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Sin título de diapositiva Sin título de diapositiva Presentation Transcript

  • TOURISM POLICY: THE UNWTO PERSPECTIVE PROF. DR. EDUARDO FAYOS-SOLÀ REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE FOR EUROPE WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION Tourism Marketing Trends, Challenges and Opportunities Vilnius - Lithuania, 27-28 February 2008
  • “ The past is a foreign country They do things differently there” L.P. Hartley, The Go-Between, 1953
  • The good news: 1. Tourism is resilient. 2. Growing social acceptance of tourism worldwide. 3. Technological advances can improve quality and competiveness in tourism.
  • The other news: 1. Successive shocks on tourism since 2001 2. Record short-term effects 3. Direct impacts over the expectations and perception of consumers 4. Tourism is impacting the global environment 5. Uncertain time horizons
  • THE INFLUENCE OF TOURISM 13% 6,517 M 846 M 2006 11.3% 6,229 M 703 M 2002 13.6% 6,602 M 898 M 2007 6.2% 4,452 M 274 M 1980 1.0% 2,556 M 25 M 1950 0.1% 1,000 M 1 M 1900 RATIO EARTH POPULATION INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS YEAR
  • VARIATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEMAND Source: World Tourism Organization
  • BUSINESS PARADIGMS IN TOURISM • Technical elements: e.g. Jet • New procedures: e.g. Apex, franchises • Social changes: e.g. Postwar society, education • Economic environment: e.g. Cheap oil • Technical elements: e.g. Jet • New procedures: e.g. Apex, franchises • Social changes: e.g. Postwar society, education • Economic environment: e.g. Cheap oil FORDIAN AGE FORDIAN AGE NEW AGE OF TOURISM NEW AGE OF TOURISM TIME TIME 1950 1950 1980 1980 • Technical elements: e.g. Computers • New procedures: e.g. Segmentation of supply, system economies • Social changes: e.g. Individualized and professionalized tourists • Economic environment: e.g. Increased disposable incomes • Technical elements: e.g. Computers • New procedures: e.g. Segmentation of supply, system economies • Social changes: e.g. Individualized and professionalized tourists • Economic environment: e.g. Increased disposable incomes ARTISANAL AGE ARTISANAL AGE
  • 21st CENTURY TOURISM AND GOVERNANCE : THE PPP-T PARADIGM BUSINESS ORG. COOPETITION GOVERNANCE SUPPORT SYSTEMS GLOBAL OUTSOURCED P-P-CS SUPPLY SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE GOVERNANCE DEMAND SOPHISTICATED P-P-CS
    • PRIORITY OF ECO-EQUILIBRIUM
    • “ INCONVENIENT” TRUTHS
    • NEW PATTERNS IN THE CONSUMPTION OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
    • PROFOUND AND RAPID CHANGES
    • PROBLEMS OF INEQUALITY AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT
    • GOVERNANCE SOLUTIONS WITH TECHNOLOGICAL AND HUMANOLOGICAL BASIS
    SCENARIOS
  • TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS 20th CENTURY
    • Carbon as a basic energy source
    • Obsolete transport technologies
    • Advances in ICT
    • Application of ICT to tourism & leisure
    • Promising advances in materials technology
    • Technological globalization
  • TECHNOLOGICAL EFFECTS WORK THE PARADIGM STAGES (1) SUBSTITUTING (2) REENGINEERING (3) REDEFINING TOURISM STATIC LEISURE NEW TECHNOLOGIES
  • HUMANOLOGICAL SCENARIOS 20th CENTURY
    • Population increase tied to underdevelopment and inequality
    • No global conflicts but crisis and localised conflicts
    • Concentration of power/ wealth / income: the importance of multinationals
    • Human resource development (increased education) without an increase of opportunities
    • Worsening of security and salubrity crisis
    • Frustrated globalization Liberalization Regulation
  • ENVIRONMENTAL SCENARIOS 20th CENTURY
    • Initial awareness of profound environmental impacts: the Meade Report, hole in the ozone…
    • First evidence of climate change: Glacier retreat, Greenland, Antartica, the Arctic and Permafrost
    • Ignored impacts of tourist activity: Banalization of the concept of sustainabilty vis-a-vis tourism
    • Rapid rise in world population: 3.000 M (1960) to 6.500 M (2005)
    • Priority to energy technologies not producing GHGs.
    • Rationalization of energy use.
    • Deepening of ICTs.
    • Pro-active Governance in technological policy.
    TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS 21st CENTURY
    • Initial qualified reports on the catastrophic potential of climate change: Stern report, IPCC reports, etc..
    • Unsustainable situation of inequality and underdevelopment.
    • Impact of exhaustion and rise in price of energy resources, raw material and water.
    • Problems of security, health and natural disasters. Urgency of process re-engineering
    • Enormous economic and social cost of incorrect and/or inoperable policies.
    • Government and market Governance.
    HUMANOLOGICAL SCENARIOS 21st CENTURY
    • Evidence of profound climate change: Tourism - a vector and a victim of this change.
    • Environmental management high costs.
    • Non-management unbearable costs
    • There are technological solutions whose adoption requires leadership and collective will. Political and cultural difficulties.
    • Need for global tourism/environmental policies.
    • Pro-active Governance in environmental policy.
    ENVIRONMENTAL SCENARIOS 21st CENTURY
  • THE AGES OF TOURISM POLICY MULTINA T IONAL NA T IONAL / LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS GLOBAL STRATEGY AND COMPETITIVENESS 4th GENERA TIO N SUPRANA TI ONAL/ NA T IONAL/LOCAL COMPETITIVENESS 3 rd GENERA TIO N NA TI ONAL PROMO TIO N / PRODUCT 2nd GENERA TIO N LOCAL/REGIONAL PROMO TION 1st GENERATION AUTHORITY MAIN OBJECTIVE AGE GLOBAL AUTHORITY CONTRIBUTION TO GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT 5th GENERA TION
  • TOURISM AND EXCELLENCE IN GOVERNANCE
  • THE CONCEPT OF GOVERNANCE a) New processes of government/macro-management b) Non-stop interdependence among public, private and civil-society organizations. c) Self-defined rules of the game: Trust d) From command-and-control procedures to networks: Participatory democracy . e) From directing persons and programmes to coordinating resource use to produce collective added value f) The State no longer has absolute control: It can be a nodal point g) Key role of ICTs
  • THE EVOLUTION OF MACROMANAGEMENT Hierarchical governments Government and market Governance
  • GOVERNANCE AS A MIX OF TRENDS a) Outsourcing of traditionally governmental tasks to private enterprises and NGOs b) Vertical and horizontal integration of governing processes for better service to citizen-users c) Technologies (ICTs) that revolutionize = drastically change d) Strong increase in citizen demand for quality public services
  • MODELS OF GOVERNMENT P-P COLLABORATION OUTSOURCED GOVERNMENT GOVERNANCE (NETWORKED MACRO-ADMINISTRATION) HIERARCHICALGOVERNMENT JOINED-UP GOVERNMENT NETWORK MANAGEMENT CAPACITIES
  • ADVANTAGES OF A TOURISM POLICY IN GOVERNANCE a) Governance fosters innovations via partners and processes b) Governance enables the Government to focus on its key competencies, outsourcing other tasks c) Governance allows flexibility in production and distribution processes of public services d) Governance allows decentralization and the consequent decision-making at the optimal level e) The new processes are normally scaleable
  • KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS AN INTRUMENT
  • PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES CREATION DISSEMINATION APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE EVOLUTION IN VALUE CREATION
  • USUAL SHORTCOMINGS FOR TOURISM KNOWLEDGE
    • Research (and application of knowledge) with short-term objectives linked to the evolution of markets.
    • Problems of Quality and Efficiency in tourism education and training and, in general, in the dissemination of knowledge.
    • Difficulties in the application of knowledge in Tourism - SMEs resistant to innovation. - Tacit  explicit knowledge/staff rotation. - Knowledge as a public good  private good.
  • THOUGHTS ON CONTEMPORARY TOURISM POLICY
    • Limited bases for tourism analysis
      • Lack of development of conceptual standards
      • Short-sighted research and tunnel vision
      • Poor dynamic analysis of systems
    • Fuzzy conceptual frameworks for Tourism Policy
      • Specific objectives?
      • Instruments?
      • Effects?
      • Action units?
    National? Clusters/Destinations? Enterprises Individuals?
  • METHODOLOGICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR THE NEW TOURISM POLICY
    • Establish units of analysis
      • National frameworks / Clusters / Enterprises/ Individuals
    • Understand unit structures
      • Create typology framework
      • Differentiate endogenous/exogenous variables
    • Understand system dynamics
      • Agents’ control of structures
      • Interactions
  • METHODOLOGICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR THE NEW TOURISM POLICY (II)
    • Establish specific objectives of sectoral tourism policy
    • Evaluate tools and impacts of measures
    • Positioning
    • Quality
    • Efficiency
    • Strategy
    • Competitiveness
    • Monetary/Financial
    • Fiscal/Budgetary
    • Legal
    • Knowledge Management
    Public Good Private Good Supranational National Collective Business Ass. Prod. Units
  • Analysis of Tourism Policy Plans RESOURCES PRODUCTS SUPPORT SYSTEMS PROMOTION INFO. SYSTEMS ACTORS UNITS TOOLS ELEMENTS Source: Hermes Institute (2004) COUNTRIES   Australia Brazil Chile USA Spain India México South Africa Total Analysis 4 2 0 0 0 3 0 4 2 Management 4 2 0 0 0 1 0 3 1 Analysis 3 2 0 0 2 3 2 4 2 Management 4 2 1 0 2 0 3 2 2 Analysis 2 3 0 0 2 1 3 2 2 Management 2 2 0 0 2 1 2 3 2 Positioning 5 5 1 3 3 2 3 4 3 Dimensioning 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 Quality 2 1 2 0 3 1 3 3 2 Efficiency 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 3 1 Satellite Account 4 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 Statistics 4 1 0 3 4 0 3 2 2 Analysis 4 3 1 0 4 0 3 2 2 Management 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 Space 0 0 0 4 1 0 5 4 2 Time 3 3 1 3 4 2 3 4 3 Financial Type 1 4 0 3 2 1 2 3 2 Legal Type 2 4 0 3 1 2 1 3 2 K. Management 3 1 1 1 3 2 3 2 2 Creation of K. 5 1 0 2 2 0 3 2 2 Dissemination of K. 4 0 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 Application of K. 3 1 1 0 2 0 2 2 1
  • SPATIAL SCOPE FUNCTIONS SUPRANATIONAL NATIONAL REG / LOCAL GLOBAL BROTH / KNOWLEDGE BUDGET / NORMS / KNOWLEDGE NEW TOURISM POLICY L/L
    • ANALYSIS: STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS, BROTH
    • POLICY: P + Q + E
      • 2.1. GOAL SETTING
      • 2.2. MANAGEMENT
      • 2.3. FEED BACK
    • 3. BUILDING CAPACITY: KM /HRD
  • UNWTO PROGRAMME OF WORK 2008 - 2009
  • INNOVATIONS
    • Stronger integration with UN System
    • Greater coherence and clustering
    • Better and more flexible, coordinated response to the Members’ needs and regional specificities
    • Necessary synergies reinforced within a Governance framework
    • Better evaluation of the results achieved
    • Higher inclusion/presence of information and communication technologies
    • Four strategic objectives reflecting the challenges approved by Executive Council
    • 16 specific objectives
    • 57 areas of activity
    • Expected outputs
    • Indicators to evaluate outputs and outcomes
    NEW STRUCTURE OF THE PROGRAMME
  • HOW TO READ THE PoW 2008-2009?
  • APPLICATIONS TO THE REGION OF EUROPE
    • “ Ensure the continuous improvement of competitiveness of destinations, through updated information and data on market trends, preparedness to face crises and adequate evaluation of the economic contribution of tourism, highlighting its significance .”
    • This objective intends to respond to Members’ short term needs, improving competitiveness and risk preparedness
    • 3 specific objectives
    • 13 areas of activity and some 70 specific actions
    STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE A
    • “ Promote the sustainable development of tourism in Member States in line with the Global Code of Ethics, to contribute to the Millennium Development Goals and to worldwide socio-economic development. ”
    • This objective intends to ensure sustainable development and respond to long term needs
    • 5 specific objectives
    • 20 areas of activity and some 70 specific actions
    STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE B
    • “ Ensure that governments, the NTAs, tourism destinations, the private sector and other tourism stakeholders: a) benefit from the necessary education and training tools, b) establish suitable partnerships and collaboration frameworks, c) set up proper governance structures and management systems to optimize results and ensure adherence to the Global Code of Ethics, and d) obtain the necessary technical assistance and financing support.”
    • This objective intends to promote partnerships, human resource development and proper governance within the sector
    • 5 specific objectives
    • 11 areas of activity and some 40 specific actions
    STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE C
    • “ Support UNWTO members in the fields of information technologies, management techniques, documentation and the use of latest available technologies to enhance the image of the tourism sector and that of the Organization, directly and through its partnerships.”
    • This objective intends to provide information technology advice and image-building support to Members
    • 3 specific objectives
    • 13 areas of activity and some 70 specific actions
    STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE D
    • Studies, compilation of information (stats., etc.), research, etc.
    • Dissemination, capacity building and general support to Member States (publications, seminars, etc.)
    • Specific assistance to members (technical cooperation, ST-EP missions or projects, etc.)
    • Cooperation and joint actions with other UN agencies, etc.
    TYPES OF ACTION
  • THE UNWTO REGIONAL REPRESENTATION FOR EUROPE: THE FUTURE
  • FUTURE
    • Continue the work that has been done thus far.
    • Define a strategy and focus on it. Work on the pursuit of excellence in Tourism Policy and Tourism Governance in Europe.
  • FUTURE
    • Establish general lines for a MISSION :
    • To serve European UNWTO Member Countries in achieving ever greater standards of performance in Tourism Policy and Tourism Governance by establishing adequate contents in the UNWTO Programme of Work. These contents should relate to the common objectives of Tourism Policy, such as development, mitigation of climate change, employment and other Millennium Development Goals, and the use of tourism to assist other public policy objectives.
  • OBJECTIVES
  • OBJECTIVES
    • Maximize participation of, and benefits for, the European UNWTO Member States.
    • Create a strategy and a subsequent programme of work based on the state of the art in Tourism Policy and Tourism Governance.
    • Benefit from the synergies that exist between the UNWTO Programme of Work and external institutions and businesses for the execution of the contents of the strategy and the Programme of Work.
  • RANGE OF ACTIONS
  • RANGE OF ACTIONS
    • Assist Member States in the development of strategies in the context of turbulent markets.
    • Use instruments addressing the issues of quality and customer satisfaction.
    • Prepare and implement programmes concerning the creation of value such as innovation in technology areas, human resource development and leadership, capacity building for public officials, reengineering processes in the public sector, new products, etc.
  • SPECIFIC PRODUCTS PROPOSED
  • SPECIFIC PRODUCTS PROPOSED (1)
    • 1 DAY CONSULTATION on matters of Tourism Policy and Governance. This should be a direct dialog between public officials of Member States and the UNWTO Regional Representation for Europe to establish a framework for action. In the UNWTO Headquarters and/or in country.
  • SPECIFIC PRODUCTS PROPOSED (2)
    • PROGRAMME FOR JOINT ACTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM POLICY AND STRATEGY. This programme intends to assist specific Member Countries in the development of conceptual and practical frameworks for best practice in Tourism Policy and Strategy. The programme considers as well issues of implementation in specific institutional frameworks and the necessary inputs of physical, human and financial resources.
  • PREPARING TPS FRAMEWORKS GREEN PAPER WHITE PAPER STRATEGY & COMPETITIVENESS PLAN MASTER PLAN INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK PHYSICAL HUMAN FINANCIAL RESOURCES
  • GOVERNANCE IN TOURISM POLICY AND STRATEGY Management Framework Strategic Framework Tourism Analysis NGOs Private Sector Public Sector
  • SPECIFIC PRODUCTS PROPOSED (3)
    • 1 WEEK CAPACITY BUILDING PROGRAMME . This is a 30 to 40 hours programme addressing country needs, subregional needs or common European needs. It gives public officials in Member Countries a better understanding of Tourism Policy and strategy instruments and UNWTO capacities in this area. It constitutes a foundation to set courses of action.
  • CAPACITY BUILDING AND ACTION AREAS (i)
  • CAPACITY BUILDING AND ACTION AREAS (ii)
  • CAPACITY BUILDING AND ACTION AREAS (iii)
    • Specific UNWTO PRACTICA for the European Region.
    • 2 – 3 DAY PROGRAMME FOR DIPLOMATS of UNWTO European Member States.
    • 2- 3 DAY PROGRAMME FOR JOURNALISTS AND COMMUNICATORS in UNWTO European Member States.
    • European PUBLIC OFFICIALS NETWORK with expertise in Tourism Policy.
    • Etc.
    SPECIFIC PRODUCTS PROPOSED (4)
  • TOURISM POLICY: THE UNWTO PERSPECTIVE PROF. DR. EDUARDO FAYOS-SOLÀ REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE FOR EUROPE WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION Tourism Marketing Trends, Challenges and Opportunities Vilnius - Lithuania, 27-28 February 2008