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    • Indiana Homeland Security District Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide With Templates [Date] Mitchell E. Daniels, Jr. Governor Rebecca S. Skillman, Lieutenant Governor Joseph Wainscott, Executive Director, Indiana Department of Homeland Security
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    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Table of Contents Executive Summary......................................................................................1 I. How to Use this Template..............................................................2 II. Objectives.......................................................................................3 III. Principals of Crisis Communication................................................3 IV. Core Elements of a Crisis Communication Plans...........................5 V. Phases of Crisis Communication....................................................8 VI. Joint Information Centers..............................................................10 VII. References....................................................................................11 Appendix.....................................................................................................12
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Executive Summary This guide includes an overview of the principles, objectives, and key considerations of crisis communication. It also includes individual worksheets and templates to assist each Homeland Security District to communicate with the public in regard to the following four areas: prevention, protection, response, and recovery. The importance of effective and efficient communication of relevant information to the public during a crisis cannot be overstated. Accurate information provided in a timely fashion is a critical part of responding to and recovering from any emergency or disaster, whether it is natural or the result of human causes. A crisis can trigger a level of public interest and media inquiry that requires a significant increase in staffing and/or resources to make a reasonable media response. Crises include such things as disasters, disease outbreaks or other health-related threats. Crises also may include fires, breakdowns in communications, disruptions in services and even rumors. Crisis communication refers to the efforts of emergency response officials to communicate with the public during a crisis or emergency incident. Crisis communication informs the public about the emergency, reviews the government’s responses, directs the public to sources of assistance, and recommends protective actions. Risk communication is a critical component of crisis communication. Risk communication is the process of informing and influencing the public’s actions to avoid risks. Risk communicators describe known risks, identify the probable negative outcomes associated with taking certain actions, and recommend ways of avoiding risk. This guide will assist jurisdictions in creating a crisis communications plan. This plan will provide policies and procedures for the coordination of communications in the event of any disaster, emergency or controversial issue that demands a response. It will 1
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide address communication and coordination within the jurisdiction and between the jurisdiction, the media, other responding organizations, and the public. The plan will anticipate potentially harmful situations and describe the procedures for responding to these situations quickly and effectively. 2
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide How to Use this Guide This guide outlines the basic objectives, core elements, and principles of a crisis communication plan. It is designed to be implemented at the local level by each jurisdiction. However, each Homeland Security District should promote and support the development of Crisis Communication and Public Information Plans for each of the jurisdictions within its boundaries. Although many elements of these plans may be identical or very similar, each jurisdiction will have a unique set of information resources to establish an information center and a unique range of media circumstances. Each jurisdiction will need to identify its own Public Information Officer and determine what location or locations in the community are ideally suited to serve as Joint Information Centers (JICs). Because planning components such as these must be individualized, each jurisdiction will need to create its own Crisis Communication and Public Information Plan. Sections II through IV of this guide describe the fundamentals of crisis communication plans focusing on objectives, principles, core elements, and event phases. Section VI briefly discusses the mission and operations of the Joint Information Center (JIC). The Appendix contains worksheets and detailed templates for the development of crisis communication materials and plans. These materials provide suggested directions, outlines, and language. Jurisdictions may also choose to use other sources of information to create materials and plans. In addition to providing support for the establishment of plans in each jurisdiction, the Homeland Security Districts should also act as clearinghouses for contact information regarding media outlets in the region and state. They should eventually maintain updated data on the district’s public information resources – both human and material. These information resources may also be activated within the district for use in individual jurisdictions requesting aid or within the District Task Force (DTF). The nature and procedures required 3
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide for activating public information assistance may also be included within mutual aid agreements. 4
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Objectives The Indiana Department of Homeland Security Crisis Communication Plan outlines the following overall objectives: • To gain public confidence by providing timely, accurate and pertinent information • To keep the public calm • To direct public action • To meet the information needs of the news media • To meet the information needs of partners/stakeholders • To coordinate with other federal, state, and local agencies involved in responding to the event and providing information to the public Principles of Crisis Communication People respond differently in times of crisis. To ensure that people understand information during a crisis, communication efforts must be simple, timely, accurate, credible, and consistent. A recent Homeland Security report entitled Incident Communications Emergency Reference: A Guide for Communication Professionals recommends the following when designing effective communication strategies and messages during a crisis: To communicate effectively with people who are experiencing different reactions to an emergency situation, you should have distinct messages prepared that address their particular needs. These include messages that express empathy, clarify facts, and call people to action. Crisis Emergency & Risk Communication, a joint report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), describes five essential principles of successful crisis communication: 5
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide • Execute a solid communication plan • Be the first source for information • Express empathy early • Show competence and expertise • Remain honest and open A similar approach is shared by the Center for Risk Communication, which urges that crisis communication should build trust and credibility by expressing empathy, competence, openness, and commitment. Expressing empathy in times of crisis is especially important. Some simple ways to effectively communicate empathy include: • Acknowledge uncertainty and fears • Stop trying to allay panic by repeatedly discussing it • Don’t over-reassure • Be careful with risk comparisons • Give people things to do The STARCC Principle One easy way to remember the basic principles of crisis communication is to employ the STARCC Principle. Your public message in a crisis must be: • Simple—Frightened people don’t want to hear big words • Timely—Frightened people want information NOW • Accurate—Frightened people won’t get nuances, so give it straight • Relevant—Answer their questions and give action steps • Credible—Empathy and openness are key to credibility • Consistent—The slightest change in the message is upsetting and dissected by all 6
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Core Elements of Crisis Communication Plans The core elements of crisis communication plans are assembling the public information staff, preparing messages, meeting the needs of the audience, working with the media, and working with other agencies. Assembling the Public Information Staff A crisis communication plan should address the following staffing issues: • Staff positions and Functions • Shift Management • Staff Surge Capacity A crisis communication plan should specify staff roles and responsibilities. Staff assignments will largely depend on resources; however, when writing a plan, officials should emphasize the following positions: • Spokespeople are responsible for representing the jurisdiction when communicating with the media and the public. They should have knowledge of policy, technical information, and incident details that will need to be communicated. Possible spokespeople include elected officials, individuals with recognized authority or special knowledge, or identified PIOs in the jurisdiction. 7
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide • Public Information Officers (PIOs) assume the lead role in crisis communications during an emergency. They will need to assess the incident and demands of stakeholders such as media, public, and other agencies, coordinate staff hours and tasks, and communicate with the media and other departments and agencies. • Assistant PIOs assist the PIO with his/her tasks. If this position does not exist prior to the emergency, planners should consider hiring a pre-existing staff member who has regularly worked with the lead PIO. • Administrative Staff support implementation of the plan, receive and screen phone calls and inquiries, review outgoing information for quality control, and monitor availability of physical resources such as supplies, equipment, and infrastructure. Additional information on possible staff roles and responsibilities can be found in the Appendix of this document. Preparing Messages During an emergency response, incident managers will need to provide the public with basic information describing the nature of the incident, the risks and dangers associated with it, and protective actions to avoid risks. By preparing informational materials in advance, jurisdictions will have these materials available for immediate distribution to the public at the onset of a crisis. A crisis communication plan should address procedures for preparing, approving, and distributing alerts and notification messages. Pre-packaged messages may include fact sheets, press releases, pamphlets, brochures, maps, diagrams and illustrations. Style and format are important considerations for making informational materials comprehensible to the general public. Effective pre- packaged messages adhere to the following guidelines on formatting and style: 8
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide • Local-in-Origin: Crisis communication experts suggest that the public has the greatest trust and confidence in local government and local officials. Branding pre-packaged materials with names, logos, or other identifying features as appropriate is important, especially when materials are borrowed from other organizations. • Clarity: Information contained within pre-packaged materials should be clear and specific. Avoid offering conflicting directions or guidance that lacks detail or supporting information. Where possible, use a combination of graphics and prose to explain key points and important information. • Simplicity: Design materials to provide short, simple, and easily remembered public messages. Journalists and members of the public are more likely to receive, understand, and retain messages and information that are short and simple. Brief, concise messages can also be easily repeated in television broadcasts, on websites, and in newspapers. • Portability: Detailed instructions, maps, diagrams, or other supplemental information should be formatted to allow the public to easily carry them during the incident. Examples include web documents in html or PDF formats, flyers and brochures distributed directly or as inserts in newspapers and magazines, and electronic files that can be downloaded into portable computers, PDAs, or cellular phones. Emergency planners should also consider laminating (water proofing) emergency evacuation information, as well as producing some materials at a size that will fit into pockets. 9
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Suggested Message Components The following table from Incident Communication Emergency Reference provides suggested message components, explains why they are important, and offers examples. What Why Example Expression of Public officials are usually trained never to “Whatever it [the loss empathy and speak with or about emotions; rather, about of lives] is, it will be facts. Therefore, expressing empathy, fear, more than we can bear. acknowledgement of or uncertainty can be particularly difficult for . . .” fear and uncertainty officials to do. Experts believe that citizens need to know that their feelings are R. Giuliani, understood and acknowledged by September 11, 2001 authorities. This helps establish a connection and makes it a little easier for audiences to hear the difficult information that usually follows. Clarification of facts It is important to provide as much factual “At 10:05 a.m., a bomb information as you can about the situation. exploded at...” What we do not know Just as expressions of empathy may not “As our understanding always come naturally, discussing the of the situation evolves, unknown elements of the situation also goes we will provide you with against years of professional training and updates on what we experience. You may be used to having know and what we do confirmation of all of the facts before not know.” releasing information. However, waiting until you have an answer to every possible question could jeopardize public safety. There will be many things you do not know, such as when you suspect a particular agent was released but have not yet confirmed it. It is also likely that, in the initial stages of such an investigation, you will not know the route of exposure or who caused the situation. Even so, the public will benefit from learning what you know and don’t know. Steps we are taking Although there is much you may not know, “We do not know right to get more facts you can communicate the immediate steps now if the train you are taking to get more facts and to derailment is a terrorist begin to manage the emergency. act, but DHS and the FBI are gathering The public can more easily accept high evidence and talking to levels of uncertainty when they are aware of witnesses to determine the actions you are taking to find answers. what caused the Be as specific about these actions as you accident.” can. Call to action—giving Once you deliver the first four parts of the Protective actions: message, the public can better hear and act  Boil your water 10
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide people things to do on your advice. before drinking or drink bottled water. In a crisis where immediate action needs to Helpful actions: be taken (e.g., sheltering in place due to a  Donate blood or radiological incident), this may be the money to a charity second part of your message. that is providing assistance. In some cases of less urgency, even symbolic actions can help channel people’s Symbolic actions: energy and desire to do something.  Light a candle or fly the flag. Referrals Tell the public when the next update will “We expect to have occur and where they can go for more the test results information, such as helpful websites to visit confirmed within the or hotlines to call. next 12 hours and will let you know what we are dealing with at that time. . . .” Meeting the Needs of the Audience A crisis communication plan should consider the mechanisms and procedures necessary for tailoring and relaying messages to those with special needs. This includes individuals who are: • Geographically isolated • Without access to traditional communications mechanisms • Limited in language skills, due to health problems or developmental barriers • Out-of-town business and visitor population • Different cultural groups • Non-English speakers Working with the Media When developing a crisis communication plan, the jurisdiction should include procedures for maintaining a list of e-mail addresses, phone, and fax numbers for regional and local media contacts from all major media outlets. This list should be revised and updated regularly. When an incident occurs, the individual responsible for dealing with the media can use the list to relay accurate contact information to local and national reporters. The plan should review the following strategies and tactics for working with the media at the Joint Information Center (JIC) during a crisis: 11
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide • Press Releases: protocols for releasing brief news reports, including the personnel and offices responsible for their dissemination • Briefing Location: appropriate locations and facilities for updating journalists and other media representatives • Spokespeople: rosters of individuals pre-selected serve as PIOs or official spokespeople during specific emergencies • Phone Lines: establishment of phone lines to receive public and media inquiries • Vetting Information: protocols for reviewing new information prior to its release to the public and media • Securing Resources: strategies for securing the physical and staffing resources necessary for public information and media operations during an emergency • Monitoring Media Reports: identification of staff responsible for reviewing media coverage of the crisis to assess effective communication of the right information and to ensure that media representatives are satisfied with the communication effort Working with Participating Jurisdictions and other Key Organizations Officials should identify the information roles of responding organizations both within and outside of the jurisdiction. This would include organizations from other jurisdictions providing mutual aid as well as state agencies. The crisis communication plan should include procedures for coordinating the flow of information with these participating organizations. These procedures should ensure that updated incident information is communicated in an accurate and timely manner both to responders and the public. The crisis communication plan, therefore, should identify: 12
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide • Contact details for all PIOs from other agencies and organizations • Roles of different response agencies • Procedures for exchanging messages and information between PIOs and public affairs offices during an emergency Phases of Crisis Communications A crisis communication and public information plan should take into account activities that need to be done before a crisis situation occurs. Procedures need to be in place for engaging in ongoing communication as an event unfolds. Broadly speaking, there are three phases of an event which have distinct communication needs and challenges. Jurisdictions should be prepared to communicate with the public: within the first 12 hours of the crisis, 12 to 24 hours into the crisis, and beyond the first 24 hours. The discussion below summarizes the primary concerns associated with each of these phases and also describes the planning activities which ought to be conducted prior to an incident. Before a Crisis Occurs Incident Communications Emergency Reference recommends the following activities before an incident occurs: • Develop a Crisis Communication and Public Information Plan • Develop relationships with the responders in your region • Become familiar with the threats in your area • Train your leadership in your Crisis Communication and Public Information Plan • Identify subject matter experts • Develop relationships with the media • Develop relationships with the formal and informal community leaders • Plan for communicating with non-English speakers • Train, prepare, plan, and don’t be afraid to change your Crisis Communication and Public Information Plan if necessary • Participate in risk communication training 13
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Within the First 12 Hours Initial messages are critical, as they establish the credibility that will be necessary to effectively communicate for the duration of the crisis. During the first hours of an emergency, priorities should include: • Verify and assess the situation • Conduct notifications • Assess the magnitude of the crisis • Organize and delegate assignments • Prepare information and obtain approvals • Release information to the public The Appendix includes several tools to assist jurisdictions with communication activities during the initial phase of a crisis. These tools include the following templates and checklists: Incident Situation Summary, Incident Verification, a Message Development for Emergency Communication Worksheet, and a Prescripted Immediate Response to Media Inquiries. Within 12 to 24 Hours The next 12 to 24 hours includes maintaining ongoing communications managed through a Joint Information Center (JIC). Additional information about JICs follows in the next section and the Appendix. Important tasks during this intermediate phase include: • Gather incident data • Analyze public perceptions of the incident • Prepare spokespersons • Inform the public Beyond the First 24 Hours Beyond the first phases of a crisis, the need for information and updates remains important. Jurisdictions will need to maintain an ongoing log of the crisis event and continue to update the public as new facts become available. Tools in the Appendix to assist jurisdictions during this phase include a Public Information Emergency Response Call Tracking Template and a First 48 Hours Checklist. 14
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Joint Information Centers A Joint Information Center (JIC) is a group of communications representatives from participating agencies and organizations operating from a single location. The JIC enables jurisdictions to provide public information about a significant, large-scale event in a cohesive manner. It is designed to handle public information needs on a larger scale than could be effectively managed by multiple agencies working independently. The JIC structure is designed to expand or contract to meet the needs of the incident. It is critical to provide emergency information to the public in a timely fashion. Too much time spent getting organized rather than responding to an event can lead to confusion and a loss of public confidence. Through a JIC, the different agencies and organizations involved in a response (federal, state, and local) have clear roles, responsibilities, and lines of communication enabling them to speak with one voice. By maintaining a centralized communication facility, resources can be better managed, duplication minimized, and inconsistent messages prevented. Finally, the use of a JIC allows for tracking and maintaining records and information more accurately. This detailed information provides a firmer basis for post-incident assessments. These assessments can be used to improve crisis communication and general response activities during future incidents. Operational tasks of a JIC include: • Providing all stakeholders directly or indirectly affected by the emergency with access to timely and accurate information about response, recovery, and mitigation activities and their limitations • Providing basic facilities to credentialed media representatives to assist in disseminating information to the public 15
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide • Managing news conferences and press operations for disaster area tours • Monitoring news coverage to ensure accurate information about the event is being disseminated and received properly, while correcting inaccurate information • Ensuring communication resources are managed effectively and duplication of effort by responding jurisdictions and agencies is minimized Refer to the Appendix of this document for additional JIC templates and guides. 16
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide References Center for Risk Communication. http://www.centerforriskcommunication.com/ Federal Communications Commission, Enforcement Bureau. Emergency Alert System. http://www.fcc.gov/pshs/services/eas/index.html Lessons Learned Information Sharing. Best Practice: Crisis Communications Planning. https://www.llis.dhs.gov/ Michigan Department of State Police. Emergency Management Division. Emergency Information Procedures Workbook. http://www.mi.gov/documents/msp- pub401_pio_workbook_8733_7.pdf Texas Department of State Health Services. Writing a Public Health Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication Plan. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/riskcomm/documents/Risk_Communication_Pl an.pdf U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Incident Communications Emergency Reference: A Guide for Communication Professionals. http://icps.nwacc.edu/pdfs/icer %20layout_112404%5B1%5D.pdf U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Practice Program Office. Crisis Emergency and Risk Communication: by Leaders for Leaders. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/erc/leaders.pdf 17
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Appendix Incident Situation 1 Summary…………………………………………………………………... 4 Incident 1 Verification……………………………………………………………………………… 4 Template for Prescripted, Immediate Response to 1 Media Inquiries…………. 5 Message Development for Emergency 1 Communication…………………………... 6 Template for Press 1 Statement………………………………………………………………... 8 Public Information Emergency Response Call 2 Tracking…………………………... 0 Sample Damage Data Status 2 Board…………………………………………………………. 1 Sample Major Event Status 2 Board…………………………………………………………... 2 Joint Information Center (JIC) Procedures (Template) 2 ……………………………. 3 Sample Emergency Operations 3 Procedures…………………………………………….. 4 18
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Incident Situation Summary Date and time: _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________ Location: _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________ Nature of incident: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _______ Estimated number of victims: ________________________________________________________________________________ Potential or critical infrastructure involved: ________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________ Evacuation status: _____________________________________________________________________________________ ________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________ Response status: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________ Protective measures initiated: _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________ 19
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Lead Agency: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ Incident Verification It is important to verify the initial reports of an incident and to make sure that you have correct information. Verified information is a critical factor in making appropriate decisions regarding the incident. Have all the facts been received? (to the best of your knowledge?) Yes/ No Did the information collected come from formal, credible sources such as a local, State or Federal agency? Yes/ No Do you have similar reports about the incident from more than one source? Yes/ No Is the information from different sources consistent? Yes/ No Is the characterization of the event plausible? Yes/ No If necessary, was information clarified through subject matter experts? Yes/ No If you can answer “yes” to these key checkpoints, you have completed the key steps to verifying the situation. Note: Verification is not a function for just one person. It requires input from a variety of sources. Template for Prescripted, Immediate Response to Media Inquiries Use this template if the media is “at your door” and you need time to assemble the facts for the initial press release statement. Getting the facts is a priority. It is important that your organization not give in to pressure to confirm or release information before you have confirmation from your scientists or technical experts, emergency operations center, etc. The following are responses which 20
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide give you the necessary time to collect the facts. Use the Template for Press Statement included below for providing an initial press release statement after the facts are gathered. NOTE: Be sure you are first authorized to give out the following information. Date: ____________ Time: ____________ Approved by: ______________________________________________ Prescripted Responses If on phone to media:  We’ve just learned about the situation and are trying to get more complete information now. How can I reach you when I have more information?  All our efforts are directed at bringing the situation under control, so I’m not going to speculate about the cause of the incident. How can I reach you when I have more information?  I’m not the authority on this subject. Let me have (NAME) call you right back.  We’re preparing a statement on that now. Can I fax it to you when it’s ready?  You may check our Web site for background information, and I will fax/e-mail you with the time of our next update. If in person at incident site or in front of press meeting:  This is an evolving emergency and I know that, just like we do, you want as much information as possible right now. While we work to get your questions answered as quickly as possible, I want to tell you what we can confirm right now:  At approximately (TIME), a (BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF WHAT HAPPENED).  At this point, we do not know the number of (PERSONS ILL, PERSONS EXPOSED, INJURIES, DEATHS, ETC.).  We have a (SYSTEM, PLAN, PROCEDURE, OPERATION) in place for just such an emergency and we are being assisted by (POLICE, FBI, DHS) as part of that plan.  The situation is (UNDER/NOT YET UNDER) control and we are working with (LOCAL, STATE, FEDERAL) authorities to (CONTAIN THIS SITUATION, DETERMINE HOW THIS HAPPENED, DETERMINE WHAT ACTIONS MAY BE NEEDED BY INDIVIDUALS AND THE COMMUNITY TO PREVENT THIS FROM HAPPENING AGAIN).  We will continue to gather information and release it to you as soon as possible. I will be back to you within (AMOUNT OF TIME, 2 HOURS OR LESS) to give you an update. As soon as we have more confirmed information, it will be provided.  We ask your patience as we respond to this emergency. Notes: Depending on the incident, immediate protective measures may need to be provided. Consider using an expression of empathy, if appropriate. Message Development for Emergency Communication Step 1: Consider the following general factors 1. Target audience(s) (e.g., general public, health providers, special needs populations): 2. Purpose of messages (e.g., give facts/update, respond to media): 21
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide 3. Method of delivery (e.g., TV interviews, press release): Step 2: Consider the six basic emergency message components 1. Expression of empathy: 2. Clarifying facts Who: What: Where: When: Why: How: 3. What we don’t know: 4. Process to get answers: 5. Statement of commitment: 6. Referrals (for more information): 7. Next scheduled update: Step 3: Decide what are the three most important message topics for you to cover 1. 2. 3. Step 4: Develop a complete key message for each of your three message topics TOPIC 1: ____________________________________________________________________ Complete message ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Additional supporting facts (if any) ________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 22
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide ____________________________________________________________________________ Soundbite ___________________________________________________________________ TOPIC 2: ____________________________________________________________________ Complete message ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Additional supporting facts (if any) ________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Soundbite ___________________________________________________________________ TOPIC 3: ____________________________________________________________________ Complete message ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Additional supporting facts (if any) ________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Soundbite ___________________________________________________________________ Step 5: Check your messages for the following and revise, if needed ❏ Positive action steps ❏ Test for clarity ❏ Avoid humor ❏ Honest/open store ❏ Use simple words, short ❏ Avoid extreme speculation sentences ❏ Applied risk ❏ Avoid jargon ❏ Avoid judgmental phrases communication principles 23
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Template for Press Statement Use the template below for composing a more detailed statement when facts have been established. If the media is “at your door” and you need time to assemble the facts for this initial press statement, use the Template for Prescripted, Immediate Response to Media Inquiries included above. Getting the facts is a priority. It is important that your organization not give in to pressure to confirm or release information before you have confirmation from your scientists, emergency operations center, or other reliable sources. The purpose of this initial press statement is to answer the basic questions: who, what, where, when. This statement should also provide whatever guidance is possible at this point and detail how further information will be disseminated. It should express the concern of officials representing the affected jurisdiction as well as state and federal officials when appropriate. If possible, the statement should give phone numbers or contacts for more information or assistance. Please remember that this template is meant only to provide you with guidance. One template will not work for every situation. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT: (name of contact) PHONE: (number of contact) Date of release: (date) Headline—Insert your primary message to the public Dateline (your location)—Describe the current situation in two or three sentences. Insert a quote from an official spokesperson demonstrating leadership and concern for victims. “ ” Insert actions being taken. 24
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide List actions that will be taken. List information on possible reactions of the public and ways citizens can help. Insert a quote from an office spokesperson providing reassurance. “ ” List contact information, ways to get more information, and other resources. 25
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Public Information Emergency Response Call Tracking Time of call: __________ a.m./p.m. Nature of call: Specific information contained in stock materials:  Clarify recommendations  Current status of the incident  Hot topic 1 _________________________________________________  Hot topic 2 _________________________________________________ Request for referral:  For more information  For medical attention  Other _______________________________________________________ Feedback to agency:  Complaint about specific contact with agency  Complaint about recommended actions  Concern about ability to carry out recommended actions  Report additional information on incident  Rumor or misinformation verification (briefly describe) Outcome of call:  Reassured caller based on scripted information Referred caller to:  Expert outside the department  Personal doctor or healthcare professional (if health related)  Red Cross or other nongovernment organization  FEMA or State emergency management agency  Other _______________________________________________________ Action needed:  None  Return call to: Caller’s name _________________________________ Telephone number: _____________________ Gender: M / F Return call urgency:  Critical (respond immediately)  Urgent (respond within 24 hours)  Routine Call taken by: _______________________________________________________ Date: 26
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide _____________________________________________ 27
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Sample Damage Data Status Board Damage Number Dollars Message Time Category Number CASUALTIES: Dead Injured PROPERTY DAMAGE: Homes: Destroyed Damaged Businesses: Destroyed Damaged Public Property: Destroyed Damaged Roads: Restricted Closed Bridges: Restricted Closed 28
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide AGRICULTURE DAMAGE: UTILITIES DISRUPTED: 29
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Sample Major Event Status Board Message Time Event Number 1 7:55 p.m. Tanker truck overturned on I-89 2 7:58 p.m. Unknown liquid leaking from ruptured tank 3 8:01 p.m. First fire unit arrives at scene 30
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Joint Information Center (JIC) Procedures (Template) The goal of a Joint Information Center (JIC) and Joint Information System (JIS) is to provide accurate, timely and consistent information to the public and the media. A JIC is a single location where the informational needs and demands of the public and media can be handled. A JIC is established in response to a disaster or to a potential disaster with intense media interest. If only one jurisdiction or level of government is involved, the Public Information Officer from that jurisdiction will activate the JIC according to the procedures found in this document. If more than one jurisdiction, level of government, or private industry is directly involved, or if the resources of the Homeland Security District have been activated, a JIC will be established jointly, usually at the best available facility. Within the JIS, each organization designates a spokesperson that exchanges information and news releases in order to assure accurate, non-conflicting coverage. The concept of a JIS anticipates that each individual will continue to bring expertise and information from his or her own agency, while receiving the benefits of a coordinated approach. Each agency representative has an obligation to share and coordinate information with all other participating agencies prior to the release of that information to the media and public. The JIC serves as the sole source of all authenticated and coordinated information compiled from all jurisdictions and facilities involved in the event. It provides a central location for the news media to receive this information both orally and in writing. Spokespersons from public or private organizations involved in the response jointly develop and issue news releases to reduce conflicting reports. Because the center is the only designated source of information for the media, key emergency operating facilities are less likely to be disrupted by media enquiries. In the event that such enquiries are made, emergency personnel should 31
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide be instructed to provide no response other than referring the questioner to the JIC. This policy should be established and clearly understood by emergency responders prior to an event. The JIC contains a large lecture type room for media briefings, a media work area, a public information officer work area, and other rooms for the various public enquiry functions. The Public Information Officer (PIO) is responsible for operating the JIC on a 24-hour basis if necessary, and ensuring that it is equipped with communications and all necessary supplies. The PIO is responsible for establishing news briefing times with accompanying written statements on a regular scheduled basis and as needed. In the event of a Presidential or Governor’s Declared Emergency or Disaster, the local PIO will work in conjunction with state and federal PIOs assigned to the incident. JIC Set-Up Procedures Describe the procedures to activate and make the JIC operational. 1. (Describe when the JIC is activated) As an Example: The JIC is activated by the Public Information Officer after consultation with the (emergency management coordinator). The PIO makes recommendations on the necessity of establishing this facility based on media interest. Usually the facility is activated at the same time as, or after, the Emergency Operations Center has been established. 2. The JIC is located (where: give exact name of facility, street address, area within facility). Note: The PIO should choose a facility meeting the criteria described above and arrange for its’ use before a disaster occurs. The key to the facility can be obtained from (insert at least two names and telephone numbers.) 3. Obtain all supplies and place them in pre-designated locations. See JIC Equipment and Supplies Checklist below. 32
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide 4. Call (who) at (telephone number) to arrange for PA system to be procured from (where). 5. The primary means of communications in the JIC is telephone. (How many) lines exist presently. They are located (where in the facility). (How many) additional telephone lines must be installed to make the JIC fully operational. This is done by calling (who) at (what location), (telephone number). Coordinate with the jurisdiction’s Communications Officer to establish additional telephone lines for rumor control, public inquiry, volunteer registration, etc. (What) is the backup means of communication. This is set up and made operational in the event primary system fails. This consists of (what specific equipment) provided by (who) at (telephone number). 6. Notify staff to report to the JIC. See JIC Staffing and Organization below for call list. 7. Request (who) at (telephone number) to make sure heating/air conditioning is operating properly. 8. Request (who) at (telephone number) to maintain facility during operation. 9. Request (who) to provide for security. Obtain identification cards from (who) for issuance. JIC Staffing and Organization Sufficient staffing is necessary to operate the JIC and provide information to the media and directly to the public. How is this staff organized? Who are these people? The JIC must have a staff of approximately (number) of persons to effectively operate the facility, provide for the needs of the news media, and collect and disseminate information. (NOTE: The makeup, organization and duties of JIC positions may vary from one incident to another). Public Information Officer (PIO) 33
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide The duties of the PIO at the JIC are as follows: • Oversee the functioning of the JIC • Select and train staff to fill JIC positions • Coordinate the JIC set up • Obtain the latest information from EOC officials and create written news releases for media dissemination • Schedule news briefings and act as a moderator for news briefing sessions • Function as official spokesperson for the community and the sole source of information • Organize press conferences with other local officials with whom the media wishes to speak JIC Support Function Personnel must be available to oversee the administrative functioning of the JIC to free the PIO for addressing inquiries of the media and writing news releases. The extent to which communities have the capacity or the need to fully staff a JIC will vary. However, key roles and responsibilities should be assigned to available staff. The following table presents a sample JIC staffing chart including detailed examples of work that is performed by specific members of the Joint Information Team (JIT). Model Joint Information Team (JIT) Position Description Assigned Staff Lead PIO Coordinates operation of JIC with primary spokespersons from participating agencies. Assistant PIO Coordinates flow of information from the SEOC to the JIC. Keeps government officials informed and coordinates status updates. Primary At JIC (CEO, PIO or technical expert) Spokespersons for • County/Local Emergency Local Agencies Manager • CEO • Fire Services • Law Enforcement • Public Works • Other Primary At JIC (CEO, PIO or technical expert) Spokespersons for • Utilities 34
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Other Agencies • Airlines • Railroads • Other Back-up Needed for various shifts for state and Spokespersons local government and private agencies. Assistant Writes, produces and distributes fact Spokesperson/ sheets, media kits, and news releases News Writer including positing of information online. Information Collects and verifies information during Coordinator major incidents. Checks spelling on names, accuracy of data and coordinates with other responding agencies. Logistics Arranges for media room, electrical Coordinator outlets, food, telephone, media parking, etc. Agency/Hospital PIO Stationed at hospital. Works with hospital to notify family members Victim/Family Manages family area in victim shelter, Liaison serves as agency contact for families. Technical Support/ Assists with connections for Engineering computers, printers, fax machines, etc. Log Keeper Monitors media stories, secures copies of media clips, and maintains a list of media organizations, reporter names and phone numbers for updates. Rumor Control Identifies source of rumors, issues statements that counter rumors and posts rumors in media area with the way in which rumors were dispelled. Public Hotline Manages telephone calls from public and coordinates with rumor control person. Dispatcher Provides incident site information, broadcasts media staging area over radio, directs public to family area, directs media staging area and media perimeter. Agency Attorney Handles liability, FOI and rights of privacy issues. Chaplains Stationed in family area and victim shelter. Graphics Designer Handles production of media ID cards, signs, charts, maps, etc. Volunteer Coordinates involvement of volunteer Coordinator groups such as Red Cross, amateur radio, scuba club, snowmobile club and amateur pilots. Audio/Visual At EOC, JIC and in the field, Production documenting response and recovery Coordinator activities from the emergency or 35
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide disaster. The JIC Support Function is comprised of (how many) persons from (what agency or volunteer group). These staff are responsible for setting up the JIC and keeping it running smoothly under the direction of the PIO and Assistant PIO. Responsibilities include: • Set up the JIC. (See JIC Set-Up Procedures above.) • Ensure security is maintained. (Who) will provide an armed officer on a 24 hour basis to the JIC. This officer will be placed at (what location) to inspect press credentials, and to maintain security/order in the JIC. Security passes for issuance by the security officer are available from (who). • Ensure all JIC staff are present, briefed, and aware of their duties. • Test communications equipment and adjust/repair as necessary. • Coordinate press tours. This is done as follows: o The time, tour area, and rally point will be posted on the status board in the media briefing room at least one hour in advance o The news media will sign their names on a posted list if they are interested in taking the tour o The Assistant PIO (or their designee), in conjunction with law enforcement officials, will determine a practical number of tour participants. Selection will be made on a first come, first served basis as much as possible, giving consideration to a variety of news mediums and coverage o (Who) will approve/deny the use of cameras during the tour o A list of persons approved for the press tour will be posted in the media briefing room and provided to the Law Enforcement Official at the EOC o The Law Enforcement Official at the EOC will assign a police officer to meet the press group at the rally point and conduct the tour. The Assistant PIO (or their designee) may accompany the tour 36
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide o The (who) will provide transportation for the media tours of the emergency area • Monitor radio, TV and newspaper reporting of the incident and correct any misinformation. • Post disaster-related information (as appropriate) on the jurisdiction’s web page. • Assist other sections accomplish breaks/shift changes. • Keep Emergency Information/Rumor Control Section informed with copies of all news releases and other information. • Establish message flow pattern in JPIC according to how many PIOs from other jurisdictions are present, etc. • Arrange for translators to be available at the JPIC to provide release in second languages and for the hearing impaired. Plotting/Recording One member of the JIT should be assigned the task of plotting and recording information on wall maps in the JIC. These duties should include the following: • Ensure correct display materials are in place to include map(s), status board(s), chalkboard. • Gather plotting supplies. (See JIC Equipment and Supplies Checklist below.) • Carefully read all messages. Plot relevant important information. • Continuously pot on map(s) as appropriate: o General disaster area/area affected o Exact boundaries of evacuation area o Shelters opened o Access control points o Road closures o Traffic reroutes around affected area o Evacuation routes o Command post location o Worst disaster area • Plot on status board (s): o Casualty figures o Public property damages o Private property damages 37
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide o Utility damages o Major events in the course of the disaster • Reserve chalkboard for use by PIO during briefings. • Sketch diagrams, etc. of relevance to the news media in understanding events of the disaster. • Display emergency/disaster classification level. • Record meteorological conditions, if relevant. • Display next scheduled briefing time. • Display news media disaster site tour times/locations. • Display important telephone numbers such as Emergency Information/Rumor Control Center, etc. Hot Line Operations The importance of the hotline function cannot be overstated. Hotline operators should be trained on the specific duties and functions of this position. Responsibilities include: • Establish hotline through direct telephone communication with EOC. Keep line open at all times. • Monitor hotline at all times to receive disaster data and status updates. • Request data, verify information and provide link for PIO. • Record all information received on message form. • Place message form in “out” basket so information can be disseminated to all spokespersons. Clerical Support Lead PIOs should make the necessary arrangements for clerical support for JIC operations. Duties are many and varied, including but not limited to providing clerical support to PIO and other sections (typing, copying, and telephone operation) and ensuring copies of all written news releases are readily available to the news, in chronological order. Rumor Control Function A means should be established to handle the specific questions or concerns of the public. One way of accomplishing this is through a Rumor Control Center, whereby one or several telephone lines are designated for use by the public. The telephone numbers are widely 38
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide publicized and the lines are staffed with informed persons able to answer questions or obtain information. Those best suited for these positions are radio dispatch personnel, emergency response/medical personnel, teachers, and counselors. Describe generally how inquiries from the public will be handled. NOTE: Some jurisdictions may choose not to include rumor control with JIC functions. Example: This function is staffed by (how many) persons from (what agency or volunteer group) who have experience in dealing with questions from the public. The Rumor Control staff operates from a room separate from but adjacent to the media briefing room. Its’ function is to calmly dispense accurate information to public callers. Telephone numbers are designated and announced for this purpose. Rumor Control’s responsibilities are as follows: • Respond to questions from the public via telephone and Internet e-mail. • Maintain a file of news releases and other fact sheets and briefing summaries JIC staff has provided. • Log all incoming calls and document the responses provided. • Maintain a reference list and refer difficult or technical questions to appropriate sources. • Report typical questions to PIO for use in creating news releases. Specialized Functions (Missing Persons) Many disasters dislocate people or interrupt communication. A means should be established to coordinate the inquiries of the public wishing to locate persons in the disaster area. One way of accomplishing this is through a Missing Person Information Center, where one or several telephone lines are designated for use by the public for this purpose. The telephone numbers are widely publicized and the lines are staffed with informed persons. Describe generally how missing person inquiries are made. NOTE: Some jurisdictions may choose not to include missing persons information with JIC functions if they have active Red Cross Chapters, etc. 39
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Example: Missing Persons is staffed by (how many) persons from (what agency or volunteer group). This section operates from a separate room within the JIC. Its function is to assist people in locating friends, relatives or neighbors. Telephone numbers are designated and announced for this purpose. The responsibilities of Missing Persons Function are as follows: • Review and compile lists of persons who registered at evacuation reception centers and determine their shelter locations. • Review lists of treated and released or hospitalized persons as provided by hospital personnel. • Be familiar with boundaries of affected area and areas without telephone service. • Answer telephone and e-mail inquiries and scan lists for person’s name and inform requestor of results. • If missing person’s name cannot be located on lists, take down information on person sought and requestor’s name and number where he or she can be reached. Prioritize search lists and call requestors back when person is located. Volunteer Registration A means should be established to handle calls from volunteers wishing to assist. One or several telephone lines can be designated for this purpose. The telephone numbers can be widely publicized. Describe generally how persons calling to volunteer their services are handled. NOTE: Some jurisdictions may choose not to include this function within the JIC. For Example: Volunteer Registration is staffed by (how many) persons from (what agency or volunteer group). Staff operates from a separate room within the JIC. The objective is to match the volunteers with appropriate government agencies that need staffing. The responsibilities of Volunteer Registration are as follows: • Answer telephone calls. • Record volunteer’s name and telephone number, skills, background, and area in which he/she desires to assist. • Tell volunteers a member of the EOC staff will contact them if their services are needed. 40
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide • Provide information on volunteers offering to assist to EOC staff. JIC Staff Call List JIC Staff Call List JIC Position Name Affiliation Work Phone # Other Phone # 41
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide JIC Equipment and Supplies Checklist Equipment Location How to obtain it ❏ Fax machine (preprogrammed for broadcast fax releases to media and partners) ❏ Computers (on LAN with e-mail Listserv® designated for partners and media) ❏ Laptop computers ❏ Printers for every computer ❏ Copier (and backup) ❏ Several tables and desks ❏ Cell phones/pagers/personal data devices and e-mails readers ❏ Visible calendars, flow charts, bulletin boards, easels ❏ Designated personal message board ❏ Small refrigerator ❏ Paper ❏ Color copier ❏ A/V equipment ❏ Portable microphones ❏ Podium ❏ TVs with cable hookup ❏ VHS VCR ❏ CD-ROM ❏ Paper shredder ❏ Copier toner ❏ Printer ink ❏ Pens ❏ Markers ❏ Highlighters ❏ Erasable markers ❏ FedEx and mail supplies ❏ Sticky notes ❏ Tape ❏ Notebooks ❏ Poster board ❏ Standard press kit folders ❏ Organized B-roll beta format (keep VHS copies around for meetings) Equipment Location How to obtain it 42
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide ❏ Formatted computer disks ❏ Color-coded everything (folders, inks, etc.) ❏ Baskets (to contain items not ready to be thrown away) ❏ Organizers to support your clearance and release system ❏ Expandable folders (indexed by alphabet or days of the month) ❏ Staplers ❏ Paper punch ❏ Three-ring binders ❏ Organization’s press kit or its logo on a sticker ❏ Colored copier paper (for door-to-door flyers) ❏ Papers clips (all sizes) 43
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide Sample Emergency Operations Procedures The following sample is designed to be used by local jurisdictions in creating Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the management of emergency and crisis communication. PURPOSE These Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) support the general concept of operation, organization, and tasks detailed in the (insert name of jurisdiction) Emergency Operations Plan. It provides the detail necessary to implement the Crisis Communication and Public Information Plan. CONCEPT OF OPERATION Describe how the Public Information Officer and staff operate on a day-to-day basis and during disasters in your organization. Example: A Public Information Officer (PIO) is appointed from within local government to coordinate the collection and dissemination of all newsworthy information and to act as official spokesperson for the community in times of emergency or disaster. The PIO works closely with (insert correct title of the emergency management coordinator) in collecting information from within the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and from other sources. If media interest is intense, a Joint Information Center (JIC) is established in conjunction with all other government and private agencies involved. This center becomes the central location from which news releases are issued and where public inquiries are addressed. On a day-to-day basis, the PIO assists the (insert correct title of the emergency management coordinator) in developing and distributing educational material on the hazards that face the community. The PIO also assists the (emergency management coordinator) in maintaining a file of emergency instructions that can be quickly disseminated at the time of an actual or impending emergency/disaster. This person also assists the (emergency management coordinator) in giving presentations 44
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide and field inquiries from the media on incidents that do not warrant the establishment of a JIC. ORGANIZATION An individual should be selected as Public Information Officer (official spokesperson) for the jurisdiction. This person should work for local government to add credibility to the position, to be accountable to government officials, and to be available and impartial during emergency or disaster response. The PIO should also be able to legitimately speak for the chief executive and have some knowledge of the entire community and government organization. An alternate person should be appointed for 24-hour operations. Consideration should be given to how the PIO fits into the community’s emergency organization. Example: (Name of individual) from (indicate normal job title and organization) is designated as the Public Information Officer (PIO) for (insert name of jurisdiction). In the event he/she is unavailable, (name of designated back- up) from (indicate normal job title and organization) will serve as the Public Information Officer. The PIO recruits, selects, and activates staff as necessary to perform Public Information duties. The PIO is a member of the executive group within the Emergency Operations Center. The PIO advises the chief executive and (emergency management coordinator) on public information issues, acquires the most current and accurate information, and verifies news releases with the chief executive before their release. The PIO functions as official spokesperson at the JIC, if activated, and organizes a staff to operate it. TASKS AND EXECUTION Describe the specific actions the Public Information Officer and his/her staff are responsible for performing before, during and after an emergency or disaster. Example: Mitigation/Preparedness Phase • Review the Crisis Communication and Public Information Plan at least annually and update it as changes occur. 45
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide • Review and update documents that support the Crisis Communication and Public Information Plan, such as this Emergency Public Information SOP and the community’s Resource Manual. • Assemble emergency public information personnel, including clerical support staff, and conduct training exercises at least annually. • Maintain working relationships with public information personnel from local response agencies, PIOs in adjacent jurisdictions, and private organization public relations personnel so that mutual needs may be fulfilled during emergencies and disasters. • Provide training to EOC staff to ensure they are familiar with public information concepts. • Maintain media contact lists. • Conduct annual training with local media representatives and share with them the details of the plan. • Periodically review the Emergency Alert System (EAS) Area Plan. Assist with the development of stock messages with blanks that can be filled in quickly during emergencies. • Prepare and obtain educational material for potential hazards that could affect the jurisdiction. Distribute this information to the public. • Prepare “camera ready” information that can be quickly printed and distributed to each affected household at the time of an emergency. • Select a facility near the EOC that can be utilized as a Joint Information Center (JIC) during an emergency. Make arrangements for use of this facility. Select alternative facilities for use. • Develop status boards, maps, etc. for JIC. Store in a convenient, safe location. • Make arrangements for communications equipment and other supplies/equipment necessary for JIC functioning. Response Phase • Fully mobilize the emergency public information organization, determine shift assignments, brief emergency public information staff on status of emergency situation and their duties. • Maintain contact with the EOC to obtain the latest information, verify information, and have news releases authenticated. • Activate JIC as necessary. 46
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide • Review stock of written public information material and distribute as necessary. • Provide copies of all written news releases and summaries of all press conferences to the chief executive and (insert correct title of the emergency management coordinator). • Make contact with the PIOs in other affected jurisdictions and, at other government levels, and within the private sector, and jointly release information from the JIC. • Monitor published and broadcast information for accuracy. Correct misinformation whenever possible. • Obtain and release telephone numbers the public can call for additional information or specific questions. • Obtain and release telephone numbers the public can call to volunteer assistance. • Obtain and release the telephone number for the Missing Person Information Center. • Maintain status boards and maps at the JIC. • Keep the Rumor Control Section staff apprised of the status of the emergency situation. • Maintain a log and a file of all information released to the media. • Arrange for media tours of the EOC and/or emergency scene if it will not hinder response efforts. • Arrange media briefings on a regular basis. Announce and post briefing times well in advance. • Dispatch public information team, if appropriate to the scene to take pictures, etc. for the media to use. • Release information about approved areas from which persons may view the disaster scene. In choosing viewing areas, consider safety, traffic flow, and availability of parking areas. Recovery Phase • Continue to release information from the JIC as long as media interest is present. • Accommodate state and federal PIOs and assist them in releasing information on assistance programs. • Gather all records kept during all phases of the emergency and prepare a chronological summary of all events, actions taken, 47
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide inquiries made, and responses given. Collect newspaper clippings and TV videotapes, if available. • Survey staff and local media for suggestions to improve public information response procedures in future emergencies. • Write an after-action report and provide copies to the emergency management coordinator and appropriate elected officials and local agency representatives. EMERGENCY PUBLIC INFORMATION CONTACTS To effectively accomplish the rapid dissemination of information, lists of media personnel and other public information resources have been compiled. MEDIA CONTACT LIST – RADIO Call Letters and Broadcast Hours Phone # Station Manager Address News Deadline Time Fax # News Director Email MEDIA CONTACT LIST – TELEVISION Call Letters Broadcast Hours Phone # Station Manager Channel News Deadline Time Fax # News Director Address Email 48
    • Indiana Homeland Security Crisis Communication and Public Information Guide MEDIA CONTACT LIST – NEWPAPER Name Frequency of Managing Editor Address Publication Newsroom # News Deadline Time Fax # Email MEDIA CONTACT LIST - NEWS SERVICES Name Address Contact Phone # Fax # 49