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  • According to the Global Water Partnership’s definition, the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.
  • The decision-making during operational flood management on system of reservoirs is the extreme case of water management: the important decisions have to be made in very short time, especially when the response time of a catchment is very short (e.g. several hours). During the flood the control room staff communicates with meteorologists and hydrologists, on one side, to get the forecasts of precipitation and discharges as accurate as possible, and, on the other side, with the regional and local authorities who are responsible for the measures taken. The SG provides the opportunity for these different stakeholders to enhance their each other cooperation and train for the potential real flood situation. The greatest challenge in a flood situation is to estimate the time of the rainfall end, as most of the difficult decisions depend on it. The management of the system requires a detailed knowledge of the system, experience and skills. For developing such skills the active methods like SG are more effective than passive ones. The other players in the game, like decision makers from the local and regional administration, can take part and get acquainted with the reservoir management problems and discuss their concerns (about the evacuation etc.) with the control room staff.
  • positive interdependence, individual accountability, face-to-face interaction, appropriate use of collaborative skills, self-assessment of team functioning
  • S imulation game of operational flood management simulation game of operational flood management (SG). The SG models the system of four reservoirs in Ohře river catchment (Czech Republic, Germany). The SG was realized during two days workshop (11th and. 12th November 2008) at the Povodí Ohře headquarters (Ohře river catchment water administration, governmental organization) in Chomotov, Czech Republic.
  • Representatives of local and regional authorities for environment (3 in each team) or crisis management (2 in each team). These team members are responsible for decision making during flood like warning, evacuations etc. They provided local knowledge, and - Experts at manipulating dams – a control room staff of other reservoirs systems in the Czech Republic (2 in each team). They provided the expert knowledge on dam operations during the flood.
  • The game software simulates meteorological events and hydrological answers. For these purposes the experienced precipitation event was selected and artificially increased for the SG with regard to the possible effect of climate change. The game software works in virtual time steps of different length. Regarding the characteristics of modeled precipitation event the time steps are longer at beginning of the SG and shorter later.
  • The SG environment was set in the same way as an operational control room would be: the standard hardware and software equipment of the operational control room was provided to the playing teams. The tasks for the playing teams were the following: - to manipulate the dams in an optimal way, - to decide about warnings and evacuations, - to deal with unexpected situations. Hydrological answer on individual teams manipulation was simulated and then provided to the teams in same form as it is provided to control room staff during the real flood situation.
  • The teams were in seperated
  • The tasks for the playing teams were the following:
  • “ Simulation control centre” (organizers of game and observers) took control of the SG including the simulation of the background (media, public, unexpected situations).
  • Hardware and software worked properly and simulation of hydrological answer was ready in each simulation time step. Each team was capable to manipulate the dams in virtual time steps. The SG is executable in given setup described above.
  • For the evaluation of the SG as a participatory process, the members of playing teams were asked to fill in a questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on effectivity criteria of participatory processes as they were defined by Rowe a Frewer (2000, 2004). The questionnaire consisted both qualitative and quantitative questions and was divided in two parts: expectations of participants before the SG perceptions and feedback after the SG

Transcript

  • 1. The simulation game on operational flood management: the tool for implementation of IWRM in the flood protection strategy Marta Martínková 1 ,Václav Klečka 2 , Pavel Eger 2 , Šárka Blažková 1 1 T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute, public research institution Podbabská 30, 160 00 Praha 6 Czech Republic e-mail: marta_martinkova@vuv.cz internet: http://www.vuv.cz 2 Povodí Ohře, Bezručova 4219 430 03 Chomutov Czech Republic
  • 2. Introduction
    • Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)
    • promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.
    • Adaptive management
    • emphasizes the limitations of our knowledge
    • considers different types of uncertainty in the management process and the system itself
    • Collaboration and learning are central elements.
  • 3. Operational flood management:
    • Many uncertainties (e.g. in forecasts)
    • Decisions about operations have to be made in short time
    • far-reaching consequences of decisions
    • It is physically impossible to be prepared for catastrophic flood in such way that prevents any damages
  • 4.
    • Increased coordination and cooperation among stakeholders involved in flood situation
    • Flood damages distinctively decreased
    Motivation:
  • 5. Motivation 2:
    • T he intensity of rainfall and consequently the frequency of floods are expected to increase globally under climate change and catastrophic floods would occur also in areas non-affected to date (Bates et al. 2008).
  • 6. Motivation 3 :
    • Active methods of learning are more effective than passive ones.
    • Col l aboration enhances learning.
  • 7. Objective:
    • To enhance the understanding, to increase the integration and the cooperation among different water resources management stakeholders preferably during the flood event.
  • 8. Method: Cooperative learning
    • Heterogenous groups are engaged in a common task in which each individual depends on and is accountable to each other.
    • The common task:
    • to operate the reservoirs in an optimal way during a computer based simulation of operational flood management
  • 9. Workshop on SG:
    • The SG was realized during two days workshop (11th and. 12th November 2008)
    • at the Ohre River Board ( Povodí Ohře) headquarters in Chomotov, Czech Republic.
    • To demonstrate clearly the uncertainties connected to using the meteorological forecasts and the uncertainties connected to operational decisions during flood.
    • To check the possibilities for using the SG for the training of experts and water management students.
  • 10.  
  • 11. 4 playing teams:
    • Representatives of local and regional authorities - environment departments (3 in each team) and crisis management (2 in each team).
    • LOCAL KNOWLEDGE
    • Operational flood management experts : a control room staff (dispatchers) of other reservoirs systems in the Czech Republic (2 in each team).
    • EXPERT KNOWLEDGE
  • 12. Set - up of SG :
    • The outputs of the game software has to be similar to the outputs of the real operation software, but has to be simplified so that they could be quickly understood by
    • non-experts.
    • The information on inputs and outputs of the individual steps of SG has to illustrate properly the procedure and the involved uncertainties.
  • 13. The SG simulates precipitation (magnified experienced event), inflow in reservoirs and the effect of operations. Set - up of game cont.
  • 14.
    • the standard hardware and software equipment of the operational control room was provided to the playing teams.
    • Hydrological answer on individual teams’ operation was simulated and then provided to the teams in same form as it is provided to control room staff during the real flood situation.
    Set - up of game cont.
  • 15.  
  • 16. The tasks :
    • to operate the reservoirs in an optimal way,
    • to decide about warnings and evacuations,
    • to deal with unexpected situations.
  • 17. Simulation game
    • works in virtual time steps of different length. Regarding the characteristics of modeled precipitation event the time steps are longer at beginning of the SG and shorter later.
  • 18. Virtual time R eal time
    • RUN (12 or 24 hours)
    • STOP
    • STOP
    • 20 min
    • 10-20 min: teams analyses situation + available forecasts
    • decide about operations
    • 20 min: Computation
    • of hydrological answer for each team (effect of operations)
    total 213 hours total 7:35 (8) hours
  • 19. “ Simulation control centre”:
    • Organizers of SG
    • Observers
    • Took control of the SG process.
    • Simulated the backround (media).
    • Simulated the unexpected situation.
  • 20. Results : Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Optimal operations
  • 21. Evaluation :
    • effectivity criteria of participatory processes ( Rowe a Frewer 2000, 2004).
    • expectations of participants before the game
    • perceptions and feedback after the game
  • 22. Results cont.
    • 1) More than a half of the respondents fully agreed that after the SG the communication with other stakeholders would be easier than before.
    • 2) The non-expert participants expressed that they better understand their own and others’ roles during the flood.
    • 3) They also agreed that their view on floods had been shifted and that SG helped to improve their knowledge on floods.
    • 4) More than a half of all respondents fully agreed that the purpose of SG had been explained well.
    • 5) The most of the respondents agreed that they enjoyed the SG and that the whole workshop left a good impression.
  • 23. Conclusions
    • The realization of the SG of operational flood management proved that it is effective tool for the enhancement of the integration and the cooperation among the water management stakeholders.
    • It can be also used for the purposes of professionals’ and students’ training.
  • 24. Outlook
    • New realisations (November 2009: Karlovy Vary/Karlsbad regional authority)
    • Modification of SG for simulation of droughts