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  1. 1. National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Behavioral Analysis Unit Critical Incident Response Group WORKPLACE VIOLENCE : ISSUES IN RESPONSE
  2. 2. Supervisory Special Agent Eugene A. Rugala National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Behavioral Analysis Unit Critical Incident Response Group FBI Academy Quantico, Virginia 703-632-4321 [email_address]
  3. 3. Topics To Be Discussed: <ul><li>The role of the FBI’s National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime in Workplace Violence </li></ul><ul><li>What is Workplace Violence? </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics on Workplace Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Common Myths about Workplace Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Workplace Violence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Topics Continued: <ul><li>Causes of Workplace Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of Workplace Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetrators of Workplace Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs of Workplace Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the threat </li></ul><ul><li>Managing potential Workplace Violence </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Is Workplace Violence? WORKPLACE VIOLENCE CAN BE DEFINED AS ACTION THAT MAY THREATEN THE SAFETY OF AN EMPLOYEE, IMPACT THE EMPLOYEE’S PHYSICAL AND/OR PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OR CAUSE DAMAGE TO COMPANY PROPERTY
  6. 6. Statistics Regarding Workplace Violence <ul><li>2 MILLION VIOLENT VICTIMIZATIONS A YEAR </li></ul><ul><li>HOMICIDE IS THE NUMBER TWO CAUSE OF DEATH FOR WOMEN AND NUMBER THREE FOR MEN </li></ul><ul><li>MOST COMMON TYPE OF WORKPLACE VICTIMIZATION IS SIMPLE ASSAULT </li></ul>
  7. 7. Statistics Continued: <ul><li>IN 2003, THERE WERE 631 WORKPLACE HOMICIDES </li></ul><ul><li>WOMEN ARE THE VICTIMS IN THREE-FIFTHS OF ALL REPORTED INCIDENTS OF WORKPLACE VIOLENCE </li></ul>
  8. 8. Workplace Homicides, U.S. 2002 Source : Bureau of Labor Statistics 100% 609 Total 6% 35 Personal 4% 26 Customer /Client 11% 70 Co-worker/ Former Co-worker 78% 478 Robbery/Other Crimes Percent Number Circumstance/ Victim/Offender Relationship
  9. 9. Types Of Workplace Violence <ul><li>HOMICIDES </li></ul><ul><li>ATTEMPTS </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL ASSAULTS </li></ul><ul><li>SEXUAL ASSAULTS </li></ul><ul><li>THREATS </li></ul><ul><li>VANDALISM </li></ul><ul><li>SABOTAGE </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCT CONTAMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>ARSON/BOMBINGS </li></ul><ul><li>STALKING </li></ul><ul><li>DOMESTIC VIOLENCE </li></ul><ul><li>TERRORISM </li></ul>
  10. 10. Perpetrators Of Workplace Violence <ul><li>EMPLOYEES </li></ul><ul><li>FORMER EMPLOYEES </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPORARY OR PART-TIME EMPLOYEES </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>CUSTOMERS </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPLIERS </li></ul><ul><li>CLIENTS/PATIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>ACQUAINTANCES OF EMPLOYEES </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY MEMBERS OF EMPLOYEES </li></ul><ul><li>STRANGERS </li></ul><ul><li>TERRORISTS </li></ul>
  11. 11. Myths About Workplace Violence WORKPLACE VIOLENCE IS COMMITTED BY PEOPLE WHO SUDDENLY SNAP UNDER PRESSURE IS COMMITTED BY DISGRUNTLED EMPLOYEES
  12. 12. Myths Continued: <ul><li>MOST SITUATIONS WILL RESOLVE </li></ul><ul><li>THEMSELVES IF GIVEN A COOLING </li></ul><ul><li>OFF PERIOD </li></ul><ul><li>IF WE LEARN TO RECOGNIZE THE </li></ul><ul><li>POTENTIALLY VIOLENT EMPLOYEE, </li></ul><ul><li>WE CAN STOP WORKPLACE </li></ul><ul><li>VIOLENCE </li></ul>
  13. 13. Decline in Workplace Homicides 1993 - 2002 02 ,
  14. 14. Workplace Homicides THE VAST MAJORITY OF WORKPLACE HOMICIDES ARE A RESULT OF ROBBERY AND RELATED CRIMES
  15. 15. Occupations With the Highest Risk of Homicide Homicide rate per 100,000 Workers TAXICAB DRIVERS SALES/COUNTER CLERKS POLICE/DETECTIVES GUARDS SALES, SUPERVISORS MANAGERS, FOOD AND LODGING PLACES CASHIERS BARTENDERS TRUCK DRIVERS NATIONAL AVERAGE 27.5 5.9 4.4 4.1 2.5 2.5 1.5 1.5 0.8 0.5
  16. 16. Who’s At Risk? LAW ENFORCEMENT HEALTHCARE RETAIL SALES OTHER SERVICE INDUSTRIES
  17. 17. Reasons For Workplace Violence <ul><li>WORK-RELATED CONFLICT </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL CONFLICT </li></ul><ul><li>DOMESTIC VIOLENCE </li></ul><ul><li>ROBBERY </li></ul><ul><li>REVENGE </li></ul><ul><li>DISPLACED ANGER </li></ul><ul><li>A STALKER’S OBSESSION </li></ul><ul><li>TERRORISM </li></ul><ul><li>A CUSTOMER, CLIENT, SUPPLIER OR PATIENT IS DISGRUNTLED </li></ul>
  18. 18. Violence Is More Likely To Happen In Workplaces That….. <ul><li>THAT HAVE NO COMPANY POLICY </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGERS THAT IGNORE THREATS AND SIGNS OF VIOLENCE </li></ul><ul><li>FAIL TO SCREEN NEW EMPLOYEES </li></ul><ul><li>FAIL TO PROVIDE TRAINING </li></ul><ul><li>TERMINATE EMPLOYEES WITHOUT DUE PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>IGNORE EMPLOYEE’S COMPLAINTS ABOUT ANOTHER EMPLOYEE’S BEHAVIOR </li></ul>
  19. 19. Violence Continued: CREATE A “TOXIC” WORK ENVIRONMENT SUBJECT EMPLOYEES TO FREQUENT CHANGE AND UNCERTAINTY ABOUT THEIR FUTURE INADEQUATE SECURITY MEASURES AND PROCEDURES IN PLACE
  20. 20. Cost Of Workplace Violence COSTS TO EMPLOYERS: DECREASED/LOST PRODUCTIVITY MEDICAL, LEGAL, WORKERS COMPENSATION COSTS, COURT COSTS, OVERTIME TO MAKE UP LOST WORK, EMPLOYEE COUNSELING TARNISHED PUBLIC IMAGE
  21. 21. Costs Continued: COST TO EMPLOYEES REDUCTION IN EMPLOYEE EARNINGS DUE TO TIME OFF PERMANENT EFFECTS ON HEALTH AND WELL- BEING OF THE INJURED EMPLOYEE HARDSHIP ON THE EMPLOYEE’S FAMILY DESTRUCTION OF EMPLOYEE MORALE INCREASED STRESS LEVEL AT WORK AND HOME DECREASED WAGES AND BENEFITS TO OFF-SET COSTS OF VIOLENCE
  22. 22. Social Factors <ul><li>ECONOMIC DOWNTURN </li></ul><ul><li>AVAILABILITY OF AND ACCESS TO WEAPONS </li></ul><ul><li>BREAKDOWN OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY </li></ul><ul><li>FAST-PACED, HIGH STRESS SOCIETY </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIA GLORIFICATION OF VIOLENCE </li></ul><ul><li>HOLIDAY STRESS </li></ul>
  23. 23. Personal Factors <ul><li>LOSS OF JOB, RAISE OR PROMOTION </li></ul><ul><li>BREAK-UP OF A RELATIONSHIP </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY/MARITAL PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>MONEY PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>DRUG OR ALCOHOL ABUSE </li></ul><ul><li>STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>DOMESTIC VIOLENCE </li></ul>
  24. 24. Causes Of Employee Disenchantment <ul><li>CONFUSION </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF TRUST </li></ul><ul><li>NOT BEING LISTENED TO </li></ul><ul><li>NO TIME TO SOLVE PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>OFFICE POLITICS </li></ul><ul><li>SOMEONE SOLVING PROBLEMS FOR YOU </li></ul><ul><li>NOT KNOWING WHETHER YOU ARE SUCCEEDING </li></ul>
  25. 25. Disenchantment Con’t: <ul><li>INDISCRIMINATE RULES </li></ul><ul><li>BOSS TAKES CREDIT FOR YOUR WORK </li></ul><ul><li>SCARCE RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>BELIEVING YOU CAN’T MAKE A DIFFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>MEANINGLESS JOB </li></ul>
  26. 26. PROACTIVE VS REACTIVE
  27. 27. THERE IS NO PROFILE OF A WORKPLACE VIOLENCE OFFENDER EACH CASE OR SITUATION MUST BE LOOKED AT INDIVIDUALLY AND JUDGED ON IT’S OWN INDIVIDUAL MERITS
  28. 28. Behavioral Characteristics Of A Violent Employee <ul><li>PAST VIOLENT BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><li>OBSESSION WITH WEAPONS </li></ul><ul><li>COMPULSIVE READING AND COLLECTING GUN MAGAZINES </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT OR VEILED THREATS </li></ul><ul><li>INTIMIDATION OR INSTILLING FEAR IN OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>OBSESSIVE INVOLVEMENT WITH THE JOB </li></ul>
  29. 29. Characteristics Con’t: <ul><li>FEW FRIENDS AND OUTSIDE INTERESTS </li></ul><ul><li>TENDS TO STAY TO HIM OR HERSELF </li></ul><ul><li>CAN BE DESCRIBED AS A LONER </li></ul><ul><li>UNWANTED ROMANTIC INTEREST IN A CO-WORKER </li></ul><ul><li>HYPER-SENSITIVE TO CRITICISM </li></ul><ul><li>HOLDS GRUDGES </li></ul>
  30. 30. Behavioral Characteristics Continued <ul><li>BLAMES OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>DOES NOT ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>FEELS ENTITLED </li></ul><ul><li>FREQUENTLY ANGRY AND ARGUMENTATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>DEPRESSED/SUICIDAL THOUGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>LOW FRUSTRATION TOLERANCE </li></ul>
  31. 31. Employees Can Observe Behavior On The Job <ul><li>DECREASED PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>MISSED DUE DATES </li></ul><ul><li>FREQUENT ABSENTEEISM </li></ul><ul><li>POOR WORK PERFORMANCE </li></ul><ul><li>DISTRUSTFUL OR SUSPICIOUS OF PEOPLE’S MOTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>EXTREME CHANGES IN BEHAVIOR </li></ul>
  32. 32. Other Characteristics Include: <ul><li>RECENT FAMILY, FINANCIAL OR PERSONAL PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>INTEREST IN RECENTLY PUBLICIZED VIOLENT EVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>PREOCCUPATION WITH VIOLENT THEMES OR REVENGE </li></ul><ul><li>DRUG OR ALCOHOL ABUSE </li></ul>
  33. 33. Statistically, Your Typical Workplace Violence Offender Is Likely to Be: <ul><li>WHITE MALE </li></ul><ul><li>BETWEEN THE AGES OF 30 AND 50 </li></ul><ul><li>LITTLE OR NO CRIMINAL RECORD </li></ul><ul><li>PARANOID/AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><li>UNSTABLE WORK HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>TROUBLEMAKER </li></ul>
  34. 34. Precipitating Factors: AN EMPLOYEE WHO POSESSES MANY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS MENTIONED AND WHO EXPERIENCES THE FOLLOWING MAY BE CONSIDERED HIGH RISK FOR ACTING OUT VIOLENTLY: SOMEONE WHO HAS BEEN REPRIMANDED, DEMOTED OR FIRED COUPLED WITH OTHER RECENT PERSONAL PROBLEMS
  35. 35. Miscellaneous Factors <ul><li>ROLE OF THE MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>SUBSTANCE ABUSE/INHIBITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>ROLE OF FAMILY </li></ul><ul><li>NEW BUSINESS PRACTICES </li></ul><ul><li>MENTAL ILLNESS </li></ul><ul><li>SUICIDE BY COP </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT STYLE </li></ul>
  36. 36. AN EMPLOYEE CAN MANIFEST ANY ONE OR ALL OF THESE TRAITS AND NEVER ACT OUT VIOLENTLY
  37. 37. What Can You Do If You Determine That An Employee Is Potentially Dangerous? PROVIDE COACHING/TRAINING PROVIDE COUNSELING TRANSFER THE EMPLOYEE RESTRUCTURE THE POSITION TAKE DISCIPLINARY ACTION SUSPEND THE EMPLOYEE WITH OR WITHOUT PAY TERMINATE THE EMPLOYEE
  38. 38. NO ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL STRATEGY
  39. 39. Components Of A Workplace Violence Prevention Program PRE-EMPLOYMENT SCREENING ZERO-TOLERANCE POLICY APPROPRIATE DISCIPLINARY PROCEDURES GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES VIOLENCE PREVENTION TRAINING EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
  40. 40. Components Of A Workplace Violence Prevention Program OUTPLACEMENT SERVICES SECURITY MEASURES ACCESS TO TRAINED ADVISORS CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAM CRISIS MANAGEMENT PLAN
  41. 41. Managing Potential Workplace Violence <ul><li>ESTABLISH POLICY MANAGEMENT TEAM </li></ul><ul><li>AWARENESS EDUCATION AND TRAINING </li></ul><ul><li>CORPORATE CENTRAL REPORTING POLICY </li></ul>
  42. 42. Managing Potential Workplace Violence <ul><li>EFFECTIVE SECURITY ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>INTAKE AND DATA ENTRY </li></ul><ul><li>INVESTIGATE ALL REPORTS </li></ul><ul><li>RISK ASSESSMENT </li></ul>
  43. 43. Managing Potential Violence Con’t: <ul><li>SITUATION CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>RISK RESPONSE OPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SECURITY PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>CASE MANAGEMENT AND DOCUMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATE, COMMUNICATE, </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATE !!!!! </li></ul>
  44. 44. Crisis Management Team <ul><li>SECURITY PERSONNEL </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE COUNSELORS </li></ul><ul><li>MEDICAL PERSONNEL </li></ul><ul><li>SENIOR MANAGEMENT </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>LEGAL </li></ul><ul><li>UNION REPRESENTATIVES </li></ul><ul><li>INVESTIGATORS </li></ul><ul><li>LAW ENFORCEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>PUBLIC RELATIONS EXPERT </li></ul>Crisis Management Team
  46. 46. WHAT DOES NOT WORK : <ul><li>ONE SIZE FITS ALL APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>RIGIDITY, INFLEXIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>DENIAL OF PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF COLLABORATION </li></ul><ul><li>IGNORING RESPECT </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF CLEAR WRITTEN POLICY </li></ul><ul><li>NO DOCUMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>PASSING AROUND “BAD APPLES” </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF COMMITMENT TO SAFETY </li></ul>
  47. 47. FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONTACT: SUPERVISORY SPECIAL AGENT EUGENE A. RUGALA NATIONAL CENTER FOR THE ANALYSIS OF VIOLENT CRIME BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS UNIT CRITICAL INCIDENT RESPONSE GROUP FBI ACADEMY QUANTICO, VIRGINIA 22135 TELEPHONE : 703-632-4321 EMAIL: earugala@fbiacademy.edu

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