turnkey system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Outsourcing Alternatives
  15. 15. <ul><li>Best-of-breed outsourcing (common throughout 1990s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple outsourcers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose each outsourcer based on their expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatively, could be “collaborative outsourcing” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General contractor and subcontractor system </li></ul></ul></ul>Outsourcing Alternatives
  16. 16. <ul><li>E-Business outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hosted off-site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You don’t buy anything and it isn’t run by you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gets up fast and can basically share services with multiple firms (ala a co-op) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[note: this type of outsourcing is commonly provided by a firm. Alternatively known as Software as a Service (SaaS), Cloud Computing, or an Application Service Provider (ASP)] </li></ul></ul>Outsourcing Alternatives
  17. 17. <ul><li>Shared services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insourcing within organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across large organization, create centralized service unit that deals with services of all sorts (like a spin off company that has its own management and autonomy and in some cases is legal corporate entity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialties within types of service (like IT or mailroom or legal) have autonomous subunits within service unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insource group can subsequently outsource </li></ul></ul>Outsourcing Alternatives
  18. 18. <ul><li>Sourcing Issues: Customized or Off-the-Shelf Software </li></ul><ul><li>If customized, who from? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware manufacturers – sw integrated with hw for ease of integration and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packaged software producers – niche expertise + “alteration tailoring” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custom software producers – “custom made suit” but may not know niche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise solution software – integrated software and data across firm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-house development – firm retains org. learning; thus gains independence for maint. & support & future core competencies </li></ul></ul>Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives - Sources of system
  19. 19. <ul><li>Sourcing Issues: Customized or Off-the-Shelf Software </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for Choosing Off-the-Shelf Software (“as is” vs. customized) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory vs. desired </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paying for someone else’s they don’t even want </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of customization (4GL? APIs?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User documentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical documentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of Installation </li></ul></ul>Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives - Sources of system
  20. 20. <ul><li>Sourcing Issues: Customized or Off-the-Shelf Software </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for Choosing Off-the-Shelf Software (“as is” vs. customized, cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installation? Training? Technical Support? Response Time? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viability of Vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tangibles and intangibles (see above)…is it still a bargain after they factor these in? At what point is it cheaper to have it customized? Are they paying too much for functionality they don’t really need or want? </li></ul></ul></ul>Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives - Sources of system
  21. 21. <ul><li>Validating Off-the-Shelf Software Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information from vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software evaluation period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer references from vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent software testing service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade publications </li></ul></ul>Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives - Sources of system
  22. 22. <ul><li>Existing Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information system staff is familiar with operation and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased odds of successfully integrating system with existing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No added costs of converting old systems to new platform or transferring data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Hardware and System Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some software components will only run on new platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing system for new platform gives organization opportunity to upgrade technology holdings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New requirements may allow organization to radically change its computing operations </li></ul></ul>Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives – Legacy Compatible 3. Legacy Hardware and Systems Software Issues
  23. 23. Part Two Operations: Security and Disaster Recovery <ul><ul><li>Will discuss what a dark site is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You need to include in your project </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Operations: Security and Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Security and disaster recovery: they are really 2 sides of a coin.  </li></ul><ul><li>One is how to prevent a problem and the other is how to recover from one.  </li></ul><ul><li>Granted, security is not the only problem that can create the need for disaster recovery, but it is one of them.  </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of cause of disaster or discontinuity of service, you need a strategy for getting the IT services back in place. (see review questions 8.9, 8.12, and 8.14, as well as the discussion about post-9/11/01 thinking about disaster recovery planning). </li></ul>
  25. 25. Operations: Developing a Dark Site <ul><li>Reasons for Crisis Management </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Complaint Services </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Planning </li></ul>
  26. 26. Developing a Dark Site - Reasons for Crisis Management <ul><li>Dark site is a secret server set up to replace the regular server to display content in times of crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Help manage legal crisis in real time and on global basis </li></ul><ul><li>Use to limit impact of emergencies & recalls </li></ul><ul><li>Companies turn them on (w/in 30 min) and contact the press </li></ul><ul><li>They should have backups on CD to send to ISPs in emergency in case of problems with primary site </li></ul>
  27. 27. Developing a Dark Site - Disaster Recovery <ul><li>If there is a defect or emergency, the dark site may contain confidential data (product or personal) that needs to go public fast </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be used to counter misunderstanding & rumor </li></ul><ul><li>Gives consumers the company’s side of a story </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively, consumers will get details from other Web sites (in 1999 there were 20,000 links to www.flamingfords.com even though the issue was resolved in a 1995 recall) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Developing a Dark Site - Online Experience <ul><li>Two outcomes of different responsiveness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel: Pentium chip bug and Pentium III privacy PR disaster. Both handled badly and slowly and with expensive impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Odwalla: 90% of existing customers still willing to buy their product after E-coli outbreak. Had dark site up in 12 hours. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Developing a Dark Site – Example, Pilgrim’s Pride Lunchmeat (10/14/02) First day of recall, site was given major overhaul to inform customers and soothe investor fears. Links clear on homepage
  30. 30. Developing a Dark Site - Strategic Planning <ul><li>8 steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular Risk Audit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and delegate responsibilities prior to crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword monitoring: can pay service to do this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop crisis manual and put on Intranet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop dark site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run crisis simulations (ala fire drills) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know who to contact in press and public ahead of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain the above to be current </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Developing a Offsite Recovery Plan <ul><li>Offsite Recovery - not like a Darksite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need a plan how to keep company going if there is a natural disaster at headquarters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency should include some offsite solution that allows business operations to continue if main facilities are inaccessible or destroyed. </li></ul></ul>

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