DESIGN STANDARDS ATTEMPT TO MINIMISE POTENTIAL FOR CONTAMINATION BY RECOMMENDING PROCEDURE FOR LAYING SEWERS AND WATER SUPPLY PIPES SEWERS MUST BE LAID BELOW WATER SUPPLY PIPES MINIMUM VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL DISTANCE BETWEEN PIPES HOWEVER, NOT STRICTLY ADHERED TO IN LDC’S
WATER CONSERVATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Water, Engineering and Development Centre Education, training, research and consultancy for improved planning, provision and management of physical infrastructure and services for development in low- and middle-income countries, focusing on the needs and demands of the poor.
safe water as “. . water that does not contain harmful chemical substances or micro-organisms in concentrations that cause illness in any form ”
adequate waters supply as “ . . one that provides safe water in quantities sufficient for drinking, and for culinary, domestic , and other household purposes so as to make possible the personal hygiene of members of the household. A sufficient quantity should be available on a reliable, year-round basis near to, or within the household where the water is to be used ”
Attractive to governments as it can “buy time” by delaying the need for large capital investment in expansion of the water sector.
In most cases, the savings achieved by delaying an investment can provide financial resources to more than cover the costs of implementing a comprehensive demand management programme.
Prospect of conserving water for industrial, agricultural and commercial organisation is always an attractive proposition as it almost always results in a reduction of operation costs.
In many water short cities there is always a proportion of the population who are without adequate water supplies. By saving water in higher income areas, more resources could be made available to the poor.
In LDC’s WDM must be used to promoted equity in supply
In city distribution systems, illegal connections may be the result of contractors connecting illegally to supply new housing developments or unplanned and “illegal” settlements connecting to such supplies.
Illegal connections are difficult to monitor especially where access to settlement is hindered (public order problems)
In some cases where previous supply systems were unmetered or where have ceased to function properly, a proportion of the consumers may not be charged or pay a different price.
Before any WDM programme is implemented, unmetered connections must be reduced to an absolute minimum and metering coverage maximised in all sectors.
Retro-fitting provides one of the most effective short-term options for reducing water demand.
Many government buildings or institutions do not pay for their water or the consumers have no interest in conservation.
Good examples are University campuses, Ministry buildings, government hospitals etc. With very little capital investment, usually only a few dollars per fitting, water consumption may be reduced by as much as 20%
Incentives are offered to those who retrofit including, payment grants from local authorities
Tariff structures designed to conserve water must penalize over use but not minimize access to the urban poor.
Punitive tariff structure should consider setting the ‘basic needs tariff at a level affordable by very poor households with significantly higher tariffs imposed for consumption above the basic needs level.
Bulaywao - rising block tariff - Cheap consumption is limited to 600 litres per household per day or 18 Kilo litres per month.
Block tariffs may penalize low-income users who live in multi-family units in building with only one meter (Whittington and Boland)
Other methods proposed include single volumetric charge coupled with fixed monthly rebate (2 part tariff).
Tariffs for industry and agricultural purposes should not encourage wasteful use but should make formal supply sources more attractive than alternatives, which may have a detrimental effect on the environment.
Number of WDM instruments may not be applicable for LIC such as retrofitting or out-of-house water saving measures
Some may have unintended side effects such as the increasing block tariff systems and metering
Prevent conservation-oriented measures from reducing consumption in households that do not consume sufficient water to meet their basic needs for health
But some important instruments that apply to these areas, such as leakage detection, reduction of illegal connections and awareness, require an attitude within these communities that can only be expected if they feel co-ownership over that water.
Demand responsive approaches and community management of water supply systems can bring about this attitude.
Demand-side management in low income cities should not only focus on water conservation but should also give attention to two issues: securing better access to water for the urban poor and promoting hygiene.
Demand-side management recognizes that improved health is one of the major benefits water can provide, but that the health outcome depends upon how the water is used.
DAILY PER CAPITA WATER USE (EAST AFRICA) Thompson et al. (2001)
Awareness campaigns to reduce water use amongst all consumers can play an important role in demand management.
Such campaigns need to focus on the urgency of conserving water now to hopefully avert a crisis sometime in the future.
Improved awareness should be tackled at all levels incl. a role for communities and grassroots organizations.
The use of mass media is cost effective in most cities as even the urban poor have access to such communication tools
Religious and cultural preferences must also be followed particularly where local community actions related to integrated management of services. i.e. use of sanitation facilities for washing/personal hygiene.
The Programme works with city and local authorities, national governments, the private sector, civil society …..
To benefit of all African cities -demonstrated in 7 cities: Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire), Accra (Ghana), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Dakar (Senegal), Johannesburg (South Africa), Lusaka (Zambia) and Nairobi (Kenya).
Objectives : To tackle the urban water crisis in African cities through efficient and effective WDM …. and boost awareness and information exchange on water management and conservation.
Targeted beneficiaries : policy makers on water and the environment, city managers of water utilities, water consumers, children for water education ….
All projects include public awareness and information campaigns
Experiences made available to the other participating cities.
Draws upon lessons learned in our successful Water for African Cities program and help ensure that pro-poor, sustainable water policies are implemented,“
Aims to build the capacity of Asian cities to help the region meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of "halving, by 2015, the proportion of people without safe drinking water and basic sanitation.“
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Fredricksen, H.D (1992) “Drought Planning and Water efficiency Implications in Water resources Management”, World Bank Technical Paper No: 185,1992
GWP (2003) “Toolbox, Version 2 - Integrating water resources management” Global Water Partnership 2003
Rosegrant, M.W, Cai, X and Cline, S.A (2002) “Averting an Impending Crisis ” Food policy report-Global water outlook to 2025 IWMI 2002.
UNCHS (1999) “Managing Water for African Cities Developing a Strategy for Urban Water Demand Management”, Expert Group Meeting Cape Town, South Africa 26-18 April 1999, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) UNCHS (2003) “Managing Water for African Cities” www.un-urbanwater.net
UNESCO (2003) “Water for people water for life United Nations” World Water Development Report , UNESCO-WWAP 2003
WHO, UNICEF and WSSCC (2000) “Global water supply and sanitation assessment - 2000 Report” , WHO 2000 Xie, M, Kufferner, U and Le Moigne, G. (1993) “Using Water efficiently - Technological Option”, World Bank Technical Paper No: 205,1993