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    Tab 3 – Public Information Operating Procedures.doc Tab 3 – Public Information Operating Procedures.doc Document Transcript

    • ANNEX N PUBLIC INFORMATION Crisis Public Information Communications Supplement
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Table of Contents Purpose of the CPI Communications Supplement.......................................................................................2 Plan Objectives............................................................................................................................................5 Using This Plan...........................................................................................................................................5 Ideal Public Communications Team Activities ..................................................................6 Before Event...........................................................................................................................................................6 During Event...........................................................................................................................................................7 After Event..............................................................................................................................................................9 Communications Resources...............................................................................................10 Decisions and Decision Support........................................................................................11 Terrorist Threats – A Special Case....................................................................................14 Decision Support Resources..............................................................................................14 Communications Readiness.......................................................................................................................15 Management Readiness.....................................................................................................15 Public Readiness................................................................................................................16 Follow Up..................................................................................................................................................20 21 Appendix Section 1 - Decision Support Information Resources................................................................22 Appendix A: Index of Vermont Information Resources............................................................................23 Web Sites by Organization................................................................................................23 Web Sites by Threat or Incident .......................................................................................26 Index of Vermont State approved Subject Matter Experts................................................28 There is a limit to the training, preparation and planning that an emergency response manager or incident command can do prior to a crisis. The large number of variables as well as the complexity of some events, such as HAZMAT or biohazards, can make it absolutely essential that there be subject matter experts (SMEs) available to refer these complex questions to. The VEM office maintains a list of the currently qualified SMEs, their locations and areas of expertise. By contacting the VEM office, you can tap into this valuable resource.............................................28 Appendix B: Index of Non-Vermont Information Resources....................................................................30 Federal Emergency Management and Response Services ................................................30 Federal Threat Support Information Resources and Web Sites.........................................35 Internet References For Terrorism Response: Most of these titles are also internet links. ............................................................................................................................................43 Appendix C: Index of Vermont Public Media Resources..........................................................................45 Appendix Section 2 - Assistance and Guidelines on the development of content......................................61 Appendix D: Behavioral Response to Threats & Emergencies..................................................................62 Individual Decision Mechanisms in the Human Mind......................................................62 Group Decision Mechanisms in the Human Mind............................................................64 Avoiding Group Think ......................................................................................................67 The Outrage Factor...........................................................................................................68 Appendix E: Media Relations Guidelines .................................................................................................70 Media Relations Reminders ..............................................................................................71 Handling Media Interviews................................................................................................71 Do's and Don'ts During the Interview process ..................................................................72 Appendix F: Sample Scripts......................................................................................................................74 Sample News Release........................................................................................................74 TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 1 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Purpose of the CPI Communications Supplement The Crisis Public Information (CPI) Communications Supplement is intended to be a guide and decision support resource for local and unified incident commands and emergency operations managers. It is an information resource supplement to the Vermont Emergency Operations Plan (VEOP) and to State Support Function (SSF) #14, titled, ”Public Information”. The policies, procedures, functions, duties, responsibilities and operational actions of the State and local emergency response managers and decision makers is well defined in the VEOP and other State and local EMS documents and are not repeated in this document. A CPI Communications Supplement provides information, references, guidelines and procedures for the coordination of communications within the State of Vermont, and between the State and any applicable outside agencies (e.g. - the media, regulatory agencies and the public) in the event of an emergency or natural disaster. The emphasis is on collecting together, in one place, a comprehensive information resource that can be used by emergency response managers and the general public to support decisions necessary before, during and after a crisis event. Much of this document would be very useful as the basis for building a training or educational course of study on crisis public communications. The cognizant authority for this guide is the Vermont Emergency Management (VEM) office of the Vermont Department of Public Safety (VDPS) and will be referred to as the author and resource manager throughout this document. The reason that this plan exists is to provide Vermont State and local agencies with a list of general guidelines, information resources and decision support that can be used as an initial orientation or training for new emergency public service managers and as a reference resource for ongoing support before, during and after a crisis. The emphasis of this plan is addressing media relations and public communications issues but it is not intended to replace or repeat policy or procedures defined in other emergency management response documents. Specifically, this plan will not provide assessment of potentially harmful situations nor the methods for responding to those situations. The act of communicating with the public has three critical decisions associated with that action: Decision Support Information Resources: The emergency response manager needs to have a detailed understanding of the technical aspects of the threat to public safety and the optimum response desired from the public. This is a function of gathering information about the threat and almost always involves more than just a situation report of threat progress. The progression or interlinking of potential public threats as a result of a developing crisis needs to be understood. For instance, a river flood may threaten road and bridge travel but it can also contaminate water supplies, interrupt utility and fuel distribution, block emergency vehicle traffic and cause structural damage to roads, bridges and buildings. The local incident commander needs to understand all of these implications and potential threats. These decisions are supported by information in Section 1 of the Appendices. Response Operations Assets and Resources: No one emergency response agency can be prepared to respond to every emergency. In the process of dealing with the emergency, communications with the public may be by way of an assisting agency or organization. It is important to understand that communications with this third party is as TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 2 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) important as communicating directly with the public but it requires some additional special knowledge and content considerations. It is critical to know who to contact and what to say when the time comes to ask for help. The VEM office is well equipped to support such requests and has an array of subject matter experts, information resources and agencies to support local emergency response managers. The support from State and federal resources is often specific to one kind of threat, one level of threat or a limited level of asset support. This guide will help both local and State emergency response managers in selecting the right resource to call. These decisions are supported by information in Section 2 of the Appendices. Assistance and Guidelines on the development of content: For all emergency response managers, State and local, and for all crisis situations, the issue of informing the public and eliciting the desired response can be surprisingly complex. Although the psychology of human and group response to serious threats is a well studied science, it remains a complex and potentially difficult subject to deal with. There are also styles, methods and syntax of public announcements that should change depending on who is the audience and what is the nature of the threat. The rural resident might need an entirely different message than a urban business owner or given at a press conference to media reporters. This guide will discuss the decisions associated with the difficulty of content development. These decisions are supported by information in Section 3 of the Appendices. This plan is designed to be used in conjunction with the normal decision-making hierarchy of the emergency response managers as a supplement to that decision-making process. A key point to consider: if a risk to the community exists, the community deserves to be informed and/or consulted. The nature of this decision making process is that it is best supported if the emergency management professionals involved have an understanding, in advance, of the decision making process and the availability of information resources. To that end, one goal of this communications guide is to provide the core material for learning and training in advance of a crisis. Ideally, emergency response managers will use this guide to establish their own basic guidelines and to select and study resources available for dealing with a variety of public communications situations, and to ensure that emergency response personnel and official public communicators are familiar with those resources and procedures. Using this guide to provide basic information to emergency management professionals in State and local agencies allows them to establish their own risk communication program to guide them in times of crisis to effectively and efficiently make decisions about who, when and how to contact to communicate risk issues related to the community. It is directed towards the emergency management professionals who may be called upon before, during and after an incident to decide when and how to make presentations to the public as to how this incident may affect them. This guide is not intended to provide State and local government public information officers with methods of "spin control." The issue of crisis public communications is complex because of the many variables of timing, risk, threat, resources and public response. These are subjects that independently vary from one crisis to the next and within each crisis making it difficult to provide a simple checklist of actions for any given scenario. Instead, this plan provides a compendium of useful information TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 3 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) resources and communication guidelines to assist in the decisions and process related to public communication of emergency/disaster issues. This guide is a supplement to SSF #14 of the Vermont Emergency Operations Plan (VEOP) and is not designed to replace training or more comprehensive emergency response management documents, guides or tutorials on public communication. Throughout this guide, important information resources are identified that exist in other forms, from other sources and on other media. It is important to know this information exists but it is not useful to try to reproduce this information in this document. Such information is often too large, too complex or needs updating too often to be limited by a hardcopy document. Because of the accessibility from most locations to such large and complex information resources, internet sources are the primary resource listed, however, it is not the only source of such information. Large databases on CD-ROM, reference books and telephone resources can also be used. The VEM office also provides a large and in-depth information resource for most emergency management situations. Perspective VEM recognizes key decisions must be made by the public communicator before undertaking the public communication task. For instance: •What is the real nature of the hazard - modest or serious? •If a modest hazard, is the objective to reassure or prepare the public? •If a serious hazard, is the objective to alert or evacuate? (Even if the hazard is serious, there is a need to reassure - panic benefits nobody). Even if an incident commander views itself as “informing” its community, rather than alerting or reassuring it, a fundamental distinction in public communication is deciding whether people are likely to be more concerned than considered appropriate (overreact) or be less concerned than considered appropriate (under-react). Generally, experience has indicated that the public will tend to overreact and the media will focus on the most negative aspects of the public announcement. In such cases, emergency management agencies must focus much of their energies for handling an event by trying to: Before Prepare the public for an impending threat possibility. Reduce the anxiety about potential emergencies that the agency considers unlikely. During Prevent panic in mid-crisis and direct desired actions on the part of the public. After Provide coping and recovery information. Prevent or reduce outrage about prior agency actions (or inaction). TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 4 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Most emergency situation managers and agencies are experienced and familiar with providing information that alerts people to serious hazards. There are, however a lot of important considerations that may not be immediately obvious that can make a significant difference in how the public will react to the information. Some of these considerations are listed in Section 2 of the Appendices. These special considerations pertain to the psychology and social responses that might be expected from the public as a group of individuals and as individual groups. There are also special considerations that should be given to dealing with the news and broadcast media. The media usually have a completely different agenda and perspective than the individual members of the public. Any flaws in the content or method of delivery of the crisis public announcement can be amplified by the media, potentially creating a more serious situation. Plan Objectives The objectives of this plan are to facilitate decisions related to communications with the public in times of crisis. These objectives can be reduced to the following three: 1. To support the factual assessment of the situation and determine whether a communications response is warranted. This is accomplished by providing information resources to make this assessment across most threats and hazards. This objective is supported by information in Section 1 of the Appendices. 2. To support the communications with other local, State and federal resources that should be informed about the situation and that can provide appropriate responses. . This objective is supported by information in Section 2 of the Appendices. 3. To support direct communications with the public to inform them and to support communications with the public utilizing various media sources for the purpose of:  Communicating facts about the crisis.  Elicit a desired response from the public  Minimize rumours.  Restore order and/or confidence. This objective is supported by information in Section 3 of the Appendices. Using This Plan The unique nature of the decision process of dealing with the public and the media is surprisingly complex and often underestimated by incident commands and emergency operations managers. Every emergency or crisis incident is different and has its own unique requirements. The variables of incident details, public response and available resources create such a large number of possible scenarios that it would be impossible to specify a plan of action for every contingency. As a result, the Crisis Public Information (CPI) Communications Information Supplement is intended to be a guide and decision support resource for local and unified incident commands and emergency operations managers. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 5 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Ideal Public Communications Team Activities Under ideal circumstance, the distribution of public information at a time of crisis should best be handled by a team of experts in each of several aspects of the communications process. Although such an ideal team is rarely possible, the tasks involved almost always need to be performed by someone – in most cases, one person takes on the tasks and responsibilities of several people. It is, however, useful to examine the ideal and then adjust that ideal to the real- world situation of a given crisis and to specific position titles. To that end, the following is a list of generic actions, assignments, preparations and tasks for an ideal communications team that might be necessary in the period just before, during and after a crisis: Before Event An important and necessary communications activity exists in the pre-event and planning phases for a crisis. This period may be months or years before an event happens and involves an entirely different set of skills, resources, people and organizations. Specifically: 1. The director of communications has overall responsibility for planning and implementing a coordinated public education and awareness outreach plan for all emergency situations. Such plans usually take the form of public presentations at meetings, schools and special events as well as published information in pamphlets, web sites, door hangers, mailed literature and free handouts at public events. They may also include working with the media to deliver public awareness and educational presentations, reminders and discussion forums on radio and TV. 2. All public information officers assigned to the VEM crisis communications center should have access to all of these published resources as well as other information resources specific to the full range of possible threats to the public, including subject matter experts and applicable regulations and federal involvement requirements. 3. A team of public information officers (PIO) or Spokespersons are responsible for having preparing the content of these media releases, written pamphlets, guides and handouts, and delivering presentations and for editing and distributing other written, informational materials. This will often involve confirmation of facts with information resources, subject matter experts and applicable regulations and federal requirements. Other PIO duties may include: a. A trained and qualified public information officer is assigned to write media releases of a general information nature about a wide variety of potential threats. This includes working with on-line (internet) resources within and outside the Vermont State government. b. One or more public information officers or other trained officials are assigned to answer calls from the public and from news media and to gather information to provide answers to those inquiries. This may be include preparation of news packages, internet files and other information that can be prepared in advance but not released until an actual threat develops. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 6 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) c. A public information officer or other trained official is assigned to work interactively with newspapers and radio and broadcast and cable television to develop a campaign of public awareness and outreach on every expected threat. These broadcast presentations may be as small as a 15 second announcement of where other information can be found to an entire series of formal presentations on all aspects of a potential threat. Video tapes can also be made of these presentations for distribution to local communities. d. A public information officer is responsible for arranging visits to local communities to make in-person presentations and to host discussion forum of threats to specific communities and environments. These visits can be coordinated with events (town meetings, fairs), groups (PTA, Boy Scouts, church groups) or as special events during local safety awareness campaigns 4. The publications specialist, or other public communications subject matter expert, is responsible for coordinating and/or preparing information for placement on the Internet and Intranet sites; for preparing and distributing information to local health departments and county public health nursing services 5. The VEM web coordinator is responsible for reviewing, approving and for placing appropriate materials relating to the emergency situation on the department’s Internet and Intranet sites. 6. The individual who serves as support staff for the Office of Communications, or as a replacement for that individual, has assumed responsibility for taking telephone messages; for distributing news releases and news advisories; for making copies; for obtaining supplies for public information officers; and for performing other support staff functions that may be required. During Event There are a number of people in both the local and State government that assume certain roles and responsibilities only upon being “activated” by a crisis event. These people usually have other duties within the government outside of a crisis event but often assume new titles and/or duties during an emergency situation. There are also authorities and management positions that change from one person to another as a crisis event evolves. For instance, the incident (on-scene) command (IC) might shift from a local fire department chief to a county or regional fire manager and then to a State fire authority. The IC title moves as each level of management authority takes over the crisis. Management authority can also become more fragmented as an incident evolves. For instance, initially, the local fire department chief is also in charge of communications with the public and with the media. As the event evolves and the State Emergency Operations Center (SEOC) becomes involved, the duties of on-scene crisis management and communications with the public and with the media may be assumed by three or more different people, each with specialized skills in their areas. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 7 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) In an idealized crisis event, the following duties and responsibilities might take place, performed by one or more people or an evolving group of people as the crisis develops: 1. The director of emergency operations has overall responsibility for handling communications for the emergency situation. This authority lies in the incident (on-scene) command (IC) or unified command (UC) provided by the local emergency response managers, the State- Rapid Assessment and Assistance Team (S-RAAT), the Hazardous Materials Response Team (HMRT) or other special teams and SSFs. 2. In times of crisis, the director of communications reports directly to the IC or UC for actions related to communications within and outside of the local and State emergency response organizations. This includes any communications with the public. 3. All public information officers assigned to the VEM crisis communications center have been provided with equipment and information required to do their work with emphasis on information resources specific to the objective incident, including subject matter experts and applicable regulations and federal involvement requirements. 4. A team of public information officers (PIO) or Spokespersons are responsible for having news releases written, edited and distributed and for having news media inquiries handled. This involves confirmation of facts with the IC and release approval from the proper authority. a) A trained and qualified public information officer is assigned to write news releases. b) One or more public information officers or other trained officials are assigned to answer calls from the news media and to gather information to answers those inquiries. c) A public information officer or other trained official is assigned to monitor newspapers and radio and television coverage of the emergency situation; to prepare regular briefing packets of newspaper stories; and to maintain a notebook(s) of news releases and other pertinent information regarding the emergency. This function also provides rumor control or corrections to public announcements that are in error or that have changed. d) A public information officer is responsible for arranging news conferences, news briefings and television interviews or is assigned to assist in these tasks as needed. 5. The publications specialist, or other public communications subject matter expert, is responsible to preparing and distributing information and messages to department employees, as needed; for preparing information for placement on the department’s Internet and Intranet sites; for preparing and distributing information to local health departments and county public health nursing services; and for editing and distributing other written, informational materials as may be required. 6. The VEM web coordinator is responsible for reviewing, approving and for placing appropriate materials relating to the emergency situation on the department’s Internet and Intranet sites. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 8 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) 7. The individual who serves as support staff for the Office of Communications, or as a replacement for that individual, has assumed responsibility for taking telephone messages; for distributing news releases and news advisories; for making copies; for obtaining supplies for public information officers; and for performing any additional support staff functions that may be required. After Event After a crisis event, there are three primary communications tasks that should be implemented as soon as possible:  Establish an information center for the public affected by the crisis to call, visit on a web site or to go to, in person, to obtain information about the event and recovery from it. Such information might contain details of how to apply for financial assistance, insurance claims, clean up, decontamination supplies and other recovery details. It would also provide status reports on the condition of utilities, roads, water and other public and private infrastructure support damaged by the event.  Contact and collect information from the IC’s and UC’s, the SEOC and other local and State officials and emergency response managers that were involved in the crisis to obtain details of how the event developed and how well the response to the event was handled. This is essential to record “lessons learned” by the State officials and emergency response managers for future improvement and training as well as to support financial assistance, insurance claims, decontamination, clean up and other recovery events.  Formulate a series of news and information releases to be provided to the media and to local governments about the history and status of the crisis. The focus of these releases is to support the education and general preparation by the public for the next similar crisis. This action blends in with the duties cited above in the Before Event section. 1. The director of communications has overall responsibility for planning and implementing a coordinated public preparation education for all post-event situations. The focus is on the specific actions and public responses to the most recent crisis event with an emphasis on lauding the good actions and critiquing the poor responses. 2. The VEM crisis communications center should operate for a short period of time following an event to coordinate and finalize post-event activities and to refer people to other information resources specific to the most recent crisis event. 3. A team of public information officers (PIO) or Spokespersons are responsible for preparing the content of media releases, written pamphlets, guides and handouts, and delivering presentations and for editing and distributing other written, informational materials for public preparation education for the most recent and future similar event situations. a) A public information officer or other trained official is assigned to work interactively with newspapers and radio and broadcast and cable television to develop a campaign of TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 9 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) public awareness and outreach the most recent and future similar event situations. These broadcast presentations may be as small as a 15 second announcement of where other information can be found to an entire series of formal presentations on all aspects of the most recent and future similar crisis events. Video tapes can also be made of these presentations for distribution to local communities. b) A public information officer is responsible for arranging visits to local communities to make in-person presentations and to host discussion forum of the most recent and future similar event situations to the specific communities and environments that were most affected by the crisis. These visits can be coordinated with local events (town meetings, fairs), groups (PTA, Boy Scouts, church groups) or as special events during local safety awareness campaigns 4. The publications specialist, or other public communications subject matter expert, is responsible for coordinating and/or preparing information for placement on the Internet and Intranet sites; for preparing and distributing information to local health departments and county public health nursing services relating to the most recent and future similar event situations. 5. The VEM web coordinator is responsible for reviewing, approving and for placing appropriate materials relating to the most recent and future similar event situations on the department’s Internet and Intranet sites. 6. The individual who serves as support staff for the Office of Communications, or as a replacement for that individual, has assumed responsibility for taking telephone messages; for distributing news releases and news advisories; for making copies; for obtaining supplies for public information officers; and for performing any additional support staff functions that may be required related to the most recent and future similar event situations. Communications Resources The on-scene incident commander (IC) or manager and all other decision makers involved with a given emergency event will, at some time, make a judgement call to notify additional resources or to ask for additional assistance. This help might come in the form of additional (1) decision support information, or (2) response operations assets and resources, or (3) to request assistance in event management. These three options all require information specific to the immediate need and situation. In some cases, these communications resources are intended to be accessed before an emergency event. For instance, resources related to regulations, general guidelines and training aids should be studied and learned before an event. Some resources are for slowly developing emergency events, such as a predicted storm or a spring flood. Still other resources are intended for those emergency response situations that require immediate decision support for a rapidly developing issue such as a hazmat spill. To that end, this plan provides a number of contact, resource and asset lists that are sorted by various list elements to provide the on-scene incident manager the best and fastest information to meet his/her requirements. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 10 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Section 1, Appendices A, B, C: Decision Support Information is provided in the form of lists of people, organizations and information resources. These lists include web sites, subject matter experts, libraries, documents, guidelines, and other information and decision support resources. Section 2, Appendices D, E, F; Assistance and Guidelines on the development of content. This is a general guideline of how to anticipate the response of the public to your announcement and how to word it so that it will have the desired response. This section also covers the special cautions that must be used in dealing with the news media. Decisions and Decision Support There are a number of critical decisions that are related to the final delivery of useful information to the public. The development of the content of that information is a function of information, experience and expert advice from a number of sources. Such a crisis public communications decision process might be simplified to look like this chart: Incident On-Site Information Incident Command Sources EOC Duty Officer (Crisis Manager) Public Communications Subject Matter Experts Subject Matter Expert and other information resources PIO or Spokesperson Information MEDIA Distribution The above chart reflects an idealized but generic flow of critical information that allows the PIO or crisis spokesperson to make the appropriate decisions concerning the content and method of information distribution to the public. In actual practice, several of these functions may be TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 11 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) handled by the same person. The lists and sources of the resources used to make these decisions are included in this plan and are described more in the next section titled “Decision Support”. Although the above chart reflects the general flow of information for most situations, the players involved can change as a crisis develops. The public information decision makers may change as a result of escalation from one level of the event to the next. Making that decision to ask for outside help is one of the major decisions made by any incident command. Implicit in this decision is the need to prepare the next level of decision makers for the impending pass of control to them. This is done by notifying them in the early stages of the crisis that they might be called upon for assistance and then keeping them in the look of information development as the incident progresses. This allows them to follow along with your actions and the threat development while preparing their own resources for potential future support. It might also allow them to make independent offers of assistance if they are aware of assets that they have that might not be readily available to the local incident command. Any and all collected information about the incident must also be prepared to pass to this next level. This can be facilitated if a log is kept of the progression of events and assets used. Having someone other than the incident command (IC) record these events as their sole responsibility assure that the log is kept current, complete and relieves the IC of that task. A decision sequence such as that just described might be displayed in its generic form like this: Level I Level II Level III Local Escalation Escalation Agency State Authorities Decision Decision FED Gov Local Extended Expanded Public Local Public Public The green lines reflect the process of transferring on-scene control to the next level of emergency managers. The blue lines reflect the exchange of information and notification TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 12 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) leading up to the transfer on-scene control to the next level of emergency managers. The red lines and grey person icons represents the communications by the on-scene control to the ever growing public. The three levels of the crisis that might be followed in this escalation process are these: Level I – Local Single or multiple communities. Response within the capabilities of the town or routine mutual aid partners. Level II – Minor Single or Multiple Communities - Regional within the State. Beyond the capabilities of Local Responders & routine Mutual Aid Partners. Local Emergencies may be Requested & Declared, State Request for Federal Assistance Considered & Requested, if needed. Level III – Major State/Multi-State/Federal. State Declaration of Emergency and/or Request for Federal Assistance likely. More details of these three levels are provided in Appendix D. Although the above chart represents the general sequence of decisions as a crisis evolves, the processes, resources and information needed by decision makers at each escalation decision is more complex than portrayed in this simple view. It is important to note that any decision to escalate to the next level in support or resource involvement cannot be made in isolation by the incident command. It must be fully coordinated with the next higher level of management, control and support to allow them to prepare for the assumption of the duties and responsibilities and to properly prepare the resources needed. This decision process might be portrayed in a general manner in the following chart: On-scene Event Public Emergency Action SME's Authorit and Other Information y Resources Projectio Evaluat of Crisis Crisis N Decisio to Weathe Escalate Publi Ye CPI POC's of EMS Internet Next Pla Level Leveraged for Public Technology Appropriate Outreach Initiate Appropriat PIO &/ e Actions Spokesperso to make each decision to escalate. The above chart reflects the potential sequence of events Note that the crisis public information (CPI) plan is a supporting resource for several of the TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 13 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) process steps by providing decision support information. That decision support information is described more in the following section. Terrorist Threats – A Special Case The above decision process will serve as a general guideline for the majority of threats and emergencies, however, there is one threat that is so unique that it deserves special treatment. In this era of post-9/11 and Middle East conflicts, the risk of a terrorist threat is much greater. Such threats or attacks have many possible implications that are unique. Among these is the intelligence aspects of those involved. It is unlikely that the threat originates from one or two individuals. More likely, it will be the concerted efforts of a larger, more organized group that may be planning other actions against citizens of the US. It is for this reason that the VEM office requires that ANY threat or implication of a threat that might have any possibility of being a terrorist action should be reported immediately to the State VEM office to: Vermont Emergency Management 103 South Main Street Waterbury, VT 05671-2101 (802) 244-8721 - 1-800-347-0488 The Homeland Security Unit of the Vermont Department of Public Safety has created a very comprehensive resource on their website titled “VERMONT FIRST RESPONDER GUIDE TO AN ACT OF TERRORIST”. By clicking on this link or by visiting this site: http://www.dps.state.vt.us/homeland/response_index.html You should access this guide for training, planning and preparation for this kind of crisis. See Appendix B for additional internet accessible resources related to the response to a Terrorist act. Decision Support Resources Decision support is the process of providing the decision maker with all of the resources and information in order to apply his experience and knowledge of the current events of the crisis to make the best possible choices at that time. In order to do that, the incident command needs ready access to information resources and other support information. Several of the Appendices of this plan are designed to provide that information in as easy to use format as possible. In some cases, the Appendices will refer to resources that are only available from other sources that are also provided by the VEM office or by other State and federal information resources. Appendix A: Index of Vermont Information Resources A sorted listing and reference to other Vermont information resources including documents, web sites, offices, subject matter experts and reference library/collections. Appendix B: Index of Non-Vermont Information Resources A sorted listing and reference to other academic, State and federal information resources (outside of Vermont) including documents, web sites, offices, subject matter experts and reference library/collections. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 14 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Appendix C: Index of Public Media Resources A series of tables providing various sorted lists of the radio, television and newspapers in and near the State of Vermont. This list includes the primary point of contact, phone number and email of the organization. Communications Readiness Communications readiness falls into two categories: 1. Management Readiness for the crisis response mangers, incident command and other emergency responders. Communications readiness for the emergency response manager pertains primarily to pre-event preparation, study and learning in anticipation of the challenges that may be faced during an emergency. 2. Public Readiness of the general public to prepare for and deal with an impending or future crisis. Communications readiness also applies to the general public in the form of public education, training, outreach and public awareness campaigns to allow them to best prepare of an emergency and to allow the emergency response manager to establish the proper attitudes, expectations and mind-set in the public’s perspective of what might be the challenges that may be faced during a crisis. With a focus on the content, format and form of the crisis public communication, this section provides insights, guidelines and lessons learned about how to produce safe, effective and informative public notifications using public accessible media and ad hoc commentary. Management Readiness The most important aspect of communicating to the public and media concerning an emergency or crisis is to not add to the distress, panic or confusion of the event. This is, in fact, a difficult challenge because of the wide range of interests, responses and personalities involved. It is complicated by an equally wide range of attitudes, aptitudes and pre-conceived notions about the threat or the source of the information. As a result of years of trial and error, a number of general lessons learned have evolved out of the experience of hundreds of other public service organizations that have proven to be useful in planning, preparing and delivery of information to the general public and to the media. Some of these “lessons learned” are listed in Section 3 of the Appendices (D, E, F). Training and mock exercises are among the most effective methods to prepare emergency response managers for the real events. Such exercises are commonly used for training in medical, homeland security, nuclear power and command center training. There is, however, a common omission from the usual training exercise. In most cases, the training syllabus or lesson plan calls for various public announcements to be made by the emergency response managers but they often fail to simulate the variety of potential public responses to these announcements. As you will see in Appendix Section 3, there can be a variety of good and bad reactions to these public announcements that can range from compliance to panic. If the exercise has a moderator or exercise judge, they can add to the realism by carefully examining the content, method and syntax of the simulated announcements and provide a simulated response in the context of the exercise scenario. For instance, an improperly worded TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 15 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) announcement of a fast moving forest fire might prompt homeowners to attempt to fight the fire rather than flee the area – creating a serious rescue problem for the already burdened fire fighters. In a flood scenario exercise, the omission of a timely warning that the water supply might be contaminated might lead to a delayed burden on the healthcare services and medical supplies. A delay in a simulated evacuation order might not take into consideration that many residents and business owners might further delay departure to attempt to save their belongings – creating greater risks and perhaps compounding the traffic control problem with overloaded cars and trucks. There can be a large variety of simulated response by the general public, simulated issues of putting together the announcement and getting the media or other information distribution involved and in the implications and impacts of these problems. It is important for emergency response managers to include these aspects in their training and exercise efforts in order to better prepare for similar problems in a real crisis. The Crisis Public Information Communications Supplement should be reviewed and studied well in advance of any anticipated emergency. Local and State officials can make use of this information to pre-plan and prepare their own internal forms, templates and guidelines to support generic and specific events based on the guidelines, lessons learned and studies provided in this section and it’s appendices. In support of the readiness of the emergency response manager, there are several Appendices referred to that contain various guidelines, research studies and sample templates for the emergency or crisis spokesperson or PIO. These include: Appendix D: Behavioral Response to Threats & Emergencies A extensive set of reports and discussions of how people, as individuals and in groups, react, make decisions and respond to information that affects their safety which includes the following: Individual Decision Mechanisms in the Human Mind Group Decision Mechanisms in the Human Mind Avoiding Group Think The Outrage Factor Appendix E: Media Relations Guidelines A compilation of do’s and don’t when making public announcement related to a threat to public safety which includes the following: Media Relations Reminders Handling Media Interviews Do's and Don'ts During the Interview process Appendix F: Sample Scripts Sample News Release - Fill-in the blank forms of typical announcements for the generic crisis situation. Public Readiness Readiness of the general public to prepare for and deal with an impending or future crisis begins with the ability to communicate with them. This is often a choice of which technology to use TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 16 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) under different circumstances. It can also be limited by access, budget and operator skills in smaller communities and rural areas. Exploring various technologies that can be applied at different periods of time in the evolution of a crisis or under various conditions of the emergency can be a useful exercise to do before the technology is needed. Establishing priorities and requirements under various scenarios can help you determine where to invest time, effort and money. For instance, determining that your community wants to maintain contact under the most adverse weather conditions will probably limit your technology choices to battery operated broadcast radios, 2-way radios and cell phones. If, however, you are confident that most emergencies will allow for contact with affected residents while power and phone service is still working, then your choices open up to other communications technologies. Below is listed a few of the most common technologies but there are others – such as wireless internet, shortwave/ham radio, sirens and others. Technology Selection • Web sites: The easiest and among the most effective is the use of the internet. Even small communities can make effective use of existing online information resources such as those described in Appendix Section A. There are numerous offers to post free web sites that can be used for local creation of an informative online resource that can provide very localized and specific information. It can be nearly as effective to provide a printed brochure listing VEM and other Vermont and federal online resources – some of which can be extracted from this document. Web sites are effective in the Pre-Event phase and for the delivery of in-depth details about all aspects of a threat. They are less effective as the crisis evolves because they may need constant maintenance or those accessing it may lose their means of connection. • Voice Mail: Not every Vermont citizen has or makes use of an internet capable computer but they may still want to access a large variety of information. One way to do this is with voice mail. The simplest form of voice mail is a telephone answering device (TAD). Many TAD’s have an “announcement only” feature that can be used to get out a single but important message. Some TADs allow for the creation of “mail boxes” in which you can place different outgoing messages on any of 2 to 5 mailboxes. A much more powerful use of voice mail can be achieved with a computer. Even a relatively old or slow computer can be used effectively as a voice mail server. Software for this use is inexpensive (usually under $50) and can be set up with hundreds of messages and very sophisticated message handling. In its most advanced form, a brochure or mailed flyer is provided to local citizens that lists dozens or perhaps hundreds of topics of interest and provides a “message number” for each. A citizen can look up a topic he or she wants to know about and note its message number. Then they would call the listed number and enter the message number. The voice mail server then recites the message on that topic over the phone. The topics and messages are created in small, well defined areas of interest. A single threat, such as flooding, might have dozens of message topics associated with it. For instance – topics might include: How to prepare your farm equipment for a flood; What to do to your house to prepare for a flood; Who to contact for emergency aid; What are the nearest shelters, etc. Voice mail can service people in the Pre-Event phase for a variety of short information bites or for one-time, very important real-time updates in the During Phase. Voice mail’s greatest offering is in rapid, flexible, inexpensive information deployment to people without internet connections. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 17 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) • Broadcast Phone Calls: A variation on the voice mail theme is to use a device that proactively calls out to private numbers and provides a recorded message. Devices that perform this function can be preprogrammed with every number that might be affected by any threat and then selectively chosen by geographic area, or by age of residents or other parameters. The devices can be set to call back any numbers that do not answer and or that are answered by a recording device. An example of the use of this kind of device is to call homes that are affected by a hazmat spill. It is most useful in the During Phase for short and explicit messages of immediate action. • Television and Radio: Collectively referred to as the broadcast media, radio and television also includes cable channels. Their use depends on a variety of factors that cannot be verified such as whether a resident has their radio or TV on and are listening to it; whether they have it on the channel(s) that are broadcasting the emergency message and whether the nature of the emergency has already interrupted their ability to receive the messages. In general, Television is regarded as being useful as a general tool for early warning and updates in the Pre-Event and Post phases while radio is regarded a more useful in the late preparation and early During phase of an event. Appendix C lists all of the public media sources in Vermont but the VEM office can assist you in the selection of the specific one that can be most useful to you for a given emergency. • Two-Way Radios: In some communities, the use of radios that can transmit and receive (transceivers or “walkie-talkies”) may have some uses to reach certain residents. This also includes cell phones. If a rural route is particularly isolated, the residents can form a relay and forwarding network to remain in contact in the bad weather that might down power and phone lines and limit vehicle access. The shortest distances (up to 4-5 miles) can be reliably covered by license free FRS or GMRS 2-way radios. Longer ranges (out to 8 miles) can be achieved with licensed VHF and UHF radios. Using car or home- based external antennas and a single-sideband CB radio can achieve ranges of up to 20 miles. All of these choices are relatively inexpensive, can be powered by batteries and used by the average citizen. They can also be used by people as they are in transit during an emergency and can report progress or stuck or blocked vehicles. Most have a call or alert signal that “rings” the number to announce an incoming call. It should be noted that even powerful radios and cell phones can have shadow effects of lost signal behind ridge lines, mountains or in deep valleys and ravines. Any investment in this technology should be tested in the actual areas of use before purchase. Readiness of the general public to prepare for and deal with an impending or future crisis involves a combination of several communications techniques including public education, training, outreach and public awareness campaigns. Such readiness may also involve the use of a variety of media such as internet information resources, movies and film strips for libraries and schools, brochures and pamphlets and local presentations by guest speakers. The intent is to provide the public with information that will allow them to best prepare for an emergency and to establish the proper attitudes, expectations and mind-set in the public’s perspective of the challenges that may be faced during a crisis. When Mt. St. Helens, in Washington State, blew up, there were 57 people that died because they did not heed warnings because they did not think they were in any imminent danger. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 18 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Those residents that had been to local public meetings and presentations understood that the blast might reach out five to seven miles from the base of the mountain (which it did) and threaten lives and destroy property. These educated residents evacuated the area well in advance of the final explosion. It was public education and outreach programs that saved lives. Public education can be delivered in many forms from mailed out pamphlets and brochures to live group presentations. Flyers and meeting announcements may be combined with other mailings from local businesses such as added it to the local electric power company’s monthly billing. Bulk mailing rates from the US Postal service can also be an inexpensive way to distribute larger documents or brochures. Live group presentation is by far the most effective and can be combined with other kinds of meetings such as annual town meetings, school events or during special holiday events. At such meetings, an emergency response professional would make a presentation of his/her area of expertise – such as fire fighting, flood control, public health, etc. The real value of these meetings is to receive and make note of the questions asked by the residents and to respond to their specific needs. By listening to the trends of questions and the detail being asked, you can get a good idea of the level of awareness, attitudes and perspectives of the residents. If they seem very concerned about a specific threat such as forest fire, flood or severe weather, then you can direct your education efforts in those areas. If they are asking questions about how to fight a forest fire or protect their home from a flood, you might want to address the risks of such actions by untrained people. Such discussions can be as much help to the public as it is to the emergency responders and future incident commands. One of the most effective methods of public education is to get people involved in the emergency response itself. The American Red Cross offers numerous safety and first aid courses that can result in certifications at various skill levels. Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, hospitals, fire departments and other groups have a variety of training and certification programs that can result in trained people that can provide additional assistance in a crisis. This also results in a more educated and informed populace that will have a better understanding of the nature of the threat they might face. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 19 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Follow Up In an earlier section, the post-event activities related to public communications were discussed. In addition to those activities, there are other follow-up actions that can provide for a continuous process improvement in addresses future emergencies. These follow-up actions fall into three categories: 1. Inter and intra-organizational collaboration, communications and cooperation; During and in the immediate aftermath of an event, senior and mid-level emergency managers and responders should make notes of what they are doing and why. After the event, these notes should be formalized into a central collection of archived information about the event. Comments or recommendations about how inter and intra- organizational collaboration, communications and cooperation could be improved should be collated into an “after-action report” that provides the collective benefit of insights and improvements from all levels of the crisis management. 2. Media relationships and the mechanics and technology of public communications: The PIOs, spokespersons and others related and involved in the actual contact with the public should review the content, methods used and responses achieved of all of the public announcements during and following the crisis event. A central authority, such as VEM or the State PIO’s office, should provide a means for the collection of these reviews using a web site or other automated survey and analysis tool. The review should include an examination of the effectiveness of the content, media and technology used to delivery information to the public and how well the public responded to the information. Comments or recommendations about how to improve the process of public communications and media cooperation should be collated into an “after-action report” that provides the collective benefit of insights and improvements from all levels of the public communications management. 3. Event Evaluation and Emergency Response Improvement: Ideally, a board of review consisting of a senior VEM manager, representatives of the lead IC/UC and representatives of the lead PIO or spokesperson involved in the incident would meet and review all of the collected information and issue a final event evaluation. This report should be used by the highest authorities within the State and local governments to make and prioritize changes and formulate budgets. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 20 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Purpose of the CPI Communications Supplement.......................................................................................2 Plan Objectives............................................................................................................................................5 Using This Plan...........................................................................................................................................5 Ideal Public Communications Team Activities ..................................................................6 Before Event...........................................................................................................................................................6 During Event...........................................................................................................................................................7 After Event..............................................................................................................................................................9 Communications Resources...............................................................................................10 Decisions and Decision Support........................................................................................11 Terrorist Threats – A Special Case....................................................................................14 Decision Support Resources..............................................................................................14 Communications Readiness.......................................................................................................................15 Management Readiness.....................................................................................................15 Public Readiness................................................................................................................16 Follow Up..................................................................................................................................................20 21 Appendix Section 1 - Decision Support Information Resources................................................................22 Appendix A: Index of Vermont Information Resources............................................................................23 Web Sites by Organization................................................................................................23 Web Sites by Threat or Incident .......................................................................................26 Index of Vermont State approved Subject Matter Experts................................................28 There is a limit to the training, preparation and planning that an emergency response manager or incident command can do prior to a crisis. The large number of variables as well as the complexity of some events, such as HAZMAT or biohazards, can make it absolutely essential that there be subject matter experts (SMEs) available to refer these complex questions to. The VEM office maintains a list of the currently qualified SMEs, their locations and areas of expertise. By contacting the VEM office, you can tap into this valuable resource.............................................28 Appendix B: Index of Non-Vermont Information Resources....................................................................30 Federal Emergency Management and Response Services ................................................30 Federal Threat Support Information Resources and Web Sites.........................................35 Internet References For Terrorism Response: Most of these titles are also internet links. ............................................................................................................................................43 Appendix C: Index of Vermont Public Media Resources..........................................................................45 Appendix Section 2 - Assistance and Guidelines on the development of content......................................61 Appendix D: Behavioral Response to Threats & Emergencies..................................................................62 Individual Decision Mechanisms in the Human Mind......................................................62 Group Decision Mechanisms in the Human Mind............................................................64 Avoiding Group Think ......................................................................................................67 The Outrage Factor...........................................................................................................68 Appendix E: Media Relations Guidelines .................................................................................................70 Media Relations Reminders ..............................................................................................71 Handling Media Interviews................................................................................................71 Do's and Don'ts During the Interview process ..................................................................72 Appendix F: Sample Scripts......................................................................................................................74 Sample News Release........................................................................................................74 TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 21 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Appendix Section 1 - Decision Support Information Resources Section 1, Appendices A, B, C: Decision Support Information is provided in the form of lists of people, organizations and information resources. These lists include web sites, subject matter experts, libraries, documents, guidelines, and other information and decision support resources. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 22 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Appendix A: Index of Vermont Information Resources Web Sites by Organization The following are internet-based information sources the Vermont State government that are provided for reference and research purposes in the Pre, During and Post (After) incident periods. In the periods before and after an incident, it can be useful to have a wide range of information resources that can be used for a variety of research topics. In the following tables, the column: WHEN shows which Phase of an incident that the information source might be best used – P = Pre-event, D = During the incident and A = After the incident. WHAT column gives some indication of the general nature of the content of the information source: M=Medical, T=Transportation, C=Chemical and Hazardous Materials, W=Weather, F=Fire, S=Safety, L=Law, P=Management Planning, : I=General Information, research material and links to other information sources, R=Recovery, H=Homeland Security and Terrorism, E=Environmental Elected State-wide Officials When What Governor (Office of ) <http://www.vermont.gov/governor/> P,D,A I,P,R,H Lieutenant Governor (Office of) <http://www.ltgov.state.vt.us/> P,D,A I,P,R,H Secretary of State (Office of) <http://www.sec.state.vt.us/> P,A I,P,R Agencies When What Agriculture, Food & Markets <http://www.vermontagriculture.com/ P,D,A C,E,S,I,P (Agency of) > Commerce & Community <http://www.state.vt.us/dca/> P,A I,P,R Development (Agency of) (CCD) Human Services (Agency of) <http://www.ahs.state.vt.us/> P,A I,P (AHS) Natural Resources (Agency <http://www.anr.state.vt.us/> P,D,A I,P,E,R of)(ANR) Transportation (Agency of) <http://www.aot.state.vt.us/> P,D,A T,C,S,L,P,I,R (AOT) Departments When What Aging & Disabilities (Dept. of) <http://www.dad.state.vt.us/> P I,P (AHS) Banking, Insurance, Securities & <http://www.bishca.state.vt.us/> P,A I,P,M,L,R Health Care Administration (Dept. of) Buildings and General Services <http://www.bgs.state.vt.us/> P,A I,P,R (Dept. of)(Admin) Chief Information Officer (Office <http://www.cio.stat7e.vt.us/> P,A I,P TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 23 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Departments When What of)(CIO) Children and Families (Dept. for) <http://www.dcf.state.vt.us/> P,A I,P,M (AHS) - formerly Social & Rehabilitation Services (SRS) Defender General (Office of) <http://www.defgen.state.vt.us> P,A L Developmental & Mental Health <http://www.ddmhs.state.vt.us/> P,A M,I,P Services (Dept. of) (AHS) Economic Development (Dept. of) <http://www.thinkvermont.com/> P,A I,P,R (CCD) Emergency Management <http://www.dps.state.vt.us/vem/> P,D,A I,P,H,R,W, S Environmental Conservation <http://www.anr.state.vt.us/dec/dec.ht P,A E,I,P (Dept. of)(ANR) m> Fish & Wildlife (Dept. of)(ANR) <http://www.vtfishandwildlife.com> P,D,A E,I,P Forests, Parks & Recreation <http://www.state.vt.us/anr/fpr/index.ht P,D,A E,I,P,S (Dept. of)(ANR) m> Health (Dept. of)(AHS) <http://www.healthyvermonters.info/> P,D,A M,S,I,P Homeland Security <http://www.vthomelandsecurity.org/> P,D,A H Housing & Community Affairs <http://www.state.vt.us/dca/housing> P,A I,P,R (Dept. of)(CCD) Information & Innovation (Dept. <http://www.dii.state.vt.us/> P,A I,P of)(Admin) Libraries (Dept. of)(Admin) <http://dol.state.vt.us> P,A I,P Motor Vehicles (Dept. of)(AOT) <http://www.aot.state.vt.us/dmv/dmvh P,D,A T,S,I,P p.htm> Prevention, Assistance, <http://www.dpath.state.vt.us/> P,A M,I,P Transition & Health Access (Dept. of)(AHS) - formerly Social Welfare Public Safety (Dept. of) <http://www.dps.state.vt.us/> P,D,A S,P,I Public Service (Dept. of) <http://www.state.vt.us/psd/> P,A P,I Vermont State Police <http://www.vtsp.org/> P,D,A H,I,P,T Tourism & Marketing (Dept. of) <http://www.VermontVacation.com/> P,A R,P,I (CCD) Veterans Affairs (Dept. of) <http://www.va.state.vt.us/> P,A P,I,R Boards, Commissions, Councils, etc. When What Crime Victim <http://www.ccvs.state.vt.us/> P,D,A H,I,P Services (Center for) Economic <http://www.state.vt.us/veda/> P,A R,P,I Development Authority (VEDA) Economic Progress <http://www.thinkvermont.com/vepc/vepc_intro.cfm P,A R,P,I Council (VEPC) > Enhanced 9-1-1 <http://www.state.vt.us/e911/> P,D,A R,P,I TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 24 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Boards, Commissions, Councils, etc. When What Board Environmental <http://www.state.vt.us/envboard/> P,A E,P,I Board Vermont Fire <http://www.vtfireacademy.org/> P,A F,C,P,I Service Training Council Geographic <http://www.vcgi.org/> P,A P,I Information System Governor's <http://www.state.vt.us/health/commission/> P,A M,P,I,R Bipartisan Commission on Health Care Availability & Affordability Governor's <http://www.vthighwaysafety.com/> P,A S,T,P,I Highway Safety Program (Dept. of Public Safety) Military Property <http://www.mil.state.vt.us/> P,D,A P,I,T,R and Installations Office National and <http://www.state.vt.us/cncs/> P,A P,I,R Community Service (Commission on) Natural Resources <http://www.nrb.state.vt.us> P,A E,P,I Board Nuclear Safety at <http://www.vtnuclearsafety.com/> P,D,A C,E,M,P,I Vermont Yankee Transportation <http://www.aot.state.vt.us/tboard.htm> P,A T,L,C,P,I Board Water Resources <http://www.state.vt.us/wtrboard/> P,A E,C,P,I Board Other Divisions When What Air National Guard <http://www.vtang.org/> P,D,A H,T National Guard <http://www.vtguard.com/> P,D,A H,T ServiceNet - a guide to <http://www.ahs.state.vt.us/services/> P,A R,I,P services to help Vermont citizens within their own communities State Parks (Dept. of Forest, <http://www.vtstateparks.com/> P,A E,P,I Parks & Recreation) VALS (Vermont Automated <http://www.state.vt.us/libraries/dol/dol.htm> P,A I,P Libraries System) Appendix A: Cont’d - Vermont Information Resources TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 25 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Web Sites by Threat or Incident Threat or Incident Terrorism VT First http://www.dps.state.vt.us/homeland/response_index.html Responder Guide to an Act of Terrorism Ambulance VT http://www.healthyvermonters.info/hp/ems/emstemplate2.shtml and First Ambulance Responder and First Responder Services Water Water http://www.anr.state.vt.us/site/html/contact.htm Systems Systems Security Breach First Response Assistance Hazardous VT http://170.222.24.9/vem/haz_mat.html Materials Hazardous Materials Response Team Hazardous Emergency http://www.anr.state.vt.us/site/html/contact.htm Materials Spill Hazardous Materials Spill Reporting Emergency Emergency http://www.state.vt.us/srs/childcare/erp.htm Response Response Child Care Planning Guide For Child Care Vermont VT Road and http://67.106.3.242/ Road Travel Travel Conditions Reportable Reportable http://www.healthyvermonters.info/hs/epi/idepi/reportable/reportable.shtml Diseases Disease List and Regulations Health Health http://www.healthyvermonters.info/prepared.shtml Emergency Emergency Preparedness Preparedness Information Resources Emergency Emergency http://170.222.24.9/vem/request.html Radiological Management TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 26 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Threat or Incident Response Radiological Emergency Response Boating Reporting of http://www.boatsafe.com/nauticalknowhow/accident.htm Accidents all Boating Accidents Fire Incident VT Fire http://www.state.vt.us/labind/Fire/fireprevention.htm Reporting Incident Reporting System (VFIRS) Local The Local http://www.dps.state.vt.us/vem/emd/director_menu.html Emergency Emergency Management Management Director's Director's Guide Guide Vermont’s Vermont’s http://www.dps.state.vt.us/vtsp/amber/about.htm Child Amber Child Abduction Abduction Alert Alert All VT http://www.dps.state.vt.us/vem/vem_links.htm Emergency Emergency Management Management Information Information Links Links All VT State Access VT http://www.vermont.gov/egovernment/govindex.html Government State Government TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 27 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Appendix A: Cont’d - Vermont Information Resources Index of Vermont State approved Subject Matter Experts There is a limit to the training, preparation and planning that an emergency response manager or incident command can do prior to a crisis. The large number of variables as well as the complexity of some events, such as HAZMAT or biohazards, can make it absolutely essential that there be subject matter experts (SMEs) available to refer these complex questions to. The VEM office maintains a list of the currently qualified SMEs, their locations and areas of expertise. By contacting the VEM office, you can tap into this valuable resource. It should be noted that the available SMEs can be and should be used for a variety of reasons: 1. The most obvious is because of their education, experience and knowledge of their field of expertise. For instance the biohazard SMEs are doctors or other highly qualified medical and healthcare professionals. The HAZMAT SMEs may be chemists with advanced degrees. In all cases, the SME will have an in-depth knowledge of their field of expertise that can support your decisions and assist you in providing the correct information to the public during and after the crisis. 2. The SMEs can also assist you in making on-site decisions related to a rapidly evolving crisis. You may be able to find the information you need if you have enough time to research it but during an evolving event, you need answers fast and accurately about the nature of the threat and how best to respond to it. Such advise can come from your SME. 3. You may be very experienced in dealing with a threat such as a fire or flood but there are often aspects of such events that have far reaching implications. Floods can contaminate the water supply or interrupt underground utilities and cause other ancillary damage. Floods can also cause damage or create problems that are not so apparent such as causing underground fuel tanks or cemetery coffins to float out of the ground. An SME with specific experience in flood damage may be able to advise you on what and when to expect such uncommon events in the context of a much larger crisis. SMEs in other skill areas can assist in fires, hazmat, biohazards and most other threats. They can provide you with the insight and the timely reminder of all of the implications and expectations of the crisis so that you can make better decisions about what to tell or ask of the affected public. 4. The support that can be offered by the SMEs can also be applied to areas that you feel very comfortable with performing yourself. You might want to consider this for several reasons. It allows you to delegate an important aspect of the crisis management to someone that can handle it. It also allows you to take advantage of the specialized experience that the SME may have that you do not. One area that is of particular concern in this regard is the development of the content of public announcements during a crisis. An SME with specific experience in this area, such as a trained PIO or a qualified spokesperson, will know how to collect the right information and formulate it into the most effective TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 28 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) content for a given situation. The complexity of this task may become more apparent after you have read Appendix Section 3 of this document which discusses the difficulty of communications with the public and with the media. In all cases, remember that most SMEs that you contact through the VEM office may need time to respond and to get up to speed on the situation. You cannot call them and expect quick answers over the phone without giving them that time to fully understand the situation. They will help you anticipate the development of the crisis you face but you have to anticipate the need for calling them in advance of using their services. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 29 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Appendix B: Index of Non-Vermont Information Resources Federal Emergency Management and Response Services Federal emergency response services and assets are available from a variety of sources. Below is a list of federal resources divided into the type of service provided. Federal Communications Assuring the provision of federal telecommunications support to federal, state and local response efforts. Emergency Managers Weather Information Network - As an integral part of its mission, the National Weather Service (NWS) recognizes the need to provide the emergency management community with access to a set of NWS warnings, watches, forecasts, and other products at no recurring cost. Toward that end, the Emergency Managers Weather Information Network (EMWIN) system was developed. EMWIN is a suite of data access methods which make available a live stream of weather and other critical emergency information. FEMA: Media Resources - FEMA's Media web page was created to assist the press in covering the agency and in gathering information for disaster-related news stories. The media section includes the latest advisories, breaking news, and disaster archives. It also provides downloadable, high-resolution photos and graphics, audio spots, biographies, speeches, background information and fact sheets, and a listing of FEMA public affairs officers. In addition, reporters can enroll in a list-serve to receive FEMA press releases via e-mail. Federal Energy Helping to restore the nation’s energy systems following a Presidentially declared disaster or emergency. U.S. Department of Energy - The DOE site contains technical information as well as scientific and educational programs for technology, policy, and institutional leadership relevant to achieving efficiency in energy use. Federal Firefighting Detecting and suppressing wild land, rural and urban fires resulting from or occurring coincidentally with a major disaster or emergency. Air Force Reserve Command Fire - This site contains information regarding fire department training, including FEMA/NFA training products. It also contains information about IFSTA certification and provides many resources to help in certification. Also located at the site are fire safety materials, links, and other helpful information. If you're in the fire protection business, you'll want to visit this site. Of course all materials are free of charge. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) - The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) is a federal law enforcement agency that is responsible for investigating arson and bombing incidents of a federal nature. ATF has 4 National Response Teams (NRTs) that respond to major arson and bombing incidents within 24 TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 30 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) hours. ATF also signed a Memorandum of Agreement with USFA and others to produce a state-of-the-art CD/ROM/virtual reality arson investigation training program U.S. Fire Administration - USFA provides national leadership in fire training, data collection, technology and public education and awareness, supporting the efforts of local communities to save lives and reduce injuries and property loss due to fire. Federal Food Identifying, securing and arranging for the transportation of food assistance to affected areas and/or authorizing disaster Food Stamp assistance. Department of Agriculture - USDA program missions, agencies and programs, USDA's news and current information, Government Information Locator Service, and Topical Guide to Agricultural Programs. Federal Hazardous Materials Providing federal assistance to state and local governments in response to an actual or potential discharge and/or release of hazardous materials. Environmental Protection Agency - Access to EPA documents describing environmental information, as well as a number of links to Information Locators that can be obtained from the EPA and related organizations. Also, EPA's Public Information Center available to provide assistance in accessing environmental information. Environmental Protection Agency's Global Warming Web Site - At this web site you will find information pertaining to the science of global warming; current and projected impacts of global warming; international and U.S. Government policies and programs; opportunities for individuals and corporations to help stop global warming; and state and local actions that help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. EPA Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office (CEPPO) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office (CEPPO) provides leadership, advocacy, and assistance to: 1) prevent and prepare for chemical emergencies; 2) respond to environmental crises; and 3) inform the public about chemical hazards in their community. To protect human health and the environment CEPPO develops, implements, and coordinates regulatory and nonregulatory programs. The office's Web site includes pages on Prevention and Risk Management, Preparedness - Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know, Emergency Response, International Programs, and Counter-Terrorism. It also provides sections on Databases and Software, Laws and Regulations, and Publications. National Response Team - The National Response Team's membership consists of 16 federal agencies with interests and expertise in various aspects of emergency response to pollution incidents. The NRT provides policy guidance prior to an incident and assistance as requested by an On-Scene Coordinator via a Regional Response Team during an incident. NRT assistance usually takes the form of technical advice, access to additional resources/equipment or coordination with other RRTs. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 31 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) - The NRC offers programs to make agency, licensee, and nuclear industry information available to the public. Includes improved standard technical specifications, NRC occupational radiation exposure information, plant information books and public documents. Federal Health and Medical Providing supplemental assistance to state and local governments to help them meet the health and medical needs of victims in a major disaster. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - This mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability. The CDC is located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and is an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP) - The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP) has responsibility for managing and coordinating federal health, medical, and health-related social services and recovery to major emergencies and federally declared disasters. Working in partnership with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other federal agencies, OEP serves as the lead agency for health and medical services within the Federal Response Plan. OEP also directs and manages the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) - a cooperative asset-sharing partnership among HHS, the Department of Defense, the Department of Veterans Affairs, FEMA, state and local governments, private businesses, and civilian volunteers. The OEP Web site provides background information about the office and the NDMS system, as well as contacts, links, and information about the annual NDMS conference. Federal Information and Planning Collecting, processing and disseminating information about a potential or actual emergency and for facilitating the overall activities of the federal government in providing response and recovery assistance to an affected state. Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office - The Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office is a national plan coordination office charged with integrating various sector plans into a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan and coordinating analyses of the U.S. Government's own dependencies on critical infrastructures. The Office also assists in the coordination of a national education and awareness program as well as associated legislative and public affairs. DoD Directorate for Emergency Preparedness Policy - The Directorate for Emergency Preparedness Policy (EPP) within the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Policy) has a wide variety of responsibilities relating to a broad spectrum of emergency situations worldwide. Included in these responsibilities are Continuity of Operations, key asset protection, Military Support to Civil Authorities (MCSA), Military Assistance for Civil Disturbances (MACDIS), disaster planning, and assuring that information concerning emergency preparedness and planning is available to the appropriate audiences on an international basis. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 32 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Global Disaster Information Network (GDIN) - The Global Disaster Information Network (GDIN) is a U.S. initiative the purpose of which is to make the information needed to conduct effective disaster relief operations available when and where needed via the Internet. For persons interested in the progress of the development of the GDIN, this U.S. Department of State web page provides information about past and future international meetings devoted to the creation this network. Included are the proceedings of the May 1999 GDIN meeting in Mexico City and several background papers. Internal Revenue Service - The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) allows certain casualty losses to be deducted on Federal income tax returns for the year of the loss or through an immediate amendment to the previous year's return. You may need a copy of a tax return to qualify for assistance from some organizations. IRS will provide you copies or transcripts of previously filed tax returns free of charge. USGS: Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information(CINDI) - The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) extensively monitors and evaluates threats from many natural hazards. Its resources include a global seismic network, a national stream flow monitoring program, regional volcano observatories, and long-standing interagency partnerships in disaster mitigation and response. To help synthesize the vast amount of information available on hazards, the USGS has created the Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information (CINDI) - a research facility for 1) developing and evaluating technology for information integration and dissemination; 2) performing research in data integration, analysis, modeling, and decision support; and 3) supporting the ongoing evolution of the USGS processing and delivery of hazards data. The CINDI Web site provides background information about the center, and serves as "a gateway to information about natural hazards and disasters. The center itself selects individual disasters as case studies. The current focus is Hurricane Mitch, and this site includes much information about that Central American disaster. Federal Mass Care The American Red Cross has primary responsibility for coordinating federal government efforts to provide sheltering, feeding and emergency first aid following a Presidentially declared disaster or emergency. American Red Cross - The American Red Cross, a humanitarian organization led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, will provide relief to victims of disasters and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies. Federal Public Works and Engineering Providing public works and engineering support to assist the state(s) in needs related to lifesaving or life protection following a Presidentially declared disaster or emergency. United States Army Corps of Engineers - The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers provides comprehensive engineering, management and technical support to the U.S. Department of Defense, other agencies, and to state and local governments. They help defend America's security -- militarily, economically and environmentally, in peace and war. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 33 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Federal Resource Support Providing logistical/resource support including emergency relief supplies, space, office equipment, office supplies, telecommunications, contracting services, transportation services and personnel. United States Army Corps of Engineers - The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers provides comprehensive engineering, management and technical support to the U.S. Department of Defense, other agencies, and to state and local governments. They help defend America's security -- militarily, economically and environmentally, in peace and war. Federal Transportation Coordinating federal transportation support to state and local governmental entities, voluntary organizations and federal agencies requiring transportation capacity to perform disaster assistance missions. The National Guard (Department of Defense) - This home page provides virtual, on- demand information about the National Guard Bureau, the Army National Guard, the Air National Guard and National Guard sponsored organizations and events -- including their vital support role in disaster and emergency response operations. Federal Emergency Management Agency - The Federal Emergency Management Agency -- FEMA -- is an independent agency of the federal government, reporting to the President. Since its founding in 1979, FEMA's mission has been clear: to reduce loss of life and property and protect our nation's critical infrastructure from all types of hazards through a comprehensive, risk-based, emergency management program of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Federal Urban Search and Rescue Planning, coordinating and managing the use of federal Urban Search and Rescue assets following a disaster or emergency. Civil Air Patrol (National Headquarters) - The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is the civilian Auxiliary of the U.S. Air Force and is organized along military lines. There are more than 1,700 units; half of which have both senior members and cadets attached. For more than 50 years, CAP has performed three congressionally mandated missions: Aerospace Education, Cadet Programs and Emergency Services. The National Guard (Department of Defense) - This home page provides virtual, on- demand information about the National Guard Bureau, the Army National Guard, the Air National Guard and National Guard sponsored organizations and events -- including their vital support role in disaster and emergency response operations. Federal Emergency Management Agency - The Federal Emergency Management Agency -- FEMA -- is an independent agency of the federal government, reporting to the President. Since its founding in 1979, FEMA's mission has been clear: to reduce loss of life and property and protect our nation's critical infrastructure from all types of hazards through a comprehensive, risk-based, emergency management program of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 34 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Federal Threat Support Information Resources and Web Sites The following are internet-based information sources provided for reference and research purposes in the Pre and Post incident periods. In these periods before and after an incident, it can be useful to have a wide range of information resources that can be used for a variety of research topics. Many of these below listed sites are from other State governments or from local communities and are provided as examples of the format, content and user interface navigation being used by other emergency management organizations. In the following tables, the column: WHEN shows which Phase of an incident that the information source might be best used – P = Pre-event, D = During the incident and A = After the incident. WHO column reflects the source of the information: F=Federal, S=States, V=Vermont, C=County, M=Municipal, A=Academic, B=Commercial Businesses, N=Information from other Nations WHAT column gives some indication of the general nature of the content of the information source: M=Medical, T=Transportation, C=Chemical and Hazardous Materials, W=Weather, F=Fire, S=Safety, L=Law, P=Management Planning, : I=General Information, research material and links to other information sources, R=Recovery, H=Homeland Security and Terrorism, E=Environmental Who FEDERAL/FEDERAL AGENCIES When What U.S. Federal Agencies http://www.lib.lsu.edu/gov/fedgov.html P F I,P FirstGov http://www.firstgov.gov P F I,P FedWorld Information P F I,P http://www.fedworld.gov/ Net Government Law P S I,L Research for every http://www.lawresearch.com/cstate7.htm State Chemical Safety Board http://www.csb.gov P,D F C,I Federal Emergency P,D F I,P,R http://www.fema.gov Management Agency Centers of Disease http://www.cdc.gov/cdc.html P,D F I,M,P Control(CDC) TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 35 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Who When FEDERAL/FEDERAL AGENCIES What National Institute for http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage.html P F I,S,M Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Occupational Safety http://www.osha.gov P F I,S and Health Agency (OSHA) EPA Chemical P F I,P,C Engineering http://www.epa.gov/swercepp Preparedness and Prevention Superintendent of P F I http://www.gpoaccess.gov/index.html Documents National Technical P F I,P http://www.ntis.gov/ Information Service U.S. Agency for Toxic http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ P,D F C,S,M Substances and Disease Registry National Climatic Data P,D F W http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ol/reports/billionz.html Center of NOAA The Code of Federal P F L http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/index.html Regulations U.S. House of P F L,P,I Representatives http://uscode.house.gov./usc.htm Searchable Code Library Chemical Emergency P F C,I,P Preparedness and http://www.epa.gov/ceppo/ Prevention Office National Institute of P F M,I,P Environmental Health http://www.niehs.nih.gov/ Sciences National Response P,D F P,I http://www.nrc.uscg.mil/ Center National Transportation http://www.ntsb.gov/ P F T,S,I Safety Board DOE Chemical Safety http://tis-hq.eh.doe.gov/web/chem_safety/ P F C,S,I,P Program The Oak Ridge P F I,P Emergency http://emc.ornl.gov/ Management Center TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 36 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) When Who What HAZMAT INFORMATION RESOURCES Medical NBC http://www.nbc-med.org P F M,P,I Defense Safety P,D V,B S,I,C,M Information http://hazard.com/msds Resources MSDS Collection Hazardous P B C,I,M Material http://www.emergency.com/hzmtpage.htm Emergency Information Physical and http://chemfinder.cambridgesoft.com/ D B C Chemical Data Agency for Toxic D F C and Hazardous http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/hazdat.html Substance Information Canadian Centre P N P,I http://www.ccep.ca for Emergency Preparedness Chemical D F C,L,R http://www.nsc.org/library/chemical/index.htm Information on the Internet National P F C,M,S,I http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ Toxicology Program Chemical P,D F C,M,S,I http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/chemaids/react.html Reactivity Worksheet Chemical P,D F C,M,S,I Stockpile Emergency http://www.fema.gov/preparedness/csepp.shtm Preparedness Program (CSEPP) Office of P,D A C,S,I,P Radiation, Chemical & http://www.orcbs.msu.edu/chemical/chem_toc.htm Biological Safety (ORCBS) NIOSH Pocket Guide to http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npg.html P,D F C,M Chemical Hazards VT Safety Info. P V,B C,S,I,P http://www.hazard.com Resources TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 37 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) WHEN WHO WHAT EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION RESOURCES Counter-terrorism P,D F H,P,I http://www.terrorism.com Information Disaster Resource Guide http://disaster-resource.com P,A B R,P,I Disaster Relief http://www.disasterrelief.org P,A A,B R,P,I PROJECT SAFESIDE http://www.weather.com/safeside P,D B W,P,I EPA Envirofacts http://www.epa.gov/enviro/index_java.ht P F E,C,L,I Warehouse ml Emergency Information http://www.emforum.org P A I,P Interchange Partnership Illinois Emergency http://www.state.il.us/iema/ P S I,P,L Management Agency Emergency Response and http://www.emergency.com/ P B,A I,P Research Institute California Office of http://www.oes.ca.gov/ P,A S I,P Emergency Services Phoenix Fire Department http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/phxfire.html P M F,I,P Building and Fire Research http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/ P F F,I,P Laboratory Disaster Recovery Journal http://www.drj.com/ P,A B R,I,P Community Alert Network http://www.can-intl.com P,D B I,P (CAN) Home Page Natural Hazards P A E,C,I Information Center http://www.Colorado.EDU/hazards/ University of Colorado Natural Disaster Safety http://www.usatoday.com/weather/wsafe0 P B W Tips USA Today .htm National Drought Mitigation http://enso.unl.edu/ndmc/ P,D F W Center (NDMC) Society for Chemical http://www.schc.org/ P A C,I Hazard Communication Emergency Management P F P,I http://emc.ornl.gov/ Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory FEMA http://fema.gov/ P,A F P,I TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 38 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) When Who What EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION RESOURCES University of P A P,I Wisconsin – http://epdweb.engr.wisc.edu/dmc/ Disaster Management Center Hurricane P S W,P,I http://www.dem.dcc.state.nc.us/ Preparedness Checklist The Committee P A W,I on Earth Observance Satellites http://www.ceos.org/pages/DMSG/index.html Disaster Management Support Florida Division P S I of Emergency http://www.floridadisaster.org/bpr/EMTOOLS/index.htm Management Disaster P B P,I http://www.disastermanagement.org/ Management Institute Disaster P,A N R,P,I Recovery http://www.dri.ca Institute of Canada Disaster P,A N R,P,I Recovery http://www.drie-swo.org/ Information Exchange Center for P B P http://www.preparedness-center.com/ Preparedness and Training Northeastern P S P,I States http://www.nesec.org/ Emergency Consortium Association of P S P,I http://www.acp-crmc-colorado.com/ Contingency Planners Florida P S P,I Emergency http://www.fepa.org/ Preparedness Association TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 39 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Who What When EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION RESOURCES Business P B P,I http://www.ContinuityPlanner.com Continuity Firefighting http://www.firefighting.com P B F Environmental P A E Systems http://www.esri.com/index.html Research Institute Disaster P B I Warning http://www.disasterwarning.com/ Network American Red P A P,I,R http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/beprepared/ Cross-Disaster Services LAFD-Disaster P M F http://www.lafd.org/ Preparedness Unit Insurance P B I Information http://www.iii.org Institute The Rothstein P,A B R,I Disaster http://www.rothstein.com/wwwboard/forum.html Recovery Emergency and P B I Disaster http://www.disaster-management.net/ Management Inc. Provincial P N I Emergency http://www.pep.bc.ca Program Disaster Relief P,A A R,I Aid and http://www.disasterrelief.org/ Information) Hazard P,A B R Reduction and http://hrrc.tamu.edu/ Recovery Center Illinois P S E Environmental http://www.epa.state.il.us/about/index.html Protection Agency North American P B I,P http://www.naem.com/ Emergency Management TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 40 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Who What When ORGANIZATIONS National Fire http://www.nfpa.org/ P B F Protection Association American Red Cross http://www.redcross.org/ P,D A P,I,R American Chemical P B C http://www.acs.org Society American Conference P B C of Governmental http://www.acgih.org Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) American Industrial http://www.aiha.org P B C Hygiene Association National Safety P F S http://safety.webfirst.com/index.htm Council American Society of http://www.ASSE.org/ P B S Safety Engineers American Institute of http://www.aiche.org/ P B C Chemical Engineers International P B P Association of http://www.iaem.com Emergency Managers Association of State http://www.floods.org/ P A W,P Flood Plain Managers The ChemAlliance http://www.chemalliance.org P P C,L Website When Who What EARTHQUAKE INFORMATION Earthquake P F E http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/recenteqs/ Information CalTech P A E Seismological http://www.gps.caltech.edu/seismo/seismo.page.html Laboratory Risk Assessment http://www.eqe.com P B I Who What When LOCAL EMERGENCY PLANNING COMMITTEES Hanford County, P C I,P http://www.co.ha.md.us/lepc/ Maryland LEPC Southwest Florida, P C I,P Regional Planning http://www.swfrpc.org/haz.htm Commission TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 41 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Who What When LOCAL EMERGENCY PLANNING COMMITTEES Hampton Roads P M I,P Emergency http://www.hremc.org/ Management Committee LEPC Information P C I,P http://www.lepcinfoexchange.com Exchange Lake County, IN P C I,P http://www.lepc.co.lake.in.us/ LEPC When Who What MISCELLANEOUS National Safety P F S,I,P http://www.nsc.org/ Council Dive Rescue P,D B S,I http://www.diverescueintl.com International The National P A I http://www.arrl.org/ Association of Amateur Radio TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 42 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Internet References For Terrorism Response: Most of these titles are also internet links. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) Frequently Asked Questions Vermont Emergency Management Terrorism Resource Page Counter-terrorism Page - Site for general terrorism information. Many links to other sites. Disaster Management Central Resource (http://206.39.77.2/DMCR/dmrhome.html) Lackland AFB site with information on civilian support resources, triage of mass casualty situations, medicine and terrorism, terrorism injuries and NBC Medical Library. Disaster Resource Guide (http://disaster-resource.com) Source of information on commercial firms which can assist during emergencies. DOD Report to Congress on Domestic Preparedness Against Weapons of Mass Destruction, May 1, 1997 (http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/program/domestic/execsumm.html) Assesses types of CB threats, identifies unmet CB training, and equipment requirements for first responders, identifies CB warfare information, expertise, and equipment that could be adapted to civilian use, and the DOD plan for assisting first responders. Emergency Response to Chemical/Biological Terrorism Incidents (http://www.emergency.com/cbwlesn1.html) Emergency Response and Research Institute. Good article on response operations. Has links to other info including CB agents and related emergency response articles. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (http://www.fema.gov): Information regarding hazardous materials response handling. FEMA – Emergency Management – Related Bibliography (www.fema.gov/emi/edu/biblo12.html) Currently 35 links to various Emergency Management related bibliographies. At least ten of these related to NBC. FEMA Preparedness (www.fema.gov/fema/pre2.html) Provides links to Planning, Training, Exercises, Information, Community and Family Preparedness Program. FEMA Preparedness, Training, & Exercises Directorate (www.fema.gov/pte/) Site helps emergency managers prepare to respond quickly and efficiently. Has a link to the Emergency Education Network and Emergency Management Institute. Internet Disaster Information Network (www.disaster.net/index.html) Local Terrorism Planning Model (http://www.emergency.com/hzmtpage.html) Hazardous Materials Operation Page lists related articles and research as well as web links to related topics including medical treatment. An excellent first search resource. Personnel Safety Management/Risk Management Program (http://www.infoassets.com/kbi/psmlink.html) Excellent links to government health and safety, DOD HAZMAT, state health and safety, MSDSs, DOT RSPA Hazardous materials safety, DOE environment, safety, and health. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 43 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Emergency Response Guidebook (First Responder’s Guide for HAZMAT operations), DOT. 2000. http://hazmat.dot.gov/erg2000/erg2000.pdf www.tc.gc.ca/canutec/en/guide/guide.htm Emergency Response to Terrorism Job Aid, National Fire Academy http://www.usfa.fema.gov/nfa/tr_ssadd.htm Field Operations Guide, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, USAID http://www.info.usaid.gov/ofda/fog/ Field Operating Guide, US Coast Guard http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/mor/Articles/ICS.htm Firefighters. “Guidelines for Incident Commander’s Use of Firefighter Protective Ensemble (FFPE) with Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) for Rescue Operations During a Terrorist Chemical Agent Incident” August 1999. USASBCCOM http://www2.sbccom.army.mil/hld/cwirp/cwirp_final_incident_command_download.htm TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 44 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Appendix C: Index of Vermont Public Media Resources Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail Addison County 802-388-494 news@addisonindependent.com Independent NP Middlebury Peter Conlon 4 (news) Adelphia Channel 802-225-315 15 TV Montpelier Kenric Kite 9 kkite@adelphia.net American Morgan 802-985-494 802-985-88 Horse Association Mag Shelburne Howard Stump 4 97 info@morganhorse.com AMI Publication 802-244-843 Management NP Waterbury Anne M. Imhoff 3 amiex10@gmavt.net 802-828-542 802-828-33 Art Mail Web Montpelier Andrea Stander 2 63 artmail@vermontartscouncil.org 802-229-057 802-223-06 Associated Press RNP Montpelier Chris Graff 7 54 apvermont@ap.org 802-222-969 802-222-49 behindthetimes@itsclassified.co Behind The Times LNP Bradford Frances Mallary 0 42 m Bellows Falls 802-463-959 802-463-98 Town Crier LNP Bellows Falls Jennifer Murphy 1 18 bfnews@sover.net Bennington 802-447-756 802-442-34 Banner NP Bennington Sabina Haskell 7 13 news@benningtonbanner.com Bennington Becca 802-440-434 802-440-43 Magazine Mag Bennington MacLaren 4 51 maclaren@bennington.edu Black River 802-228-881 802-228-80 Tribune LNP Ludlow Janet Upton 7 00 Boston Globe - 617-929-200 617-929-31 Stringers RNP Boston Peter Mancusi 0 92 letter@globe.com Brandon-Pittsford 802-247-808 802-247-80 Reporter LNP Brandon none 0 80 roy@vermontskinews.com Brattleboro community 802-257-088 802-258-65 television (BCTV) TV Brattleboro Chaia Mide 8 08 bctv@sover.net Brattleboro 802-254-231 802-257-13 Reformer NP Brattleboro Kate Casa 1 05 news@reformer.com Brattleboro Town 802-254-231 802-257-22 Crier LNP Brattleboro Lois Mono 1 11 lmono@reformer.com Burlington Free 802-865-094 802-660-18 metro@bfp.burlingtonfreepress.c Press NP Burlington Mike Townsend 0 02 om TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 45 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail Burlington 802-658-332 802-658-39 Magazine Mag Williston Rick Kisonak 8 29 burlingtonmag@aol.com Rebecca 802-862-410 802-862-93 Business People Mag Williston Awodey 9 22 info@vermontguides.com Business People's Business Travel Rebecca 802-862-410 802-862-93 Guide Mag Williston Awodey 9 22 info@vermontguides.com Tammy 802-893-421 802-891-11 Buyer's Digest LNP Fairfax Shannon 4 34 classifieds@surfglobal.net Caledonian- 802-748-812 802-748-16 Record NP St.Johnsbury Ellie Dixon 1 13 news@caledonian-record.com Catamount Access television-- Lisa Byer 802-442-886 802-442-31 CAT-TV TV Bennington DeAngelis 8 22 cattv@adelphia.net Champlain 802-775-950 802-775-06 Business Journal Mag Rutland Lee Rohe 0 50 bizjrnl@sover.net 802-862-396 802-862-23 Channel 17 TV Burlington Nat Ayer 6, 70 nat@cctv.org 802-425-494 802-425-59 Charlotte News LNP Charlotte Peter Coleman 9 59 news@charlottenewsvt.com Christian Science 617-450-200 617-450-75 Monitor--Stringers RNP Boston Clayton Jones 0 75 802-525-353 802-525-32 Chronicle LNP Barton Bethany Dunbar 1 00 bartnews@sover.net CMI Radio 802-878-888 802-879-68 Network R Essex Ric McClary 5 35 mail@thelightradio.net Colchester 802-288-945 802-288-17 Chronicle LNP Colchester Guy Page 8 70 ccpage@att.net Craftsbury Dvlpmnt & 802-586-771 802-586-25 Common Voice Mag Common Alumni Ofc 1 96 alumni@sterlingcollege.edu Community Access TV 603-643-228 (Norwich/Hartford) TV Hanover Neal Boutin 8 catv6@dresden.us Connecticut Valley West 603-298-775 603298-87 Spectator NP Lebanon Aaron Nobel 5 72 news@cvspectator.com County Courier LNP Enosburg Ethan Dezotelle 802-933-437 802-933-49 county.courier@verizon.net TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 46 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail Falls 5 07 CVTV Channel 7 802-479-107 802-476-10 (Barre) TV Barre Tony Campos 5 86 campos619@aol.com Deerfield Valley 802-464-338 802-464-72 News LNP West Dover Dawn Nieters 8 55 editor@vermontmedia.com; Divot Communications 802-496-757 802-496-75 (Golf magazines) Mag Waitsfield Ken Baron 5 85 ben@playnortheastgolf.com Eagle 802-388-639 802-388-63 Publications, LLC LNP Middlebury Louis Varricchio 7 99 eaglepub@together.net 603-543-310 603-542-97 Eagle Times NP Claremont Matt DeRienzo 0 05 etimes@cyberportal.net 802-865-036 802-865-03 Elders' Advocate LNP Winooski Kim R. Gural 0 63 kimg@cvaa.org Essex 802-878-528 802-878-76 Essex Reporter LNP Junction Warren Baker 2 11 essexreporter@aol.com Ever Changing 802-860-717 Magazine Mag Burlington none 6 Falls Area community TV- 802-463-161 802-463-93 FACT TV Bellows Falls David Longsmith 3 22 factv@adelphia.net Farming: The Journal of NE 802-748-890 802-748-18 farmingpr@farmingmagazine.co Agriculture Mag St. Johnsbury none 8 66 m 802-453-530 Five Town News LNP Bristol John Lea 7 fivetownnews@yahoo.com 802-660-933 802-660-86 Fox 44 TV Colchester none 3 73 gm@fox44.net Greater Northshire 802-362-707 802-362-00 AccessTV TV Manchester Garrett McCarey 0 18 gnat@adelphia.net Marshall 802-348-744 928-441-67 Green Living Mag Williamsville Glickman 1 86 marshall@surfglobal.net Greenfield Town 413-774-722 413-774-68 Crier LNP Greenfield Louis Mono 6 09 gtcsales@reformer.com Hanley Wood, 802-879-333 802-879-93 LLC Mag Williston Don Jackson 5 84 TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 47 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail 800-653-270 802-484-32 Hard Hat News NP Reading Scott Duffy 0 35 srduffy@together.net 802-472-652 Hardwick Gazette LNP Hardwick Ross Connelly 1 hdwkgazett@aol.com Hartford Courant - 860-241-620 860-241-38 Stringers RNP Hartford John Zakarian 0 65 Healthcare 603-579-890 603-579-89 Review Mag Nashua Lorraine Savage 0 98 cm@healthcarereview.com Hemmings Motor James C. 802-442-310 802-447-96 News Mag Bennington Menneto 1, 31 jmenneto@hemmings.com Herald of M. Dickey 802-728-323 802-728-92 editor@ourherald.com, Randolph LNP Randolph Drysdale 2 75 news@ourherald.com Hinesburg Record, 802-482-235 802-482-23 Inc. LNP Hinesburg June T. Giroux 0 50 therecord@GMAVT.net 802-222-515 802-222-49 It's Classified LNP Bradford none 2 42 mail@itsclassified.com Journal of Light 802-879-333 802-879-93 Construction Mag Williston Dan Jackson 5 84 Cicely 802-222-528 802-222-54 Journal Opinion LNP Bradford Richardson 1 38 jonews@together.net 802-865-027 802-865-05 Kids VT LNP Burlington Susan Holson 2 95 editorial@kidsvt.com Lake Champlain Access TV - Kevin 802-862-572 802-864-66 Channel 15 TV Colchester Christopher 4 35 lcatv@adelphia.net LPC-TV (Ludlow 802-228-880 802-228-88 Area) TV Ludlow Patrick Cody 8 07 manager@lpctv.org Mad River Valley 802-583-448 802-583-47 TV TV Waitsfield Adam Tyksinski 8 47 tv@mrvtv.com Manchester and the Mountain Area 802-362-720 Guide Mag Dorset Lee Romano 0 lromano@sover.net Manchester Manchester 802-362-222 802-362-53 Journal LNP Ctr Annette Sharon 2 27 manjourn@sover.net Message for the LNP Chester Wesley Johnson 802-875-479 802-875-47 message@vermontel.net Week 0 92 TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 48 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail Middlebury Call for 802-443-573 Campus LNP Middlebury information. 6 Middlebury community TV - 802-388-306 Channel 15 TV Middlebury Dick Thodal 2 mctv@adelphia.net Milton 802-893-202 802-893-74 Independent LNP Milton Lynn Delaney 8 67 indy@together.net Morrisville television TV Hyde Park Steve Ames 877-357-8484 ext. 7925 MissYourVoice@aol.com Royal W. 802-422-239 802-422-23 Mountain Times LNP Killington Barnard 9 95 visionvt@aol.com Mt. Mansfield 802-434-255 community TV TV Richmond Rebecca Padula 0 MMCTV@Adelphia.net National Gardening onlin 802-863-525 802-864-68 Association e S. Burlington Valerie Kelsey 1 89 ls@nationalgardening.com NEK-TV (Newport 802-334-026 802-334-34 area) TV Newport Randy Williams 4 92 nektv@yahoo.com New England Cable News Net. 802-264-330 802-264-33 (NECN) TV Colchester Anya Huneke 0; 01 ahuneke@necn.com New England 802-257-438 802-257-14 showcase@howardprintinginc.co Showcase Mag Brattleboro Randall Current 7 53 m New Mosket 802-388-639 802-388-63 Press, LLC NP Middlebury Louis Varricchio 7 99 eaglepub@together.net New York Times - 212-556-123 212-556-38 Stringers RNP New York Dean Baquet 4 15 natnews@nyt.com Newport Daily Barbara 802-334-656 802-334-68 Express NP Newport Duquette 8 91 editor@kingcon.com 802-888-221 802-888-21 News and Citizen LNP Morrisville J.B. McKinley 2 73 edit@newsandcitizen.com Christine 802-862-032 802-862-03 Nonprofit Vermont state Shaftsbury Graham 7 27 cpgraham@sover.net 802-684-105 802-684-10 North Star Monthly LNP Danville Terry Hoffer 6 56 northstar@kingcon.com Northern Mag Corinth Stephen Long 802-439-629 802-439-62 mail@northernwoodlands.com TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 49 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail Woodlands 2 96 802-485-368 802-485-79 Northfield News LNP Northfield Celia Barnes 1 09 nnews@trans-video.net Northwest Access TV (St. Albans 802-527-647 802-527-64 Area) TV St. Albans Paul Legassey 4 49 ch15stalbans@adelphia.net Norwich University 802-485-231 802-485-25 Record Mag Northfield Diana Weggler 8 39 record@norwich.edu Notown Communications 802-233-737 802-224-91 Company Mag Montpelier Bob Labbance 2 81 blabbance@notowngolf.com Okemo Valley 802-362-720 Regnl Guide Mag Dorset none 0 lromano@sover.net George 802-864-667 802-864-33 Other Paper LNP S. Burlington Chamberland 0 79 otherpaper@adelphia.net Outdoors 802-879-201 802-879-20 Magazine Mag Colchester James Ehlers 3 15 info@outdoorsmagazine.net Peace and Justice 802-863-832 802-863-25 News LNP Burlington Wendy Coe 6, 32 wcoe@pjcvt.org 802-447-338 802-447-32 Pennysaver Press LNP Bennington Beth Traver 1 70 btraveradolphus@add-inc.com Portland Press 207-791-665 207-791-69 communitynews@pressherald.co Herald - Stringers RNP Portland Eric Blom 0 20 m 518-561-230 518-561-33 Press Republican NP Plattsburgh Jim Dynko 0 62 news@pressrepublican.com Radio Vermont 802-244-732 802-244-17 Group R Waterbury Eric Michaels 1 71 wdev@radiovermont.com REA-TV Channel Chris 802-747-015 802-747-05 20 TV Rutland McCormack 1 65 pegtv20@aol.com Regional Educ. Technology Net. 802-654-798 802-654-79 Ch. 16 TV S. Burlington Barbara Brisson 0 84 info@retn.org RETN (Channel 802-654-798 802-654-79 16) TV S. Burlington Barb Brisson 0 84 info@retn.org Russian Life 802-223-495 802-223-61 Magazine Mag Montpelier none 5 05 orders@rispubs.com TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 50 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail Rutland Business 802-775-950 802-775-06 Journal Mag Rutland Lee Rohe 0 50 bizjrnl@sover.net Jo-Anne 802-747-612 802-773-03 Rutland Herald NP Rutland MacKenzie 1 11 Rutland Regional community TV - 802-747-015 802-747-05 Ch 15 TV Rutland Mike Valentine 1 65 rrctv@aol.com Thomas 802-775-422 802-775-95 Rutland Tribune LNP Rutland Jackson 1 35 rttribune@bluemoo.net SAPA-TV 802-885-624 (Springfield Area) TV Springfield Bruce Johnson 8 sapatv@springfield.k12.vt.us 802-864-568 802-865-10 Seven Days LNP Burlington Ethan Covey 4 15 info@sevendaysvt.com 802-985-309 802-985-54 Shelburne News LNP Shelburne Susan Davis 1 03 news@shelburnenews.com ; Sison 802-655-162 802-655-13 Broadcasting Inc R Colchester Mark Esbjerg 0 29 paulg@95triplex.com 802-863-828 802-863-05 Ski Magazine Mag S. Burlington none 7 29 Springfield Rodney W. 802-885-224 802-885-98 Reporter LNP Springfield Arnold 6 21 reporter@vermontel.net St. Albans 802-524-977 802-527-19 Messenger NP St. Albans Josh Kaufmann 1 48 news@samessenger.com Stowe Guide and 802-827-315 802-253-83 Magazine Mag Stowe Gregory Popa 4 32 news@stowereporter.com 802-253-210 802-253-83 Stowe Reporter LNP Stowe Peter Hartt 1 32 news@stowereporter.com 802-362-720 Stratton Magazine Mag Dorset Marsha Norman 0 lromano@sover.net 518-563-821 518-563-33 Strictly Business Mag Plattsburgh Mary Carpenter 4 20 mary@nepcomail.com 802-446-249 802-446-24 Tales of Tinmouth LNP Tinmouth Gail Fallar 8 98 gfallar@sover.net The Adelphia Channel - Channel So. 802-419-661 802-658-54 74 TV Burlington Lori Murphy 6 88 l_murphy@adelphia.net TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 51 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail The Charlotte 802-425-373 802-425-60 Observer LNP Charlotte none 8 63 observating@yahoo.com George D. 802-372-560 802-372-30 The Islander LNP South Hero Fowler 0 25 islander@vermontislander.com The Montpelier 802-223-511 802-223-78 Bridge LNP Montpelier Jake Brown 2 52 mpbridge@sover.net The North Avenue 802-864-753 802-864-75 News, Inc. LNP Burlington Ellen Cooper 0 30 noavenews@aol.com The Norwich 603-643-144 603-643-46 Times NP Hanover Amanda Waibel 1 44 info@riverroadholdings.net The Quechee 603-643-144 603-643-46 Times NP Hanover Amanda Waibel 1 44 info@riverroadholdings.net The Times Ink of Richmond & 802-434-269 Huntington LNP Richmond Heidi Racht 0 thetimesink@aol.com The Upper Valley 603-643-144 603-643-46 Parents' Paper NP Hanover Amanda Waibel 1 44 info@riverroadholdings.net 802-479-019 802-479-40 Times Argus NP Barre Tom Sivret 1 96 news@timesargus.com 802-657-373 Toward Freedom Mag Burlington Greg Guma 3 info@towardfreedom.com 802-888-221 802-888-21 Transcript LNP Morrisville J.B. McKinley 2 73 edit@newsandcitizen.com David G. 802-748-890 802-748-18 Turf Magazine Mag St. Johnsbury Cassidy 8 66 turfpr@turfmagazine.com Union Leader - 603-668-432 603-668-03 Stringers RNP Manchester Charles Perkins 1 82 writeus@theunionleader.com University of Vermont--The 802-656-200 802-656-32 View LNP Burlington Lee Griffin 5 03 lgriffin@zoo.uvm.edu Upper Valley Education White River 802-295-668 Connection TV Junc. Bob Franzoni 8 USA Today - 703-276-340 Stringers RNP Arlington none 0 Valley Advocate, LNP Easthampton Tom Vannah 413-529-284 413-529-28 editor@valleyadvocate.com TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 52 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail Advocate Newspapers 0 44 Valley Business 802-775-950 802-775-06 Journal Mag Rutland Lee Rohe 0 50 bizjrnl@sover.net White River 603-298-871 603-298-02 Valley News NP Junc Jeff Good 1 12 news@vnews.com 802-496-392 802-496-47 Valley Reporter LNP Waitsfield Lisa Loomis 8 03 news@valleyreporter.com 802-388-636 802-388-63 Valley Voice LNP Middlebury Tammy White 6 68 vvoice@together.net 802-651-969 802-651-07 VCAM Channel 15 TV Burlington none 2 36 vcam@vermontcam.org Vermont Bar 802-223-202 802-223-15 Association Mag Montpelier none 0 73 lmaxfield@vtbar.org Vermont Business Timothy 802-863-803 802-863-80 Magazine Mag Burlington McQuiston 8 69 info@vermontbiz.com Vermont Catholic 802-658-611 802-863-38 Tribune LNP Burlington Pat Gore 0 66 tribune@vermontcatholic.org Vermont community Access 802-651-969 802-651-07 Media TV Burlington Rob Chapman 2 36 vcam@adelphia.net VT Connections/VT Travel Vicky P. 802-223-344 802-223-42 Connections Mag Montpelier Tebbetts 3 57 info@vtchamber.com 802-656-848 802-656-03 Vermont Cynic LNP Burlington Kristin Dobbs 2 37 cynic@zoo.uvm.edu Vermont Environmental 802-365-799 802-365-79 Monitor LNP Newfane Jake Brown 1 96 ppress@sover.net Vermont Environmental Stephanie 802-223-232 802-223-02 info@vnrc.org; Report Mag Montpelier Mueller 8 87 smueller@vnrc.org 802-861-488 802-861-63 Vermont Guardian NP Winooski Greg Guma 0 88 editorial@vermontguardian.com Vermont Journal LNP Waitsfield Robert Miller 802-496-662 802-496-30 editor@vermontjournal.com TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 53 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail 8 09 Vermont Life 802-828-324 802-828-33 Magazine Mag Montpelier Tom Slayton 1 66 vtlife@life.state.vt.us Vermont 802-388-848 802-388-84 Magazine Mag Middlebury Joseph Healy 0 85 vtmag@sover.net Vermont Manufacturers Timothy 802-862-803 802-863-80 Dir. LNP Burlington McQuiston 8 69 info@vermontbiz.com Vermont Maturity Marianne 802-878-005 802-878-37 Magazine Mag Williston Apfelbaum 1 51 vermontmaturity@aol.com Vermont News Manchester Bohdan 802-362-353 802-362-53 Guide LNP Ctr Berezansky 5 68 newsguid@sover.net Vermont Press 802-223-393 802-229-98 Bureau RNP Montpelier Darren Allen 1 94 VPB@sover.net Vermont Property 802-229-243 802-229-01 Owners Report LNP Montpelier Philip K. Dodd 3 94 vtdesk@vermontproperty.com Vermont Public 802-655-945 802-655-27 Radio R Colchester Jody Evans 1 99 contact@vpr.net Vermont Public 802-655-480 802-655-65 television TV Colchester Dan Harvey 0 93 view@vpt.org Vermont Quarterly 802-656-799 802-656-32 Magazine Mag Burlington Tom Weaver 6 03 thomas.weaver@uvm.edu Vermont Rentals/ Cyber onlin 802-228-715 815-461-55 Rentals.com e Ludlow Hunter Melville 8 69 webmaster@cyberrentals.com 802-247-808 802-247-80 Vermont Ski News LNP Brandon Roy M. Newton 0 80 roy@vermontskinews.com Vermont Sports 802-244-579 802-244-57 Today LNP Waterbury Kate Carter 6 96 vtsports@together.net Vermont 802-457-131 802-457-36 Standard, Ltd. LNP Woodstock Kevin Forrest 3 39 vstand@sover.net Barbara 802-985-240 802-985-24 Vermont Times LNP Shelburne Duquette 0 90 vttimes@bluemoo.net Vermont 802-447-483 802-447-48 Vacations Mag N.Bennington Dick Jones 6 37 radjones@together.net Vermont-NEA LNP Montpelier Laurie B. Huse 802-223-637 802-223-12 vtnea@together.net TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 54 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail Today 5 53 VermontGuides.co onlin Rebecca 802-862-410 802-862-93 m e Williston Awodey 9 22 info@vermontguides.com Wall Street 212-416-250 212-416-26 Journal - Stringers RNP New York none 0 58 Wallingford Historical Society 802-446-336 Newsletter LNP Wallingford Donald Emery 6 demery@vermontel.net 802-442-632 802-442-31 WBTN - 1370 AM R Bennington Joe Woodruff 1 12 WBTN@svc.edu John Van 802-655-945 802-655-27 WBTN - FM R Colchester Hoesen 1 99 contact@vpr.net 802-860-246 802-860-24 WBTZ - 99.9 FM R Burlington Monkey and Iain 5 62 mailbag@999thebuzz.com WCAX-TV Marselis 802-652-639 802-652-63 Channel 3 TV Burlington Parsons 7 99 news@wcax.com 802-878-888 802-879-68 WCKJ - FM R Essex Mark Kinsley 5 35 mail@thelightradio.net WCLX Radio - The Album Station 802-759-400 102.9 R Bristol Diane Desmond 0 wclx@madriver.com 802-878-888 802-879-68 WCMD - FM R Essex none 5 35 mail@thelightradio.net 802-655-009 802-655-32 WCPV - 101.3 FM R Burlington Karen Marshall 3 24 champ@champ1013.com 802-728-441 802-728-40 WCVR - 102.1 FM R Randolph Ctr Joel O'Brien 1 13 randolphradio@clearchannel.com 802-244-176 802-244-17 WCVT - 101.7 FM R Waterbury none 4 71 wcvt@classicvermont.com 802-244-732 802-244-17 WDEV - AM/FM R Waterbury Eric Michaels 1 71 wdev@radiovermont.com 802-655-009 802-655-19 WEAV - 960 AM R Burlington Tim Buskey 3 93 timbuskey@clearchannel.com Harry 802-775-750 802-775-75 WEBK - 105.3 FM R Rutland Weinhagen 0 55 webk@catamountradio.com WEQX - 102.7 FM R Manchester Josh Klemme 802-362-480 802-362-55 eqx@weqx.com TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 55 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail 0 55 WEXP 101.5 FM 802-773-926 802-747-05 (WVAY) R Rutland John Gales 4 53 mail@101thefox.com 802-655-009 802-655-19 WEZF - 92.9 FM R Burlington Karen Marshall 3 93 lanawilder@clearchannel.com 802-388-900 802-388-30 WFAD - 1490 AM R Middlebury David John 0 00 production@getalice.com Amanda 802-454-776 WGDR - 91.1 FM R Plainfield Gustafson 2 colemana@goddard.edu Richard 802-878-888 802-879-68 WGLY - 91.5 FM R Essex McClairy 5 35 cmi.radio@verizon.net 802-878-888 WGMK 01.9 R Essex Darilyn McClary 5 mail@thelightradio.net 802-626-980 802-626-85 WGMT - 97.7 FM R Lyndonville Bruce James 0 00 wgmt@kingcon.com WGXL - 92.3 FM 603-448-140 603-448-17 & 93.5 FM R Lebanon Tim Plante 0 55 603-542-773 603-542-87 WHDQ -1230 AM R Claremont Doug Daniel 5 21 413-774-430 413-773-56 WHMQ--1240 AM R Greenfield Hugh Massey 1 37 info@whai.com 802-766-448 802-766-80 WIKE - 1490 AM R Newport Bill Maxwell 5 67 email@northstarhits.com 802-879-483 802-872-01 Williston Observer LNP Williston Greg Elias 9 51 editor@willistonobserver.com 802-674-297 802-674-64 Windsor Chronicle LNP Windsor none 5 26 windsorchronicle@aol.com Windsor On Air (TV, Windsor 802-674-520 802-674-52 Area) TV Windsor Kate Stillson 0 00 woa@adelphia.net 518-585-286 518-585-28 WIPS - 1250 AM R Ticonderoga Dave Downing 8 69 518-563-134 518-563-13 WIRY - 1340 AM R Plattsburgh Alan Drake 0 43 wiry@wiry.com Jennifer 802-860-244 802-860-18 WIZN - 106.7 FM R Burlington McCann 0 18 wizn@wizn.com TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 56 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail 802-775-750 802-775-75 catcountrymornings@hotmail.co WJAN - 95.1 FM R Rutland D.B. James 0 55 m 802-775-750 802-775-75 catcountrymornings@hotmail.co WJEN - 94.5 FM R Rutland D.B. James 0 55 m 802-775-750 802-775-75 WJJR - 98.1 FM R Rutland Terry Jaye 0 55 wjjr@catamountradio.com 802-658-123 802-862-07 WJOY - 1230 AM R Burlington Dan Dubonnet 0 86 wjoy@hallradio.com 802-658-123 802-862-07 WKOL - 105.1 FM R Burlington Dan Dubonnet 0 86 kool105@hallradio.com WKVT - 1490 AM/ 802-254-234 802-254-66 92.7 FM R Brattleboro Peter Case 3 83 production@wkvt.com 802-748-236 802-748-23 WKXH - 105.5 FM R St. Johnsbury Joe Donelan 2 61 kix105@kix1055.com 802-524-213 802-527-14 WLFE - 102.3 FM R St. Albans Pete Ferrand 3 50 wlfe.fm@verizon.net 802-888-429 802-888-85 WLVB - 93.9 FM R Morrisville Roland Lajoie 4 23 wlvb@radiovermont.com 802-766-923 802-766-80 WMOO - 92.1 FM R Derby Bill Maxwell 6 67 email@northstarhits.com WNCS – WRJT - 802-223-239 802-223-15 WDOT R Montpelier Mark Miller 6 20 103.1, 107.7, 104.7, 100.3 WNHV - 910 AM/ 603-542-773 603-688-80 WTSV - 1230 AM R Claremont Doug Daniels 5 02 doug@q106rock.com WNNE-TV White River Andrew 802-295-310 802-295-39 Channel 31 TV Junc Wormser 0 83 scoop@wnne.com East 802-287-903 WNYV - 94.1 FM R Poultney Judith Leech 1 wvnrwnyv@yahoo.com 802-658-123 802-862-07 WOKO - 98.9 FM R Burlington Dan Dubonnet 0 86 woko@hallradio.com Woodstock Area 802-457-131 802-457-18 TV TV Woodstock Stephen Schultz 7 50 wctvstation@hotmail.com 802-476-416 802-479-58 WORK - 107.1 FM R Barre Jim Severance 8 93 802-658-379 Works In Progress LNP S. Burlington Larry A. Cain 7 TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 57 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail 802-479-258 802-479-79 World LNP Barre Patricia Wieja 2 16 editor@vt-world.com WPTZ-TV 518-561-555 802-655-54 newstips@thechamplainchannel. Channel 5 TV Plattsburgh Susan Acklen 5 51 com 413-585-955 413-585-85 WPVQ - 95.3 FM R Northampton Will Stanley 5 01 info@bear953.com WRJT - 103.1 FM White River Mark 802-296-706 802-223-15 The Point R Jct. Abuzzahab 4 20 802-524-213 802-527-14 WRSA - 1420 AM R St. Albans Pete Ferrand 3 50 wlfe.fm@verizon.net 413-585-955 413-585-85 WRSI - 93.9 FM R Northampton Will Stanley 5 01 dj@wrsi.com 802-656-8700/on-air: WRUV - 90.1 FM R Burlington Josie Freeman 656-4399 wruv@zoo.uvm.edu John Van 802-655-945 802-655-27 WRVT - 88.7 FM R Colchester Hoesen 1 99 contact@vpr.net 802-223-527 802-223-15 WSKI - 1240 AM R Montpelier Tom Bruce 5 20 tom.bruce@wski.com 802-476-416 802-479-58 WSNO - 1450 AM R Barre Jim Severance 8 93 jim@froggy1009.com 802-254-947 603-542-87 WSSH - 101.5 FM R Claremont Art Steinberg 4 21 802-748-236 802-748-23 WSTJ - 1340 AM R St. Johnsbury Joe Donellan 2 61 wstj@yahoo.com WSYB - 1380 AM/ 802-775-559 802-775-66 92.1 FM R Rutland Tim Plante 7 37 zradio97@aol.com WTSA - 1450 AM/ 802-254-457 802-257-46 96.7 AM/FM R Brattleboro Tim Johnson 7 44 wtsa@adelphia.net 603-448-140 603-448-17 WTSL - 1400 AM R Lebanon Dan Pierce 0 55 lebprod1@clearchannel.com 603-542-773 603-542-87 WTSV - 1230 AM R Claremont Doug Daniels 5 21 Mary 802-542-213 802-527-14 WTWK - 1070 AM R Saint Albans Whitehouse 3 50 wlfe.fm@verizon.net 802-757-331 802-757-27 WTWN - 1100 AM R Wells River Glenn Hatch 1 74 wtwngch@kingcon.com TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 58 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail 802-655-675 802-655-42 WVAA - 1390 AM R Winooski George Goldring 4 84 wvaa@radiovermont.com 802-464-111 802-747-05 WVAY - 101 FM R W. Dover Kelly Kowalski 1 53 wexpthefox@aol.com WVBK - Channel 802-258-220 802-258-44 49 TV Brattleboro Dan Carbonara 0 00 wvbkrsn12@adelphia.net 802-655-162 802-655-13 WVMT - 620 AM R Colchester Paul Goldman 0 29 mark@am620wvmt.com 802-287-903 WVNR - 1340 AM R Poultney Helen Willis 1 WVNY TV - Channel 22/Cable 802-860-222 802-863-24 4 TV Burlington Linda Noyes 2 22 taltman@abc22.com John Van 802-655-945 802-655-27 WVPR - 89.5 FM R Colchester Hoesen 1 99 contact@vpr.net John Van 802-655-945 802-655-27 WVPS - 107.9 FM R Colchester Hoesen 1 99 contact@vpr.net 603-448-140 603-448-17 WVRR - 101.7 FM R Lebanon Chris Garrett 0 55 sales@xl92.com 802-655-009 802-655-04 WVTK - 96.7 FM R Burlington Karen Marshall 3 78 WWBI-TV 518-297-272 518-297-33 Channel 27 TV Rouses Point Gary Clarke 7 77 wwbitv27@aol.com 802-476-416 802-479-58 WWFY R Barre Jim Severance 8 93 802-626-621 802-626-97 WWLR - 91.5 FM R Lyndonville News Director 4 70 802-654-233 802-654-23 WWPV - 88.7 FM R Colchester Mike Balch 4 36 wwpv@smcvt.edu WWSH/WZSH - 95.3, 107.1, 603-298-295 603-542-37 107.5FM R Claremont Art Steinberg 3 80 802-728-441 802-728-40 WWWT - 1320 AM R Randolph Ctr Joel O'Brien 1 13 randolphradio@clearchannel.com 802-388-900 802-388-30 WXAL - FM R Middlebury David John 0 00 alice@getalice.com TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 59 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Company Cat. City Contact Phone Fax E-mail 603-448-522 603-448-52 WXXK - 100.5 FM R Lebanon Dan Pierce 9 31 802-655-955 802-655-13 WXXX - 95.5 FM R Colchester Paul Goldman 0 29 paulg@95triplex.com 802-655-009 802-655-19 WXZO - 96.7 FM R Burlington John Hill 3 93 timbuskey@clearchannel.com 802-655-009 802-655-04 WXZO - 96.7 FM R Burlington John Hill 3 78 Stephen J. 802-757-277 802-757-27 WYKR - 101.3 FM R Wells River Puffer 3 74 wykrsjp@kingcon.com Brian 603-239-820 603-239-62 WYRY - 104.9 FM R Winchester McCormick 0 03 wyry@cheshire.net 802-775-559 802-775-66 WZRT - 97.1 FM R Rutland Tim Plante 7 37 zradio97@aol.com 603-298-295 603-542-87 WZSH - 107.1 FM R Claremont none 3 21 Categories = R=Radio, TV=television, NP=State newspapers, LNP=local community newspapers, RNP=regional, Mag=magazines, Web=online electronic newsletters TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 60 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Appendix Section 2 - Assistance and Guidelines on the development of content Section 2, Appendices D, E, F; Assistance and Guidelines on the development of content. This is a general guideline of how to anticipate the response of the public to your announcement and how to word it so that it will have the desired response. This section also covers the special cautions that must be used in dealing with the news media. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 61 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Appendix D: Behavioral Response to Threats & Emergencies The response by and from individuals and people in groups is not always logical, linear or what would be expected. There is a large array of psychological and behavioural responses that are known to occur in response to threats and dangers that are counter-intuitive to the average person. Such responses are not 100% consistent but are common enough that it is prudent for emergency management professionals and public communicators to be aware of these responses and to make allowances for them in the content and methods used for public announcements and information distribution. These innate human responses fall into two categories – (1) individual – thinking patterns, decision making and responses to information of individuals and (2) groups – the collective response of a group of people that act and think as if the group were a single person. Although the in-depth discussion of these psychological and behavioural responses is beyond the scope of this document, it is useful to identify some basic and common response for each of these two categories. Individual Decision Mechanisms in the Human Mind The human mind is the result of millions of years of evolution that has created a wonderful ability to deal with a wide variety of diverse situations and threats but this same innate mental ability can also introduce problems. Our brains are wired to have a preference for certain kinds of thinking and decision making processes that are well known and relatively well defined. These mental mechanisms are common in most people and applied by people most of the time that they are faced with any situation that requires an analysis of information and a conclusion or decision. These mental mechanisms are well enough understood that they have been given names: Representativeness is a mental problem-solving method that is a sort of short-cut the mind takes in dealing with real-world problems that are so complicated they would choke a computer. The mind handles these complex problems by assessing the evidence intuitively and compares it to some mental model. If the two match, then the mind concludes that the event is more likely. For instance, to decide if a particular danger will be a threat to their personal safety, the mind compares the danger to its internal model of what a real threat to personal safety is like. If the two models match, then the mind concludes that the danger will is a real threat to personal safety. This works well for most of the time but does poorly when the derived conclusion runs counter to the laws of chance and probability. An example of this mental short-cut not working properly is when 19 people refused to believe that there was a threat and leave their homes when they were told that Mt. St. Helens was going to explode. A public announcement that seeks to reach people that think like this might be oriented toward establishing a greater degree of understanding and appreciation of the threat as a way to build a more realistic internal mental image that will allow them to conclude that the threat is real and possible. Availability is a mental short-cut that occurs when people judge the likelihood of something happening by how easily they can call other examples of the same thing to mind. Availability, too, appears to be a wonderful way to tackle complex problems because, in general, commoner TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 62 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) events are more easily remembered. However, it does not always work for less well known subjects. For instance - does the letter K appear more often as the first letter in a work or the third letter in a word? Most people judge that K is commoner at the beginning of words because its easy to recall words that begin with K. Actually K appears about twice as often as the third letter in words. Every year, people are reported as “caught off guard” by record setting weather or freak accidents and natural disasters resulting in deaths and injuries. This is the theory of Availability at work because these people cannot relate to the degree of danger that they are faced with because it is not in their common experience. People overestimate the probability of large vividly imaginable causes of death and underestimate the likelihood of more common but less dramatic causes of death simple because vivid accidents are easier to picture in the mind. Many people are much more afraid of lightning than of floods, despite the facts that the odds of being struck by lightning are 1 in 250 million whereas the odds of drowning are 1 in 20,000. Drowning is 12,500 times more likely. How do people formulate strategy? They first decide what is the danger they face. Then they decide how they will respond. Then they decide how the threat to their safety will change as a result of their response, and so on. The theory of Availability dictates that the more detailed these future scenarios become, the more likely they will seem - since detail makes an account more strongly resemble the real world. A response to a danger can be significantly altered by the media coverage it receives. If the media limit the coverage, downplay the threat or make light of the danger, it reduces the detail of the mental image of the threat and lowers the sense of danger in the minds of the public. Actions that acknowledge a high degree of uncertainty are often very different than actions that don’t. A frequent example is a weather forecast of a “possible” serious storm. People were unprepared for the October 1991 super storm that hit New England because it was much more serious than even the weathermen predicted and all announcements to the public reported a high degree of uncertainty about how severe it might be. The result was that most people, civic governments and emergency response organizations took no action to prepare. Ignoring the Base Rate or background data against which the probability of an event is judged is a common error. People will think the odds are in their favor - “it won’t happen to me”. Fires, landslides, auto accidents, cancer from smoking, criminal activity are all examples of this. This leads to a strong overconfidence effect. This is a classic example of how the human mind suppresses uncertainty. We’re not only convinced that we know more than we do but that we what we don’t know must be unimportant. The notion that people are “risk averse” as decision theorists put it, has endured since the 17th century and has become a part of many economic models. People tend to avoid risks when seeking gains but choose risks to avoid losses. People need a strong inducement to gamble but they will expose themselves to tremendous risks in order to avoid a loss. The effect is particularly pronounced in life and death situations. People avoid risks when seeking to save lives, but choose risks when seeking to avoid deaths. This is the mental thinking that makes people stay in their homes when a flood or forest fire is coming their way because they are seeking to avoid the loss of their homes rather than save their life. Prospect Theory says that there is something about the human mind that so abhors a loss that giving up some quantity of money, commodity or privilege is never fully offset by an equivalent TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 63 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) gain. “Losses loom larger than gains”. People avoid fair bets not because they are “risk averse” but because they are “loss averse” - the prospect of the gain isn’t worth the pain of the loss. People find it easier to give up a discount (forgo a gain) than pay a cost (suffer a loss). A loss seems less painful when it is an increment to a larger loss than when it is considered alone. A public safety announcement should not be worded as a comparison of gaining safety at the expense of the loss of a home. To acknowledge the potential influence of the Prospect Theory, an announcement might emphasize the potential loss of homes (the incremental loss) as a less painful loss than the loss of life and family members (the larger potential loss). The wording would be more effective if it presented a request for evacuation, not as a gain of safety, but rather as a prevention of the loss of life and loved ones. This is a subtle nuance in the wording but it can make a significant difference in the manner in which the announcement is perceived and responded to by the public. Framing is the principle that if a problem is framed (presented in a different manner) then the response will be different, even if the problem has not changed. In general, the frame that takes the broader view of a situation is more easily defended and is often more easily accepted as fact. Most people find solving a problem quantitatively very unsatisfying and so they’ll re-frame and re-frame the problem until they find a qualitative difference that’s decisive. For example, a homeowner might say, “Five inches of rain is a lot but it has been dry lately and the plants need water. This rain is a good thing”. A public announcement warning of the possible effects of five inches of rain might be more effective if it points out the impact of similar amounts of rain in other locations or at other times. By reframing the threat into one that can be more easily understood and appreciated for its danger, the public safety official can achieve an improved response from the public. Group Decision Mechanisms in the Human Mind The very nature of emergency management is that it presents with difficult situations to the public in the form of information about or requested responses to potential dangers to life or property. The response to this information is often influenced by a collective or group reaction that might not be the same for individual members of the same group. In different situations, this response has been referred to as “group think”. The group may be a town, community, home owners association or simply the collective group of people that might be impacted by the danger or threat. Group Think is a form of decision making often characterised by uncritical acceptance of a prevailing point of view. It is a form of collective delusion, where bizarre policies are rationalised collectively and contradictory evidence is discredited. Members of the group suffer an illusion of both invulnerability and morality, and construct negative stereotypes of outsiders. The group’s decision-making can be enhanced by becoming more aware of the pitfalls of "group think." The term refers to the various pressures that can cause people to alter the expression of their individual opinions. The main symptoms of group think include an illusion of invulnerability; self- censorship; the pressure of conformity; and group members acting as guards — protecting others from negative information that might hinder compliance. When group think takes hold, silence from some members can be seen as acceptance as others push a particular decision through. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 64 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Responses to Reduce the Bad Effects of Group Think Expanding input is a step in the right direction, as are regular meetings of independent directors. Involving more people, and rotating in new people with fresh perspectives, also improve response time. More critical eyes help root out potential problems and facilitate solutions. Numerous deaths can be traced to slow emergency response. A significant reason is "bystander inaction" — the tendency of people in a group not to respond to an emergency when they likely would if they were on their own. This stems from not wanting to be the first to act different than the group, so no one acts. If one opinion is expressed and met with some degree of acceptance, it can quickly become the common position of the entire group. This can be dangerous since the group may collectively think of themselves as invulnerable to any threat or unlikely to be affected by it. Communities are more likely to be responsive to agency ideas when they are involved early in the decision-making process. However, a recognized paradox of community involvement is the harder you work to involve people, the less interested they are in being involved. Key reasons for involving stakeholders in your program include: •secures input from people who know something you need to know •gives people a chance to tell you what they feel you need to know •ensures that everyone is aware that they are welcome to get involved Boards can take simple steps on their own to help solve bystander inaction and group think. First, a smaller group will act more cohesively and effectively, in part because there is less diffusion of responsibility. Dividing the board into smaller groups to each address the situation separately makes discussion easier and gives everyone more time to speak. This applies as well to key board panels, such as the audit and compensation committees. Second, a board chairman can use the "executive sessions" of the outside directors to create a "devil's advocate" role to argue the pluses and minuses of major board decisions. By creating a formal role for skepticism, a board can overcome the natural tendency of "bystanders" to wait for someone else to speak up or take action. The role of independent chairman or lead director is crucial in this process. The story of Victor Steinbrueck shows the success of a devil's advocate in turning a group (in this case the entire city) around on an important issue (the preservation of Pike Place Market). In 1963, Seattle's business and political establishment, in the throes of urban-renewal fever, unveiled a plan to replace the market with terraced garages and high-rise office buildings. Over an eight-year period, Steinbrueck, gradually joined by supporters, articulated the importance of what is now generally recognized as the soul of urban Seattle. His efforts led to a citywide referendum in 1971 that voters chose — over a watered-down alternative supported by the mayor, City Council and other city leaders — to preserve the market for what it is today. Empowering groups to consider all sides of an issue requires leadership that supports contradiction. Directors need to place a high priority on the airing of objections — guiding all to place deep analysis over quick agreement. The leader should also be neutral, withholding preferences and expectations as much as possible. Members who shoot down dissenting opinions should be asked to listen to be sure no stone is left unturned. Lastly, the dangers of group think should be openly discussed and understood. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 65 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Research on group decision-making shows a powerful tendency for individuals to revert to overly consensus-seeking behavior when making group decisions under stress. To reduce stress levels, prepare the board with information well in advance of its meeting; reduce time allotted to ministerial or noncritical reporting matters; and schedule ample committee or board time for thoughtful consideration of key decisions. It may sound simple but it often does not happen. Most important is the culture created from the top. The selection of the CEO is the key job of the board; the CEO sets the tone for everyone in the organization. With good teamwork and communication between the board and CEO, "surprises" (good or bad) rarely occur. A board that recognizes the dangers of group decision-making, and that has a proper structure and a healthy culture of debate in place, will be more likely to recognize an emerging problem and take timely, appropriate action. Thoughtful board leadership can ask good questions and suggest alternative courses of action. Experienced board members will often have lived through similar changes and emergencies in their own corporations and will have sound advice for the company's problem. Hearing all of these voices may do more for corporate governance than Sarbanes-Oxley compliance could ever hope to. The symptoms of group think are divided into three main categories: Overestimation: Illusions of invulnerability Belief in inherent group morality Closed Mindedness: Rationalization Isolationism Uniformity pressure: Self-censorship Direct pressure Mind guards Unanimity illusion These three categories are subdivided into 8 main symptoms of group think: 1. Illusions of invulnerability Members believe that they cannot be defeated by any external or internal force. Members ignore obvious danger, take extreme risk, and are overly optimistic. This is done by ignoring warnings, depending on safety nets, and/or overconfidence in personal abilities. 2. Belief in inherent group morality: Members believe their decisions are morally correct, ignoring the ethical consequences of their decisions. Members assume that the 'right' thing will always be done. In doing so, factors that influence the decision making process are discounted, resulting in flawed (incomplete) assumptions. 3. Collective Rationalization: Members discredit and explain away warning contrary to group thinking. Members promote closed mindedness by downplaying information contrary to previous group assumptions and/or conclusions. This is usually done in a proud intellectual manner. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 66 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) 4. Isolationism Members may promote an esoteric way of thought that distances them from external opinions or influences. This distancing often happens when external sources are viewed as overly critical or cynical. In addition, isolationism may result in discounting valid criticism. 5. Self-censorship Members withhold their dissenting views and counter-arguments. Members can allow subtle pressure caused by a desire to achieve group agreement to restrict the expression of personal convictions or concerns. 6. Pressure for Conformity: Members pressure any in the group who express arguments against the group's stereotypes, illusions, or commitments, viewing such opposition as disloyalty. The group constructs negative stereotypes of rivals outside the group. Direct pressure is a more pronounced self-censorship where group power is imposed to bring about conformity. Mockery and disrespect often accompany this phenomenon. 7. Mind guards Mind guards are natural defenses of the human brain that prevent the possibility of damage (challenged assumptions, etc.) Some members appoint themselves to the role of protecting the group from adverse information that might threaten group complacency. These guards usually stop further exploration of assumptions or accepted data and breed complacency. 8. Illusion of Unanimity: The previous symptoms, when present, result in an illusion that the group cohesively agrees. However, if the previous symptoms do exist, real group unity cannot occur. Members are demanded not to threaten group 'goals' with disagreements or doubts (often viewed as disloyalty). Members perceive falsely that everyone agrees with the group's decision; silence is seen as consent Avoiding Group Think The group should be made aware of the causes and consequences of group think. 1. The leader should be neutral when assigning a decision-making task to a group, initially withholding all preferences and expectations. This practice will be especially effective if the leaders consistently encourages an atmosphere of open inquiry. 2. The leader should give high priority to airing objections and doubts, and be accepting of criticism. 3. Groups should always consider unpopular alternatives, assigning the role of devil's advocate to several strong members of the group. 4. Sometimes it is useful to divide the group into two separate deliberative bodies as feasibilities are evaluated. 5. Spend a sizable amount of time surveying all warning signals from rival group and organizations. 6. After reaching a preliminary consensus on a decision, all residual doubts should be expressed and the matter reconsidered. 7. Outside experts should be included in vital decision making. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 67 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) 8. Tentative decisions should be discussed with trusted colleagues not in the decision- making group. 9. The organization should routinely follow the administrative practice of establishing several independent decision-making groups to work on the same critical issue or policy. The Outrage Factor By their nature, emergency management professionals must focus on the technical issues associated with emergency preparation and response, whereas the public considers many other factors. It is generally true that what the public sees as the risk and their related fears often have no correlation to the technical issues. In risk management and communication circles, these non-technical factors are often referred to as the “outrage" dimension of risk. The person who communicates with the public must be aware that the public is usually more concerned with the outrage issues than the technical aspects, and their perception of the risk(s) is likely to be very different from the agency’s assessment. Some actions that are guaranteed to raise the level of hostility between community members and agency representatives and may ultimately stand in the way of successful public communication include: •Ignoring the variables that influence community risk perception. •Labelling the variables as irrational and then discounting them. Some key variables that can underlie community perception of risk: • Voluntary risks are accepted more readily than those that are imposed. When communities feel coerced into accepting risks, they tend to feel anger and resentment. As a result, the community may pay far less attention to a substantive risk issue because a less serious coerced risk generates more controversy. • Natural risks seem more acceptable than artificial risks. An act of nature, such as an earthquake or tornado, is more acceptable than one caused by people, such as a chemical leak or airplane crash. Natural disasters provide no focus for anger because there is no one to blame, whereas man-made disasters can usually be attributed to human error and thus become a focal point for public anger. • Risks under individual control are accepted more readily than those subject to industry or government control. Most people feel safer dealing with risks under their own control. For example, most of us feel safer driving than riding as a passenger. Our feeling has nothing to do with our driving record versus the driving record of others. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 68 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) • Risk information that comes from a trustworthy source is more readily believed than information from an untrustworthy source. If a mechanic with whom you have quarrelled in the past suggests he can not find a problem with a car that seems faulty to you, you will respond quite differently than if a friend delivers the same news. You are more apt to demand justification from the mechanic rather than ask neutral questions. • Exotic risks seem more dangerous than familiar risks. A cabinet full of household cleansers, for example, generates much less concern than a high- tech chemical facility that makes the cleansers. The greater the number and seriousness of outrage factors, the greater the likelihood of public concern about the risk, regardless of the technical data. As government agencies have seen many times, the risks that elicit public concern may not be the same ones that scientists have identified as most dangerous. When officials dismiss the public's concern as misguided, the result is controversy, anger, distrust, and still greater concern. None of this is meant to suggest that people disregard scientific information and make decisions based only on the other variables (the outrage factors). However, it does suggest that outrage also matters, and that by ignoring the outrage factors, agencies skew the balance and cause people to become even more outraged. This logic leads to the following guideline: Pay as much attention to outrage factors and to the community's concerns as to scientific data. At the same time, do not underestimate the public's ability to understand technical information. Benefits of proactively considering and addressing community outrage factors Emergency management professionals too often focus on the scientific data and ignore the outrage factors. In a democracy, controversial issues are not those solely determined by technical experts. If outrage factors and people's concerns are not addressed from the outset, you will often be forced to attend to them later, after angering the public - a far more challenging situation. Some primary benefits of considering and addressing community outrage factors, as well as the technical issues, from the beginning are: • If you merely convey technical information and ignore the outrage factors, you will enrage the public. As a result, risks the agency deems minimal will become battlegrounds. Addressing the outrage factor reduces this likelihood. • Data is not always complete and management options are rarely perfect. Including other concerns raised by the public may lead to better technical solutions. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 69 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Appendix E: Media Relations Guidelines Guidelines For Conducting A News Conference 1. When you notify media of news conferences/availabilities, be sure to define what kind of event you are having. News conferences are held to announce something for the first time. Press availabilities are held simply to make individuals available to answer questions or demonstrate something. 2. Don't call unnecessary news conferences/availabilities. If it's not worth their time, the media will only be angered. 3. If holding a news conference, try to tell media in advance some details of what you will be announcing. 4. Gauge the size of your crowd carefully when reserving a room; better to have too much than too little space. Make sure microphones, chairs, lighting and water are in place at least 30 minutes prior to the event. 5. Decide format in advance -- who will introduce speakers, who decides when question/answer period ends, and other details. 6. Decide in advance whether handouts are needed. If speaker is giving a talk for which there is a text, you may want to wait and hand out material after the talk so media will stay and listen. However, it's advisable to tell the media you will provide a text of the speech so they are not irritated by having to take unnecessary notes. 7. Check to see what else is happening in your organization or in the community before scheduling a press conference. 8. Consider whether you need to let other organizations and agencies know you are having a news conference. (You may wish to invite others to attend or participate in your event.) 9. Decide who will maintain control at the news conference, who will decide where cameras are set up, who sits where. 10. Try to plan the length of the news conference, but be flexible. 11. Consider the time of the news conference. If you want to make the noon, 6 p.m. or 11 p.m. TV and radio news, you need to allow time for crews to travel and edit tape. 12. If you are going to set restrictions on an event such as limited photo access, try to put the restrictions in writing and communicate to the media at least 24 hours in advance. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 70 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Media Relations Reminders 1. Always return media calls. The more co-operative you appear, the better. 2. Communicate with the media -- talk to them as well as listen to them. During crisis time, you may learn a great deal from the media that can be useful to you in further dealing with the crisis. 3. Avoid antagonizing the media. A short tone at a press conference, during a phone call, or elsewhere can affect your future relationship with an individual or other media who may hear the conversation. 4. Consider establishing a dedicated call-in phone line that will offer information to media or others. Information on news conferences, rumour control information, newly acquired information, can be placed on a tape that can be updated. This is particularly useful when regular phone lines are tied up with calls. 5. Consider how information you release to media may affect other agencies, businesses or individuals. If you say things that may result in media calling other agencies, call those agencies first to warn them of impending calls. 6. When talking to the media, be sure to give credit to other agencies, groups or individuals working on the crisis, including your own staff. 7. Try to be pro-active with new information. Even those things may be frantic; if you acquire new information regarding the crisis, reach out to the media. 8. Be honest. Don’t make false or misleading statements. Handling Media Interviews How to prepare for Broadcast Interviews - Prepare "talking paper" on primary points you want to make. - Anticipate questions--prepare responses. - Practice answering questions. - Cover controversial areas ahead of time. - Know who will be interviewing you, if possible. - Determine how much time is available. - Audiences often remember impressions, not facts. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 71 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Do's and Don'ts During the Interview process - Do build bridges. - Do use specifics. - Do use analogies. - Do use contrasts, comparisons. - Do be enthusiastic/animated. - Do be your casual likable self. - Do be a listener. - Do be cool. - Do be correct. - Do be anecdotal. - If you don't have the answer or can't answer, do admit it and move on to another topic. - Don't fall for that "A or B" dilemma. - Don't accept "what if" questions. - Don't accept "laundry list" questions. - Don't go off the record. - Don't think you have to answer every question. - Don't speak for someone else --beware of the absent-party trap. How To Handle Yourself During A TV Talk Show Interview - Talk "over " lavaliere mike. - Audio check-- use regular voice. - If makeup is offered, use it. - Sit far back in the chair, back erect...but lean forward to appear enthusiastic and force yourself to use hands. - Remember... TV will frame your face--be calm, use high hand gestures, if possible. - Keep eyes on interviewer-- not on camera. - Smile, be friendly. Tips On Appearance - Avoid wearing pronounced strips, checks or small patterns. - Grey, brown, blue or mixed colored suits/dressed are best. - Grey, light-blue, off-white or pastel shirts or blouses are best. - Avoid having hair cut right before interview. How To Respond During A Newspaper Interview - Obtain advanced knowledge of interview topics. - Make sure you are prepared in detail; print reporters are often more knowledgeable than broadcast reporters and may ask more detailed questions. - Begin the interview by making your point in statement by making your major points in statement form. - Try to maintain control of the interview . - Don't let reporter wear you down. - Set a time limit in advance. - Don't let so relaxed that you say something you wish you hadn't. - Avoid jargon or professional expressions. - Reporter may repeat self in different ways to gain information you may no want to give. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 72 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) - Don't answer inappropriate questions; simply say it is "not an appropriate topic for you to address at this time," or "it's proprietary" for example. - Be prepared for interruptions with questions...it is legitimate for reporters to do that. - Do not speak "off the record." - Remember, the interview lasts as long as a reporter is there. After The Interview - You can ask to check technical points, but do not ask to see advance copy of the story. - Never try to go over reporter's head to stop a story. - Do not send gifts to reporters--it is considered unethical for them to accept them. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 73 | 04/30/05
    • STATE OF VERMONT EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN April 30, 2005 (Final Draft) Appendix F: Sample Scripts <This section will contain some pre-formatted press release or press conference scripts which can be used or modified quickly during initial incident response, during the on-going crisis and follow up.> Sample News Release A ___________________ at ____________________ involving __________________ occurred today at ________________ . The incident is under investigation and more information is forthcoming. A __________________(what happened)_________________ at __________(location)______________ involving ____________(who)____________ occurred today at _______________(time)____________. The incident is under investigation and more information is forthcoming. For instance: An explosion at 1210 Market Street, the main plant for the Acme Toy Company occurred today at 3 p.m. The incident is under investigation and more information will be forthcoming. You could put down a definitive time for the next news conference or release of information if you know it but it is not necessary. This will not solve your problems, but may buy you enough time to prepare for the next news conference or release. You could also add information if it is available such as how many casualty's there are known up to this point or any other pertinent information available. Once again, this information should be definitive and not speculative, verify everything you say. This will help your credibility in the long run. TAB 3 - ANNEX N - PUBLIC INFORMATION | Page 74 | 04/30/05