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The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
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The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)

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  • 1. The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) Decision-Making, Planning and Organization of CSDP Field Missions - Updated Interactive Guide - ZIF - Berlin, April 2010 All photographs in this presentation by courtesy of the Council of the European Union or the Audiovisual Service of the European Commission Update 2010 With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009, the European Security and Defence Policy has been renamed and a number of institutional changes have been enacted. Click here for an overview Furthermore, a structural reconfiguration in the Council Secretariat is underway with a view to strengthening the EU’s crisis response capacity by integrating civilian and military planning in a single directorate. Click here for an overview Finally, the Interactive Mission Map at the end of this guide has again been updated. Center for International Peace Operations
  • 2. <ul><li>This presentation covers the decision-making and planning process from the first formal discussions on potential action until the launch of a CSDP mission. The process is divided into three major phases : </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1 - Development of a Crisis Management Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 - Development of Strategic Options </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3 - Concrete Operational Planning </li></ul><ul><li>The process as presented is a model for CSDP operations with military, police and civilian components. Should any of these components not be present in an operation or should the member states be in general agreement about a mission early on, certain steps in the planning process may be left out, contracted, or inverted . Hence, the presentation gives a simplified view of CSDP structures, also leaving out less important steps or ongoing interaction, e.g. with the European Commission (EC). However, certain key Council decisions on Crisis Management Concept, Joint Action, Operation Plan, and on the launch of the operation are indispensable – they form the basis of the three phases mentioned above. </li></ul><ul><li>By mouse-clicking the process evolves gradually, providing information on every step of the decision-making process. For more information on the different institutions and bodies within CSDP, please click on them directly at any time during the presentation. If your computer is connected to the internet, you can also use the hyperlinks integrated in the information texts, leading to EU websites, treaties or Council decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Please note that the on-screen presentation of bodies involved in the process does not reflect any hierarchical order between these bodies. There is, however, a functional distinction between and . </li></ul><ul><li>All institutions dealt with are located in EU‘s former “Second Pillar“, the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), where decisions regarding the Common Security and Defence Policy continue to be taken exclusively at intergovernmental level . The European Commission’s crisis response tools are not covered. Moreover, under the provisions of the Lisbon Treaty the Commission has lost its previous consultative association with the CSDP planning process; it is now solely represented through the ‘double-hatted’ High Representative/Vice President. </li></ul><ul><li>© ZIF , Berlin . Bastian Richter, ZIF </li></ul>How to use this presentation? click here to jump to Interactive Mission Map at the end of the presentation Click to continue… All photographs in this presentation by courtesy of the Council of the European Union or the Audiovisual Service of the European Commission Audiovisual Service, European Commission policy-making bodies advisory bodies
  • 3. Decision-making bodies in CFSP/CSDP (former ‘2 nd Pillar’) Click to continue… chairs sets policy guidelines advises advises sets policy guidelines Click on any of the boxes here or during the presentation to get further information... Policy Planning & Early Warning Unit Council General Secretariat Political and Security Committee (PSC) Joint Situation Centre (SITCEN) Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (CIVCOM) EU Military Committee (EUMC) Committee of the Permanent Representatives (COREPER) Foreign Affairs Council policy-making body advisory body EU Military Staff (EUMS) Civ. Planning & Conduct Capability (CPCC) High Representative Head of the European External Action Service
  • 4. Start of the Mission Planning Process…
  • 5. Member state delegates in the PSC conclude that EU action is appropriate and assign HR and the Secretariat to work out a Crisis Management Concept (CMC) Secretariat (supported by the CPCC and/or the EUMS) develops & presents a draft Crisis Management Concept (CMC) based on the conclusions of a Fact Finding Mission Identification of a crisis - close interaction between the HR, her advisory bodies in the Council Secretariat and, possibly, with member states PSC discusses the draft CMC and requests advice on civilian and military aspects PSC agrees on CMC and presents it to COREPER/Council, pointing out specifics and different options COREPER discusses the CMC. Decisions in COREPER are almost always confirmed by the Council. Council approves Crisis Management Concept High Representative (HR) Policy Unit Other relevant Secretariat units Political and Security Committee (PSC) COREPER Foreign Affairs Council SITCEN EU Military Committee CIVCOM
  • 6. PSC evaluates all strategic options, taking into account the Commission‘s view. Then PSC forwards its draft decision on MSO, PSO and CSO to COREPER/ Council. CIVCOM forwards PSO‘s & and MSO‘s to PSC PSC requests CIVCOM to develop Police Strategic Options (PSO) & other Civilian Strategic Options (CSO) PSC requests EUMC to develop Military Strategic Options (MSO) The Council assigns PSC to develop strategic options on the basis of the CMC. EUMS prioritises MSOs, reviews military capabilities and gives advice to EUMC EUMC forwards MSOs to PSC The Council formally decides on a Joint Action which codifies the mandate, its objectives, financial arrangements etc. This decision also entails whether the military component of the mission will use NATO assets (Berlin Plus) or rely exclusively on EU command structures and capabilities. The chain of command as well as the modalities for the setup of a military OHQ depend on this decision. ( see information box on military command options ) CIVCOM cooperates with the CPCC to develop and prioritise PSOs & CSOs Political and Security Committee (PSC) COREPER Foreign Affairs Council CIVCOM EU Military Committee CPCC EU Military Staff
  • 7. EUMC presents the military CONOPS and provides advice and recommendations, comprising an evaluation of EUMS CIVCOM presents the police and civilian CONOPS and provides advice and recommendations The Council tasks PSC to initiate operational planning PSC provides the political/ strategic guidance needed by EUMC to work out an Initiating Military Directive (IMD) which gives basic instructions to the appointed Operation Commander (OpCdr) EUMC presents the draft IMD (worked out by the EUMS) PSC approves the Initiating Military Directive (IMD) OpCdr Operation Commander and his military headquarters (OHQ) develop a draft military CONOPS Military Planning Stage Civilian Planning Stage PSC requests operational planning on a range of police and civilian measures a) CONOPS – Concept of Operations CPCC develops draft police & civilian CONOPS Council approves the CONOPS PSC agrees on police, civilian, and military CONOPS and submits them to the Council Note: Occasionally the formulation of a police/civilian CONOPS has been initiated or even completed before the Council has formally agreed on a Joint Action (Phase 2). The results of this operational planning then form the basis of the mandate integrated in the Joint Action . COREPER Foreign Affairs Council Political and Security Committee (PSC) CIVCOM CPCC EU Military Committee
  • 8. Upon request of the PSC the Operation Commander supported by EUMS works out a draft military OPLAN including Rules of Engagement. Furthermore the process of force generation is initiated. Council agrees on final OPLANs CIVCOM presents the police and civilian OPLAN EUMC presents the military OPLAN Launch of Operation A “Committee of Contributors” usually supervises and supports the mission‘s military and/or civilian component b) OPLAN – Operation Plan OpCdr Upon request of the PSC the police and/or civilian H ead o f M ission supported by the CPCC work out a draft OPLAN . Furthermore the process of force generation is initiated. Military Planning Stage Civilian Planning Stage OpCdr presents draft military OPLAN to EUMC Pol HoM/Civ HoM present draft police and civilian OPLAN to CIVCOM PSC agrees on a police/civilian and a military OPLAN and submits them to the Council The Council tasks PSC to develop the final Operation Plan Note: As the legal basis for an operation, the EU and the host nation usually sign a “Status of Forces Agreement” (SOFA) for the military component and/or a “ Status of Mission Agreement” (SOMA) for the civilian component, both usually preceded by a “Letter of Intent”. However, in most cases the SOFA/SOMA is signed only after the operation has started, or even towards its end. COREPER Foreign Affairs Council Political and Security Committee (PSC) Pol HoM Civ HoM CIVCOM EU Military Committee EU Military Staff CPCC
  • 9. click here to finish Past and Current ESDP/CSDP Operations (04/10) ONGOING MISSIONS COMPLETED MISSIONS Click here to fade in/out details click here to jump back to first slide By clicking on a mission tag you get to the mission’s website… ARTEMIS AMM EU supp. to AMIS II EUPOL Afghanistan EUJUST THEMIS EUJUST LEX EU BAM Moldova EU NAVFOR EUTM Somalia EUPOL PROXIMA CONCORDIA EUPAT EUPOL RD Congo EUSEC RD Congo EUFOR RD Congo EUPOL COPPS EU BAM Rafah EUFOR Tchad/RCA EUPT Kosovo ICO/EUSR EULEX EU SSR Guinea-Bissau EUFOR – ALTHEA EUPM EUMM EUPM: European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herze-govina (since 1/03) EUFOR – ALTHEA:  EU Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 12/04) EUPOL RD Congo: EU Police Mission in DRC (since 4/05 – previously EUPOL RD Kinshasa) EUJUST LEX: EU Integrated Rule of Law Mission for Iraq (since 7/05, implemented mostly in Europe) EUSEC DR Congo: EU mission to provide advice and assistance for security sector reform in the DRC (since 7/05) EU BAM Rafah: EU Border Assistance Mission at Rafah Crossing Point in the Palestinian Territories (since 11/05) EU BAM Moldova: Border Assistance Mission at Moldovan/Ukrainian border (since 12/05) EUPOL COPPS: EU Police Mission in the Palestinian Territories (since 1/06) EUPOL Afghanistan: EU Police Mission in Afghanistan (since 6/07) EULEX Kosovo: EU Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (since 02/08) ICO/EUSR: International Civilian Office/European Special Representative in Kosovo (since 02/08) EU SSR Guinea-Bissau: EU Mission is Support of Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissao (since 06/08) EUMM Georgia: EU Monitoring Mission to Georgia (since 09/08) EU NAVFOR Somalia/Operation Atalanta: EU Naval Force off the Somali Coast (since 12/08) EUTM Somalia: EU Training Mission (since 02/2010, carried out in Uganda) CONCORDIA: EU Military Operation in Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (3/03 – 12/03) ARTEMIS: EU Military Operation in Democratic Republic of the Congo (6/03 – 9/03) EUPOL PROXIMA: EU Police Mission in Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (12/03 – 12/05) EUJUST THEMIS: EU Rule of Law Mission to Georgia (7/04 – 7/05) AMM: Aceh Monitoring Mission (8/05 – 12/06) EUFOR RD Congo: EU Military Operation in the DRC (6/06 – 11/06) EUMM: EU Monitoring Mission (Western Balkans; 01/2001-12/2007) EU supporting action to the African Union mission in Darfur AMIS II (8/05-12/07) EUPAT: EU Police Advisory Team in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (12/05 – 06/06) EUPT Kosovo: EU Planning Team in Kosovo (4/07- 06/08) EUFOR Tchad/RCA: EU Force in Eastern Tchad & North Eastern CAR (10/07-03/09) EU BAM EUMM COMPLETED MISSIONS ONGOING MISSIONS
  • 10. Ludwigkirchplatz 3-4 10719 Berlin Germany Phone ++49 (0)30 – 520 05 65 – 0 Fax ++49 (0)30 – 520 05 65 – 90 www.zif-berlin.org [email_address]
  • 11. <ul><li>Catherine Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland </li></ul><ul><li>Key Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed by the European Council for a five year term starting 1 December 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>The new HR is Vice-President of the European Commission and combines the former </li></ul><ul><li>posts of High Representative for CFSP and External Relations (RELEX) Commissioner. </li></ul><ul><li>The HR chairs the Council of Foreign Affairs and has the right of initiative in foreign policy, </li></ul><ul><li>security and defence, either on her own or conjointly with the Commission. </li></ul><ul><li>Head of the new European External Action Service (EEAS). </li></ul><ul><li>Main Tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>With regard to CFSP/CSDP, the High Representative’s core responsibility is to oversee the implementation </li></ul><ul><li>of decisions taken by the Council of the European Union and the European Council (Art. 43.2 TEU). </li></ul><ul><li>Further tasks and functions: International representation of the EU, appointment of EU Special </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives, Secretary-General of the Western European Union (due to cease its activities in 2011), Head of the European Defence Agency , chair of the board of the European Union Institute for Security Studies . </li></ul>Information: Javier Solana, High Representative from 1999 – 2009 The post of High Representative for CFSP was first created and added to that of Secretary-General of the Council in the Amsterdam Treaty ; the former NATO-SG Javier Solana was appointed the first SG/HR in 1999. Solana played an important role in the establishment of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) , amongst others by promoting the integration of structures and resources of the Western European Union (WEU). Nevertheless, the High Representative was and remains dependent on the consensus of the member states in the Council. In June 2003 the European Council of Thessaloniki tasked the SG/HR to develop a European Security Strategy (ESS) , which was adopted by the Brussels European Council in December 2003. High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Commission Profile Council Profile
  • 12. Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit (Policy Unit) <ul><li>Key Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>Set up on account of declaration No. 6 annexed to the 1997 Amsterdam Treaty , naming the following tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Monitoring and analysing developments in areas relevant to the CFSP” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Providing assessments of the Union's foreign and security policy interests and identifying areas where the CFSP could focus in future” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Providing timely assessments and early warning of events or situations which may have significant repercussions for the Union's foreign and security policy, including potential political crises” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Producing, at the request of either the Council or the Presidency or on its own initiative, argued policy options papers to be presented under the responsibility of the Presidency as a contribution to policy formulation in the Council, and which may contain analyses, recommendations and strategies for the CFSP” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divided into geographical task forces </li></ul><ul><li>Officially located at the Council General Secretariat (DG-E), with about 40 staff drawn from the member states, the Secretariat and the Commission, but reports directly to the High Representative </li></ul><ul><li>Access to the political reporting from Commission delegations and information provided by ECHO ( Humanitarian Aid Department of the European Commission) </li></ul>
  • 13. Joint Situation Centre (SITCEN) <ul><li>Key Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>Set up on 1 January 2003 by the Policy Unit to coincide with the start of the European Union Police Mission (EUPM) in Bosnia </li></ul><ul><li>Located in the Council General Secretariat to provide a 24/7 intelligence, analysis and early-warning capability and to act as a communications hub for the High Representative and the EU Special Representatives </li></ul><ul><li>SITCEN was established to bring together the expertise of civilian and military staff from the Policy Unit and the military Situation Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Its main task is to monitor developments in crisis regions and to provide risk assessments for the High Representative , the PSC and the EUMC . </li></ul><ul><li>SITCEN is also intended to improve the cooperation on the field of intelligence cooperation between member states. For that purpose and for setting up a secure communications network, SITCEN also includes intelligence officers. </li></ul><ul><li>SITCEN comprises about 100 staff from the Council Secretariat and seconded from member states. </li></ul>
  • 14. Council General Secretariat <ul><li>Key Facts </li></ul><ul><li>With the launch of ESDP in 1999, the CFSP-unit inside Council General Secretariat was enlarged to Directorate-General E (DG-E) , dealing with External Relations (one of eight DGs altogether) </li></ul><ul><li>Among other 2nd Pillar bodies, DG-E deals with planning and concrete execution of CFSP actions and CSDP missions. </li></ul><ul><li>Current restructuring of the Council Secretariat </li></ul><ul><li>Following recommendations made by Javier Solana to increase the efficiency of the EU’s crisis response, in December 2008 the European Council agreed to endorse the establishment of “a new, single civilian-military strategic planning structure” within DG-E ( Presidency Conclusions, Annex II ). </li></ul><ul><li>The new Crisis Management and Planning Directorate (CMPD) integrates the former Directorates VIII (Defence Aspects) and IX (Civilian Crisis Management) as well as the former Civilian and Military Planning Cell (CivMilCell); it is likely to play an important role in the new European External Action Service . </li></ul><ul><li>The CMPD is subdivided into five units: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(I) Civilian Capabilities, (II) Horizontal and Institutional Issues, (III) Integrated Strategic Planning, (IV) Partnerships, Military Capabilities, (V) Exercises, Training, Lessons, Concepts and Civilian Capabilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moreover, DG-E comprises a number of functional and geographical Directorates and Units relevant to CSDP, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development & ACP, Multilateral Economic Affairs and non-EU Western Europe; Americas, United Nations, Counter-Terrorism; Western Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia; Non-Proliferation; Peace and Security in Africa. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: Both the EUMS and the CPCC are tasked with operational planning; the CPCC, moreover, is in charge of conduct, coordination and mission support. The Crisis Management and Planning Directorate deals with horizontal issues (concepts, capabilities, training, etc.) of CSDP and will also remain in charge of strategic planning, incl. the preparation of the Crisis Management Concept (CMC). </li></ul>
  • 15. Political and Security Committee (PSC) <ul><li>The central policy-making body of the CSDP </li></ul><ul><li>Key Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>Set up as a permanent committee of high officials/ambassadors by </li></ul><ul><li>the Helsinki European Council in December 1999 and approved by the </li></ul><ul><li>Nice European Council a year later </li></ul><ul><li>Legal basis: Article 38, Consolidated Treaty on European Union (post-Lisbon), defining the </li></ul><ul><li> following tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ monitor the international situation in the areas covered by the CFSP and contribute to the definition of policies by delivering opinions to the Council at the request of the Council or of the High Representative [...] or on its own initiative“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ exercise, under the responsibility of the Council, political control and strategic direction of crisis management operations.“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ for the duration of a crisis management operation, as determined by the Council, to take the relevant decisions concerning the political control and strategic direction of the operation“ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PSC meets at least twice weekly in ambassadorial formation in Brussels and less frequently as a board of the political directors </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemented by one delegate of the Commission </li></ul><ul><li>The PSC develops resolutions regarding the CFSP/CSDP, but does not finally decide </li></ul><ul><li>PSC members are in close contact with their foreign ministries and represent their governments’ position in the PSC </li></ul><ul><li>The PSC is chaired by a representative of the High Representative ; in case of a crisis the High Representative can personally take the chair </li></ul><ul><li>see Council decisions to establish PSC, EUMC and EUMS </li></ul>
  • 16. Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (CIVCOM) <ul><li>Key Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>CIVCOM was set up by Council decision May in 2000 as a standing advisory body; it provides advice and expertise to the PSC on various aspects of civilian crisis management </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of member state representatives plus one delegate of the Commission with consultative status </li></ul><ul><li>As codified in the guidelines for the work of CIVCOM (annex of the document of adoption), its tasks are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to assist the PSC and other council bodies by “acquiring a comprehensive view of the means available to the EU and to Member States to respond to a crisis“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to improve EU´s crisis management capability, e.g. by developing and implementing lessons learned/ common standards and best-practice, helping to ensure a higher degree of coherence in EU-strategies, helping to improve co-ordination of resources and exchange of information in the EU etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, CIVCOM oversees the accomplishment of the civilian headline goals (currently the “ Civilian Headline Goal 2010 “), set by the Council </li></ul><ul><li>The Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) provides essential planning assistance and support to CIVCOM, which also closely co-operates with DG-E of the Council General Secretariat </li></ul>
  • 17. European Union Military Committee (EUMC) <ul><li>Key Facts EUMC: </li></ul><ul><li>EUMC is the highest military forum within the EU and consists </li></ul><ul><li>of the member states’ chiefs of defence who meet at least </li></ul><ul><li>twice a year </li></ul><ul><li>The national chiefs of defence are regularly represented by their </li></ul><ul><li>permanent military representatives in Brussels who meet at least weekly </li></ul><ul><li>EUMC was set up 2001 by Council decision; its main task is to advise the PSC on military crisis management </li></ul><ul><li>and to exercise military direction of all military activities within the EU framework </li></ul><ul><li>The EUMC chairman participates in meetings of the Council when defence matters are discussed, and acts as </li></ul><ul><li>military advisor for the High Representative </li></ul><ul><li>The EUMC is supported by the European Union Military Staff (EUMS) </li></ul>see Council decisions to establish PSC, EUMC and EUMS Website of the EUMC
  • 18. European Union Military Staff (EUMS) <ul><li>Key Facts EUMS: </li></ul><ul><li>EUMS is the supporting body for the EUMC and provides in-house military expertise for the High Representative . It has about 200 military personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Assigned to conduct early warning, situation assessment, and strategic planning and to develop Military Strategic Options; it participates in policy formulation and assesses and reviews the development of military capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>The EUMS is a directorate-general of the Council General Secretariat ; its staff participates in the Joint Situation Centre (SITCEN) </li></ul><ul><li>EUMS has five directorates: Concepts and Capabilities, Intelligence, Operations, Logistics, and Communications and Information Systems </li></ul>Website of the EUMS see Council decisions to establish PSC, EUMC and EUMS Information: 3 options for military command & control For larger operations with recourse on NATO assets and capabilities under the ‘Berlin Plus’ agreement (such as ALTHEA in Bosnia) NATO’s command structure in Mons (Belgium) is being used. To command autonomous EU-led military operations (such as ARTEMIS in the DRC), national HQs are ‘multinationalised’ – currently, France, Germany, Greece, Italy and the United Kingdom have made their national military headquarters available for EU operations. Moreover, in 2004 the former Civ-Mil Cell within EUMS was tasked to set up a Brussels-based EU Operations Centre . Since 1 January 2007 it is ready for activation; it is permanently staffed with a nucleus of eight officers and can be reinforced with a total of about 90 staff from the EUMS and the Secretariat and with seconded officials from the member states. With the OpsCentre, the EU has thus gained a third option for commanding battlegroup-sized operations (up to 2,000 soldiers). The EU Military Staff as such has no command function, as opposed to the CPCC which commands civilian missions.
  • 19. Committee of the Permanent Representatives (COREPER) <ul><li>Co mité des Re présentants Per manents </li></ul><ul><li>Key Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>COREPER is the preparatory body for the ministerial Council meetings and consists of the member states‘ highest ranked ambassadors (heads of mission). COREPER covers the full scope of EU policies. It is chaired by a representative of the member state which holds the presidency in the General Affairs Council. </li></ul><ul><li>COREPER was set up in 1958. Its current legal basis is Article 16 of the consolidated TEU . </li></ul><ul><li>COREPER meets in two formations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COREPER I: Deputy Permanent Representatives, e.g. dealing with mainly technical matters, mostly meeting twice a week (on Wednesday, additionally on Friday). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COREPER II: Permanent Representatives, dealing with political, commercial, economic or institutional matters (among them CFSP / CSDP), meeting at least once a week (on Thursday). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COREPER coordinates and oversees the work of some 250 committees and working groups which prepare the political issues of the Council’s agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>Less important topics are mostly decided on by COREPER without being issued again in the Council. Due to the fact that members of COREPER are in constant and close contact with their home governments, COREPER‘s decisions in terms of CFSP and CSDP are usually simply confirmed by the Council. </li></ul>
  • 20. Council of the European Union – Foreign Affairs Council <ul><li>Highest decision-making body for CFSP and CSDP </li></ul><ul><li>Key Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>The Council of the European Union is the highest decision-making body within </li></ul><ul><li>the EU’s intergovernmental Second Pillar. </li></ul><ul><li>The Foreign Affairs Council is the foreign ministers‘ formation of the Council dealing with </li></ul><ul><li>the Union’s external relations; it is chaired by the High Representative . </li></ul><ul><li>Its main task according to Article 16 of the Consolidated Treaty on European Union is to </li></ul><ul><li>“ elaborate the Union's external action on the basis of strategic guidelines laid down by the European Council and ensure that the Union's action is consistent.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Council’s agenda is prepared by COREPER . Issues that COREPER has already agreed on are usually formally approved by the Council, which only dwells on select topics at the highest intergovernmental level. </li></ul><ul><li>Unanimity: Decisions related to CSDP have to be taken by consensus (as codified in Article 31 TEU ). Member states have the option of a constructive abstention, obligating them to give a formal explanation on their reasons. A decision is blocked if more than one third of the member states abstains from voting or any state vetoes the decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Information: The General Affairs and External Relations (GAERC) Council </li></ul><ul><li>Until the entering into force of the Lisbon Treaty, the GAERC was the Council formation responsible for ESDP. It was chaired by the foreign minister of the rotating Council presidency and met on a monthly basis. Since 2002, the GAERC convened in separate sessions for general affairs and external relations. In the latter case the Secretary-General/High Representative for CFSP (Javier Solana) also took part at Council meetings. On certain occasions member states‘ defence ministers would also attend, as well as Commission delegates. With the provisions of the Lisbon Treaty enacted, two entirely separate Council formations have emerged from the former GAERC, the General Affairs Council and the Foreign Affairs Council. </li></ul>Website of the Council
  • 21. Decision-making bodies in CFSP/CSDP (former ‘2 nd Pillar’) Click to continue… chairs advises advises sets policy guidelines Click on any of the boxes here or during the presentation to get further information... Policy Planning & Early Warning Unit Council General Secretariat Political and Security Committee (PSC) Joint Situation Centre (SITCEN) Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (CIVCOM) EU Military Committee (EUMC) Committee of the Permanent Representatives (COREPER) Foreign Affairs Council policy-making body advisory body EU Military Staff (EUMS) Civ. Planning & Conduct Capability (CPCC) High Representative Head of the European External Action Service
  • 22. Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) <ul><li>Key Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>On 18 June 2007, the EU Council agreed on a new chain of command for civilian ESDP operations amid a growing demand for civilian crisis management operations </li></ul><ul><li>The CPCC is responsible for the planning and conduct of civilian missions, and is headed by a Civilian Operations Commander who exercises command and control (C²) at the strategic level of civilian missions </li></ul><ul><li>The CPCC staff is divided into </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a Conduct of Operations Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a Horizontal Coordination Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a Mission Support Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The CPCC has a total of about 60 staff. It draws on expertise and staff from the Council Secretariat and also seconds personnel from member states. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the take-over of mission planning and conduct by the CPCC, the other relevant Directorates within the Council Secretariat are mainly tasked with political and strategic guidance functions </li></ul><ul><li>The CPCC is placed under the political control and strategic direction of the Political and Security Committee (PSC) and the overall authority of the High Representative </li></ul><ul><li>It will provide planning and support assistance to CIVCOM, similar to EUMS’s assistance to the EUMC </li></ul>See website of the CPCC and the Civilian Operations Commander
  • 23. Treaty of Lisbon – Important changes in security and defence <ul><li>New high-profile positions </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent President of the European Council , elected for 2.5 years (Herman van Rompuy) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In charge of the external representation of the Union at the level of Heads of State and Government. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The new ‘double-hatted‘ High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (Catherine Ashton) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combining the posts of High Representative for CFSP, External Relations Commissioner and Vice-President of the European Commission, and heading the new European External Action Service . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More flexibility in intergovernmental cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent Structured Cooperation (Art. 42.6 Consolidated Treaty on European Union - TEU): enables cooperation between pioneer groups of member states “whose military capabilities fulfil higher criteria and which have made more binding commitments to one another in this area.” The Permanent Structured Cooperation can be established through Qualified Majority Voting (Art. 46.2 TEU) and is supposed to cover common defence projects and the pooling of assets; it is not a mechanism for the deployment of missions. </li></ul><ul><li>Art. 44.1 of the TEU also formalises the practice to entrust a group of member states with the launch and execution of a CSDP mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Importantly, however, in the Council of 27 decision-making in security and defence remains unanimous (Art. 42.4 TEU). </li></ul><ul><li>Broader scope of tasks </li></ul><ul><li>The scope of the so-called Petersberg tasks has been expanded to include “joint disarmament operations; military advice and assistance tasks, peace-making and post-conflict stabilisation; conflict prevention and post-conflict stabilization missions” and also contribute to combating terrorism “in supporting third countries in their territories” (Art. 43.1 TEU). </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Lisbon contains a defence clause (Art. 42.7 TEU) which, in accordance to Article 51 of the UN Charter, calls on member states to provide aid and assistance to a member state in case it falls victim to an armed aggression, and a solidarity clause (Art. 222 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union - TFEU) , calling on the Union to act jointly and to assist a member state in case of a terrorist attack or other disaster, should this member state so request. </li></ul>Suggested reading: Quille, Gerrard 2008, The Lisbon Treaty and its implications for CFSP/ESDP . Briefing Paper, Policy Department, European Parliament. Click to return…
  • 24. European Council – Summit of the Heads of State and Government <ul><li>Key Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>With the Treaty of Lisbon, the European Council has become an official EU institution chaired by a permanent President (Herman van Rompuy), meeting twice every six months. </li></ul><ul><li>The European Council defines the general political direction and priorities of the EU; it does not exercise legislative functions. </li></ul><ul><li>The European Council consists of the Heads of State and Government of the Member States, together with its President and the President of the Commission. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy shall take part in its work. </li></ul><ul><li>The President: </li></ul><ul><li>The President is elected by qualified majority; his/her term of office is 2.5 years, renewable once. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Article 15 (6) of the consolidated Treaty on the European Union , the President of the European Council: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chairs it and drives forward its work; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensures the preparation and continuity of the work of the European Council in cooperation with the President of the Commission, and on the basis of the work of the General Affairs Council; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>endeavours to facilitate cohesion and consensus within the European Council; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shall present a report to the European Parliament after each of the meetings of the European Council. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The President of the European Council shall, at his level and in that capacity, ensure the external representation of the Union on issues concerning its common foreign and security policy , without prejudice to the powers of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. </li></ul>Website of the President Website of the European Council
  • 25. European External Action Service <ul><li>Key Facts EEAS: </li></ul><ul><li>The new EEAS is headed by the High Representative and is likely to form the centrepiece of the post-Lisbon EU external policy apparatus. Currently, its composition, institutional arrangements, and concrete mandate are still under negotiation. It might not be fully operational before 2012. </li></ul><ul><li>Among other things, the EEAS might bring together the external policy domains of the Commission such as development assistance and humanitarian aid with those of the Council such as security and defence in order to achieve a coherent European crisis management. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Article 27.3 of the Treaty on European Union , </li></ul><ul><li>“ (…) the High Representative shall be assisted by a European External Action Service. This service shall work in cooperation with the diplomatic services of the Member States and shall comprise officials from relevant departments of the General Secretariat of the Council and of the Commission as well as staff seconded from national diplomatic services of the Member States. The organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service shall be established by a decision of the Council. The Council shall act on a proposal from the High Representative after consulting the European Parliament and after obtaining the consent of the Commission. </li></ul><ul><li>For further information on the development of the EEAS see </li></ul><ul><li>website of the EEAS for updates on its development </li></ul><ul><li>European Voice topic page </li></ul><ul><li>BBC Q&A </li></ul>

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