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  • 1. National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Behavioral Analysis Unit Critical Incident Response Group WORKPLACE VIOLENCE : ISSUES IN RESPONSE
  • 2. Supervisory Special Agent Eugene A. Rugala National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Behavioral Analysis Unit Critical Incident Response Group FBI Academy Quantico, Virginia 703-632-4321 [email_address]
  • 3. Topics To Be Discussed:
    • The role of the FBI’s National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime in Workplace Violence
    • What is Workplace Violence?
    • Statistics on Workplace Violence
    • Common Myths about Workplace Violence
    • Types of Workplace Violence
  • 4. Topics Continued:
    • Causes of Workplace Violence
    • Costs of Workplace Violence
    • Perpetrators of Workplace Violence
    • Warning signs of Workplace Violence
    • Assessing the threat
    • Managing potential Workplace Violence
  • 5. What Is Workplace Violence? WORKPLACE VIOLENCE CAN BE DEFINED AS ACTION THAT MAY THREATEN THE SAFETY OF AN EMPLOYEE, IMPACT THE EMPLOYEE’S PHYSICAL AND/OR PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OR CAUSE DAMAGE TO COMPANY PROPERTY
  • 6. Statistics Regarding Workplace Violence
    • 2 MILLION VIOLENT VICTIMIZATIONS A YEAR
    • HOMICIDE IS THE NUMBER TWO CAUSE OF DEATH FOR WOMEN AND NUMBER THREE FOR MEN
    • MOST COMMON TYPE OF WORKPLACE VICTIMIZATION IS SIMPLE ASSAULT
  • 7. Statistics Continued:
    • IN 2003, THERE WERE 631 WORKPLACE HOMICIDES
    • WOMEN ARE THE VICTIMS IN THREE-FIFTHS OF ALL REPORTED INCIDENTS OF WORKPLACE VIOLENCE
  • 8. Workplace Homicides, U.S. 2002 Source : Bureau of Labor Statistics 100% 609 Total 6% 35 Personal 4% 26 Customer /Client 11% 70 Co-worker/ Former Co-worker 78% 478 Robbery/Other Crimes Percent Number Circumstance/ Victim/Offender Relationship
  • 9. Types Of Workplace Violence
    • HOMICIDES
    • ATTEMPTS
    • PHYSICAL ASSAULTS
    • SEXUAL ASSAULTS
    • THREATS
    • VANDALISM
    • SABOTAGE
    • PRODUCT CONTAMINATION
    • ARSON/BOMBINGS
    • STALKING
    • DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
    • TERRORISM
  • 10. Perpetrators Of Workplace Violence
    • EMPLOYEES
    • FORMER EMPLOYEES
    • TEMPORARY OR PART-TIME EMPLOYEES
    • CONTRACTORS
    • CUSTOMERS
    • SUPPLIERS
    • CLIENTS/PATIENTS
    • ACQUAINTANCES OF EMPLOYEES
    • FAMILY MEMBERS OF EMPLOYEES
    • STRANGERS
    • TERRORISTS
  • 11. Myths About Workplace Violence WORKPLACE VIOLENCE IS COMMITTED BY PEOPLE WHO SUDDENLY SNAP UNDER PRESSURE IS COMMITTED BY DISGRUNTLED EMPLOYEES
  • 12. Myths Continued:
    • MOST SITUATIONS WILL RESOLVE
    • THEMSELVES IF GIVEN A COOLING
    • OFF PERIOD
    • IF WE LEARN TO RECOGNIZE THE
    • POTENTIALLY VIOLENT EMPLOYEE,
    • WE CAN STOP WORKPLACE
    • VIOLENCE
  • 13. Decline in Workplace Homicides 1993 - 2002 02 ,
  • 14. Workplace Homicides THE VAST MAJORITY OF WORKPLACE HOMICIDES ARE A RESULT OF ROBBERY AND RELATED CRIMES
  • 15. Occupations With the Highest Risk of Homicide Homicide rate per 100,000 Workers TAXICAB DRIVERS SALES/COUNTER CLERKS POLICE/DETECTIVES GUARDS SALES, SUPERVISORS MANAGERS, FOOD AND LODGING PLACES CASHIERS BARTENDERS TRUCK DRIVERS NATIONAL AVERAGE 27.5 5.9 4.4 4.1 2.5 2.5 1.5 1.5 0.8 0.5
  • 16. Who’s At Risk? LAW ENFORCEMENT HEALTHCARE RETAIL SALES OTHER SERVICE INDUSTRIES
  • 17. Reasons For Workplace Violence
    • WORK-RELATED CONFLICT
    • PERSONAL CONFLICT
    • DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
    • ROBBERY
    • REVENGE
    • DISPLACED ANGER
    • A STALKER’S OBSESSION
    • TERRORISM
    • A CUSTOMER, CLIENT, SUPPLIER OR PATIENT IS DISGRUNTLED
  • 18. Violence Is More Likely To Happen In Workplaces That…..
    • THAT HAVE NO COMPANY POLICY
    • MANAGERS THAT IGNORE THREATS AND SIGNS OF VIOLENCE
    • FAIL TO SCREEN NEW EMPLOYEES
    • FAIL TO PROVIDE TRAINING
    • TERMINATE EMPLOYEES WITHOUT DUE PROCESS
    • IGNORE EMPLOYEE’S COMPLAINTS ABOUT ANOTHER EMPLOYEE’S BEHAVIOR
  • 19. Violence Continued: CREATE A “TOXIC” WORK ENVIRONMENT SUBJECT EMPLOYEES TO FREQUENT CHANGE AND UNCERTAINTY ABOUT THEIR FUTURE INADEQUATE SECURITY MEASURES AND PROCEDURES IN PLACE
  • 20. Cost Of Workplace Violence COSTS TO EMPLOYERS: DECREASED/LOST PRODUCTIVITY MEDICAL, LEGAL, WORKERS COMPENSATION COSTS, COURT COSTS, OVERTIME TO MAKE UP LOST WORK, EMPLOYEE COUNSELING TARNISHED PUBLIC IMAGE
  • 21. Costs Continued: COST TO EMPLOYEES REDUCTION IN EMPLOYEE EARNINGS DUE TO TIME OFF PERMANENT EFFECTS ON HEALTH AND WELL- BEING OF THE INJURED EMPLOYEE HARDSHIP ON THE EMPLOYEE’S FAMILY DESTRUCTION OF EMPLOYEE MORALE INCREASED STRESS LEVEL AT WORK AND HOME DECREASED WAGES AND BENEFITS TO OFF-SET COSTS OF VIOLENCE
  • 22. Social Factors
    • ECONOMIC DOWNTURN
    • AVAILABILITY OF AND ACCESS TO WEAPONS
    • BREAKDOWN OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY
    • FAST-PACED, HIGH STRESS SOCIETY
    • MEDIA GLORIFICATION OF VIOLENCE
    • HOLIDAY STRESS
  • 23. Personal Factors
    • LOSS OF JOB, RAISE OR PROMOTION
    • BREAK-UP OF A RELATIONSHIP
    • FAMILY/MARITAL PROBLEMS
    • MONEY PROBLEMS
    • DRUG OR ALCOHOL ABUSE
    • STRESS
    • DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
  • 24. Causes Of Employee Disenchantment
    • CONFUSION
    • LACK OF TRUST
    • NOT BEING LISTENED TO
    • NO TIME TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
    • OFFICE POLITICS
    • SOMEONE SOLVING PROBLEMS FOR YOU
    • NOT KNOWING WHETHER YOU ARE SUCCEEDING
  • 25. Disenchantment Con’t:
    • INDISCRIMINATE RULES
    • BOSS TAKES CREDIT FOR YOUR WORK
    • SCARCE RESOURCES
    • BELIEVING YOU CAN’T MAKE A DIFFERENCE
    • MEANINGLESS JOB
  • 26. PROACTIVE VS REACTIVE
  • 27. THERE IS NO PROFILE OF A WORKPLACE VIOLENCE OFFENDER EACH CASE OR SITUATION MUST BE LOOKED AT INDIVIDUALLY AND JUDGED ON IT’S OWN INDIVIDUAL MERITS
  • 28. Behavioral Characteristics Of A Violent Employee
    • PAST VIOLENT BEHAVIOR
    • OBSESSION WITH WEAPONS
    • COMPULSIVE READING AND COLLECTING GUN MAGAZINES
    • DIRECT OR VEILED THREATS
    • INTIMIDATION OR INSTILLING FEAR IN OTHERS
    • OBSESSIVE INVOLVEMENT WITH THE JOB
  • 29. Characteristics Con’t:
    • FEW FRIENDS AND OUTSIDE INTERESTS
    • TENDS TO STAY TO HIM OR HERSELF
    • CAN BE DESCRIBED AS A LONER
    • UNWANTED ROMANTIC INTEREST IN A CO-WORKER
    • HYPER-SENSITIVE TO CRITICISM
    • HOLDS GRUDGES
  • 30. Behavioral Characteristics Continued
    • BLAMES OTHERS
    • DOES NOT ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY
    • FEELS ENTITLED
    • FREQUENTLY ANGRY AND ARGUMENTATIVE
    • DEPRESSED/SUICIDAL THOUGHTS
    • LOW FRUSTRATION TOLERANCE
  • 31. Employees Can Observe Behavior On The Job
    • DECREASED PRODUCTIVITY
    • MISSED DUE DATES
    • FREQUENT ABSENTEEISM
    • POOR WORK PERFORMANCE
    • DISTRUSTFUL OR SUSPICIOUS OF PEOPLE’S MOTIVES
    • EXTREME CHANGES IN BEHAVIOR
  • 32. Other Characteristics Include:
    • RECENT FAMILY, FINANCIAL OR PERSONAL PROBLEMS
    • INTEREST IN RECENTLY PUBLICIZED VIOLENT EVENTS
    • PREOCCUPATION WITH VIOLENT THEMES OR REVENGE
    • DRUG OR ALCOHOL ABUSE
  • 33. Statistically, Your Typical Workplace Violence Offender Is Likely to Be:
    • WHITE MALE
    • BETWEEN THE AGES OF 30 AND 50
    • LITTLE OR NO CRIMINAL RECORD
    • PARANOID/AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
    • UNSTABLE WORK HISTORY
    • TROUBLEMAKER
  • 34. Precipitating Factors: AN EMPLOYEE WHO POSESSES MANY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS MENTIONED AND WHO EXPERIENCES THE FOLLOWING MAY BE CONSIDERED HIGH RISK FOR ACTING OUT VIOLENTLY: SOMEONE WHO HAS BEEN REPRIMANDED, DEMOTED OR FIRED COUPLED WITH OTHER RECENT PERSONAL PROBLEMS
  • 35. Miscellaneous Factors
    • ROLE OF THE MEDIA
    • SUBSTANCE ABUSE/INHIBITIONS
    • ROLE OF FAMILY
    • NEW BUSINESS PRACTICES
    • MENTAL ILLNESS
    • SUICIDE BY COP
    • MANAGEMENT STYLE
  • 36. AN EMPLOYEE CAN MANIFEST ANY ONE OR ALL OF THESE TRAITS AND NEVER ACT OUT VIOLENTLY
  • 37. What Can You Do If You Determine That An Employee Is Potentially Dangerous? PROVIDE COACHING/TRAINING PROVIDE COUNSELING TRANSFER THE EMPLOYEE RESTRUCTURE THE POSITION TAKE DISCIPLINARY ACTION SUSPEND THE EMPLOYEE WITH OR WITHOUT PAY TERMINATE THE EMPLOYEE
  • 38. NO ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL STRATEGY
  • 39. Components Of A Workplace Violence Prevention Program PRE-EMPLOYMENT SCREENING ZERO-TOLERANCE POLICY APPROPRIATE DISCIPLINARY PROCEDURES GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES VIOLENCE PREVENTION TRAINING EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
  • 40. Components Of A Workplace Violence Prevention Program OUTPLACEMENT SERVICES SECURITY MEASURES ACCESS TO TRAINED ADVISORS CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAM CRISIS MANAGEMENT PLAN
  • 41. Managing Potential Workplace Violence
    • ESTABLISH POLICY MANAGEMENT TEAM
    • AWARENESS EDUCATION AND TRAINING
    • CORPORATE CENTRAL REPORTING POLICY
  • 42. Managing Potential Workplace Violence
    • EFFECTIVE SECURITY ORGANIZATION
    • INTAKE AND DATA ENTRY
    • INVESTIGATE ALL REPORTS
    • RISK ASSESSMENT
  • 43. Managing Potential Violence Con’t:
    • SITUATION CLASSIFICATION
    • RISK RESPONSE OPTIONS
    • SECURITY PLAN
    • CASE MANAGEMENT AND DOCUMENTATION
    • COMMUNICATE, COMMUNICATE,
    • COMMUNICATE !!!!!
  • 44. Crisis Management Team
    • SECURITY PERSONNEL
    • HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS
    • EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE COUNSELORS
    • MEDICAL PERSONNEL
    • SENIOR MANAGEMENT
  • 45.
    • LEGAL
    • UNION REPRESENTATIVES
    • INVESTIGATORS
    • LAW ENFORCEMENT
    • MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONAL
    • PUBLIC RELATIONS EXPERT
    Crisis Management Team
  • 46. WHAT DOES NOT WORK :
    • ONE SIZE FITS ALL APPROACH
    • RIGIDITY, INFLEXIBILITY
    • DENIAL OF PROBLEM
    • LACK OF COMMUNICATION
    • LACK OF COLLABORATION
    • IGNORING RESPECT
    • LACK OF CLEAR WRITTEN POLICY
    • NO DOCUMENTATION
    • PASSING AROUND “BAD APPLES”
    • LACK OF COMMITMENT TO SAFETY
  • 47. FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONTACT: SUPERVISORY SPECIAL AGENT EUGENE A. RUGALA NATIONAL CENTER FOR THE ANALYSIS OF VIOLENT CRIME BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS UNIT CRITICAL INCIDENT RESPONSE GROUP FBI ACADEMY QUANTICO, VIRGINIA 22135 TELEPHONE : 703-632-4321 EMAIL: earugala@fbiacademy.edu