View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
CONTENT AND CONTEXT: UNDERSTANDING THE COMPLEXITIES OF HUMAN
BEHAVIOUR IN SHIP OPERATION
Claire Pekcan, Warsash Maritime Centre, Southampton Institute, UK
David Gatfield, Warsash Maritime Centre, Southampton Institute, UK
Professor Michael Barnett, Warsash Maritime Centre, Southampton Institute, UK
The maritime training establishment at Warsash Maritime Centre is moving toward the delivery of novel courses that
concentrate on non-technical or human behavioural aspects of ship operations. This paper describes the philosophical
underpinnings and the evidence-based process upon which one such course, being run at the Centre, was developed.
The authors explain how and why the course is designed for the specific development of social and cognitive skills or
‘crew resource management skills’ in ships’ officers. The paper concludes with an outline of future research that will
consider how the training context, full-mission simulator or desktop scenario, in which the social and cognitive skills of
the ships’ officers are exercised, influences the successful development of these non-technical skills
incorporates the Warsash Maritime Centre. After a
AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY seafaring career of fifteen years, he studied at the
University of Wales, Cardiff and in 1989 was awarded
Claire Pekcan a PhD for his work on human error and the use of
simulation in training for emergencies. He joined
Claire Pekcan is a Senior Research Fellow in the
Warsash in 1985 as a lecturer in tanker safety and has
Maritime Research Centre at Southampton Institute.
been Head of Research at Warsash since 1991. His
After an earlier career in the health services, she has
current post encompasses responsibility for the
gained significant valuable experience over the past 10
management of research and welfare of postgraduate
years in human factors, safety management, risk
researchers at Warsash and on the Southampton
management, and human resource management in the
campus. Mike is a Chartered Marine Scientist
UK ports, international merchant shipping, and
(CMarSCi), Fellow of the Nautical Institute, Fellow
offshore environments. Her particular research
and current Vice-President of the Institute of Marine
interests are in organisational safety culture,
Engineering, Science and Technology (IMarEST) and a
organisational competence, professional competence,
Member of its Council.
and human performance influencing factors in the
merchant shipping and port operations arena.
David Gatfield A recent review of accident databases from the USA,
UK, Canada and Australia confirms that human error
David Gatfield is a Senior Lecturer and Unit Manager continues to be the dominant factor in maritime
of the Machinery Space Simulator at Warsash Maritime accidents and reveals that in 70% of recorded incidents
Centre. After serving at sea as a Marine Engineering attributed to human error, failures in non-technical
Officer, he was appointed Technical Superintendent for skills such as situation assessment and awareness
Shell Tankers and was responsible for the support of predominate (ABS, 2004).
the instrumentation and control systems onboard all
Historically maritime training has addressed the
vessels in the fleet. He joined Warsash Maritime Centre
development of technical and procedural skills. Until
in 1996 and lectures in Engineering Systems
recently, providing solutions to the problems of
Management, Risk Management, Petrochemical Tanker
developing non-technical skills and the optimal use of
Engineering Systems and Gas Tanker Reliquefaction
crew resources has been neglected in maritime training.
Systems. He is currently conducting research for a PhD
in behavioural markers for the assessment of Simulator-based training courses were introduced
competence in crisis management. David is an primarily to train the skills of passage planning and the
Associate Member of the Institute of Marine importance of the Master/Pilot relationship (Gyles and
Engineering, Science and Technology (IMarEST) and a Salmon 1978). This training initiative developed into
Member of its Council. the Bridge Team Management (BTM) courses that are
conducted today on many simulators world-wide and,
Professor Mike Barnett although not taught directly, they contain some of the
elements to be found in Crew Resource Management
Professor Mike Barnett is Head of the Maritime (CRM) courses developed in other industries, such as
Research Centre at Southampton Institute, which aviation. These aviation courses were developed to
focus on the non-technical skills of flight operations started to break up. The investigation by the Marine
and include group dynamics, leadership, interpersonal Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB), published in
communications, and decision making (Helmreich and June 1999, advised the cause of the grounding was:
Merritt 1998). Bridge Resource Management (BRM)
“the lack of propulsion and failure to restart the main
courses are a more recent initiative, adapted directly
engine to arrest the drift of the vessel towards the shore
from the aviation model for training the non-technical
in the prevailing environmental conditions. of the
skills of resource management, and are not always
towage attempts and inadequate teamwork”
based on the use of simulators.
Contributory causes included flooding of the engine
The 1980s saw the introduction of Engine Room room, failure to reset the mechanical over-speed trip,
simulators and, towards the end of that decade, cargo inadequate knowledge of the cooling water system,
operations simulators also became available. However, failure” (MAIB, 1999; pp. 9)
it is only recently that the combined use of bridge and
engine room simulators to provide a total ship 2.2 The Analysis
simulation environment has been undertaken. • An initial technical failure precipitated events
In summary, resource management training has become and was compounded by a hostile environment
established in the curricula of many maritime training and further technical problems and failures.
establishments. Courses take a variety of forms and The situation was escalating in severity. An
cover both deck and engine room disciplines. The emergency was becoming a crisis, but the
courses are often simulator-based, but not always, and actors in this tragedy did not have the benefit
their syllabuses reflect CRM training in other of hindsight to read the ‘script’.
industries. As can be seen from the history of this • The available emergency plans, which tended
development, most major training initiatives have to be procedures based on single failures, were
resulted from the lessons learnt from a succession of not applicable. The individuals involved were
casualties. The next section reviews one casualty and forced to fall back on their experience to cope
the resource management issues it raises and why with an increasingly complex and
technical training alone is insufficient. unpredictable set of circumstances.
• Initial diagnosis of the technical failure was
2. A CASE STUDY: THE “GREEN LILY” incorrect and led to a faulty but persistent
mental model of the situation. In this case, the
2.1. The Circumstances chief and second engineers, together with the
On 18th November 1997, the 3,624 grt Bahamian electrical engineer, failed to understand why
registered vessel “Green Lily” sailed from Lerwick in the main engine stopped and were
the Shetland Islands with a cargo of frozen fish for the consequently unable to restart it. They
Ivory Coast. The weather on departure was bad with believed that the main engine failure was due
wind speeds increasing to severe gale force 9. The to the effect of the flooding, previously caused
following morning, while hove to about 15 miles south- by the fracture of the sea suction pipe. The
east of the island of Bressay in the Shetland Isles in probable reason for the main engine stoppage
storm force 10 winds, a sea water supply line fractured was actually due to the mechanical over-speed
in the engine room. The engineers controlled the trip either not being reset or reset incorrectly.
flooding and pumping out had begun when the main
• Awareness of the overall situation by
engine stopped. Unsuccessful attempts were made to
individuals was based on incomplete or
restart the engine while the vessel drifted northwards
inaccurate information. In this case, both the
towards Bressay. Shetland Coastguard was advised
Master, based on his calculation of drift, and
and three tugs, the Lerwick RNLI lifeboat and a
the engineers, were over optimistic in their
coastguard helicopter prepared to proceed to the
belief that a tow would be available before the
ship ran aground. Meanwhile, the skippers of
Attempts were made by two of the tugs to secure a line the rescue craft had unexpressed reservations
and tow the “Green Lily” away from land but although about various aspects of the operation
initially successful, each line parted. The starboard including the appropriateness of some of the
anchor was released and the third tug attempted to snag towing gear, the weather conditions and sea
the cable and pull her head to wind, but the cable room, and the ability of the ship’s crew to
parted. At this time, the lifeboat rescued five crewmen, handle the towlines.
including two injured, from the ship’s deck. The ten
remaining crew members were rescued by the • Individuals and units were separated
Coastguard helicopter but the winchman, who had physically and several agencies were
remained on the deck of the ship, was swept into the interacting through various forms of
sea and lost. The “Green Lily” went aground and communication. In these circumstances, it was
very difficult for the key players to the training philosophy. The recognition primed
communicate meaningfully and maintain a decision-making theory (Klein, 1993; Orasanu, 1997)
shared and agreed awareness of the rapidly suggests that there is a generic metacognitive skill that
changing situation. can be developed to be applied to handle any
unpredictable situation. One aspect of this theory that is
put into practice on the course is the enrichment of
3. PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERPINNINGS mental models through the building of repertoire
As the above case study illustrates, the majority of patterns. Another aspect is the development of critical
accidents and incidents are not caused by technical thinking skills through the practice of specific
problems but by the failure of the crew to respond techniques in simulated scenarios (Barnett, 2004).
appropriately to the situation. Arguably, most maritime
professionals would agree with Helmreich et al., (1998)
4. CONTENT: THE EVIDENCE-BASED
that in order to ensure safe and efficient operations
there is a need to understand the behaviours of effective PEDAGOGICAL PROCESS
error detection and management. However, while other 4.1 Course Aims and Objectives
safety critical industries and the military have heeded
this message and have been training and assessing Taking as a starting point the aviation industry’s model
resource management skills as a way of ensuring that for CRM training as outlined in CAP 737, the course at
errors are effectively detected and managed (Flin & Warsash aims to
Martin, 2001; Cannon-Bowers & Salas, 1998;
• enhance the operational safety of the client
Brabazon & Conlin, 2000; Flin et al., 2000), the
maritime industry continues to lag behind.
The only mandatory requirements in the maritime • reduce the likelihood of an incident to a vessel
domain for the development of the non-technical skills
of resource management are those of the International • reinforce the client company’s Vision and
Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Seafarer’s Training, Mission
Certification and Watchkeeping Code (International
Maritime Organization, 1995). Table A-V/2 of this code These aims are met by emphasising skills that will
specifies the minimum standard of competence in crisis increase shipboard officers’ abilities to act responsibly
management and human behaviour skills for those to health, safety, and environmental concerns.
senior officers who have responsibility for the safety of
passengers in emergencies. The competence Table 1. below identifies the types of skills that are
assessment criteria detailed within the Code are not taught on the CRM course.
based on specific overt behaviours, but rather on
generalised statements of performance outputs, and as
such are highly subjective and open to interpretation Social Skills Cognitive Skills
(Barnett et al, 2003). Although these standards of
Co-operation Situation Awareness
competence indicate that IMO recognises the need for
non-technical management skills, both the standards Open communication Situation assessment
and their assessment criteria are immature in
comparison with the understanding of non-technical Consideration for others Risk assessment
skills, and their assessment, within an industry such as Team working
Leadership and Decision Making
At the Maritime Centre in Warsash, courses are now Managerial Skills
being developed that go beyond STCW 95. One such
course, the Crew Resource Management (CRM) Situational leadership Problem diagnosis
course, is almost entirely concerned with teaching Assertiveness Option generation
human behavioural or non-technical aspects of ship
operations. Technical aspects of ship operation, such Planning and coordinating Option selection
as ship navigation or power generation, are not covered Table 1. Crew Resource Management Skills
as separate items. Rather, the course curriculum is
devoted to social and cognitive aspects of seafarers’ Table 2. in the Appendix maps the course objectives
performance, i.e. it is devoted to those skills thought to against the Crew Resource Management skills
be important in assisting in the detection and displayed in Table 1.
management of errors. Understandably, purchasers of education and training
A further novel approach of the Warsash course is the for seafarers are asking questions about the value-added
incorporation of human behaviour research findings in of the courses that their officers attend. They want to
know that at the end of a course, an officer will have
learnt what he or she needed to learn, and can apply the “both antecedents and consequences influence
skills practised at the training institution, onboard ship. behaviour, but they do so differently:
The purchasers’ wish is to be assured that they have
spent company money to best effect. • consequences influence behaviour powerfully
Lecturers, on the other hand, are acutely aware that to • antecedents influence behaviour indirectly and
achieve attitude or behaviour change in days is an serve to predict consequences.”
inordinately difficult task, especially when presented
with a class of officers of differing rank, experience, The authors maintain that both are important and thus
and nationality. Unfortunately, the trap into which have designed the crew resource management course in
lecturers fall is to equate value for money with value accordance with Antecedent-Behaviour-Consequence
added. Rather than adopting a teaching strategy that (ABC) principles. The course provides the opportunity
focuses on how students learn, they adopt a strategy for the students to practice the behaviour (B) that has
that focuses on what the teacher teaches (Biggs, 2003). been learnt in the lectures (A) and through the debrief
The result is that the expert lecturer transmits as much session after an exercise receive feedback on their
of his or her expertise as possible in the time given actions (C).
(value for money) rather than changing the attitude or
behaviour of their class (value added). 4.2.1 Antecedents
The philosophy underpinning the crew resource
management course delivered at Warsash Maritime Within the Warsash training course, the lecturer inputs
Centre is student centred as opposed to lecturer centred, are descriptions and explanations of the following:
and thus represents a course that seeks to add value to
the participating officers through attitude, behaviour, models of human error
and cognitive change. The instructional system or error chain analysis
process employed at Warsash to bring about these situational leadership
changes draws on theories of learning e.g. Operant interpersonal influence
Conditioning (Thorndike, 1898), the main tenet of cultural awareness
which is behaviour that is rewarded will be repeated situation awareness
and behaviour that is punished will cease, i.e. the effective communication
consequences of one’s actions (rewards or
punishments) drive behaviour (Rescorla, 1987). These teacher led activities are antecedent to student-
centred activities described under the behaviours
4.2 The ABC of Learning section below.
However, just allowing the students to ‘behave’ on the 4.2.2 Behaviours
course with the lecturers providing no more than
feedback (consequences) would be unlikely to beget the There have been a number of training programs
safety behaviours associated with effective error produced that aim to improve the higher order
detection and management. The students need to be cognitive skills of the students within specific context
presented with new ways of thinking, new techniques, (Woods, 1983; Wales & Nardi, 1985; Resnick, 1987).
and new ways of behaving that will facilitate their These techniques have been adapted at Warsash to try
abilities to handle problem situations. and improve the students’ social skills such as
In the language of behaviour based safety management, communication and co-operation. Some of the
these new ways of thinking and behaving are the techniques used are:
antecedents to safe behaviour. However, antecedents,
such as safety rules, procedures, instructions, toolbox • having students justify their solutions to one
talks, and risk assessments, are ineffective in bringing • another;
about change on their own. Krause explains, • having students evaluate other students
“Many well-intentioned safety programs fail because
they rely too much on antecedents – things that come • allowing students to make and correct errors;
before behaviour…All too often these same antecedents
have no powerful consequences backing them up.” Other studies have been directed at trying to generate
Krause (1997, p. 37) training techniques to improve general problem solving
skills that would be transferable into different contexts
In the same way, training courses that concentrate on of application (de Bono, 1985; Covington, 1987;
instruction (antecedents) where the emphasis is on what Resnick, 1987). These techniques have also been
the teacher teaches and not on how the student learns, adapted at Warsash to improve the students’ cognitive
are unlikely to bring about behaviour change. As and metacognitive skills:
5. CONTEXT: WHAT ARE THE MOST
• considering multiple sides of an issue (lateral EFFECTIVE WAYS OF TRAINING
• considering consequences;
• selecting goals and planning strategies; In the year 2000, the Maritime Coastguard Agency
• prioritizing factors involved in a situation; (MCA), following a recommendation of the Marine
• generating and evaluating evidence; Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) in response to
• using perceptual rather than logical thinking the loss of the “Green Lily”, awarded a project to a
• extensive practice of solving problems; research team at Warsash Maritime Centre. The remit
of the project was to investigate the potential use of
• teaching the use of heuristic strategies;
simulators for training in the handling crises and
• use of graphical representations to show the
escalating emergencies. This project enabled the
• structure of problems;
researchers to review current concepts and models in
the field of resource and crisis management across a
4.2.3 Consequences range of safety critical industries and to conduct a
survey of expert opinion on the optimal training and
“Debriefing is the key to the entire learning process, assessment regimes (Barnett et al 2002).
during which trainees’ knowledge and attitudes are
applied, tested, analysed and synthesised.” (Ellman,
In order to ascertain the optimal types of simulation to
1977) provide training and assessment of non-technical skills,
the Warsash research team used a panel of 15 experts
A student-centred debriefing technique has been shown
drawn from marine simulation resources as well as
to be more effective because students learn better researchers and practitioners from other similar safety
through self-discovery and self-analysis than by lecture. critical industries. Within this project, the Policy Delphi
The student-centred debriefing technique draws upon
Method (Turoff 1970) was used . The Policy Delphi
students’ professional expertise and motivation to process is a form of policy analysis that provides a
perform well, and it helps the lecturer understand the decision maker with the strongest arguments on each
side of the issue. A range of future implementation
scenarios were proposed as training policies that could
Until students have the opportunity to reflect on that
meet the perceived training requirements relating to the
which they have experienced during a simulator
exercising of resource management skills. These
exercise, it is doubtful that any real learning will take policies were presented to the panel of experts. A
place. The ‘debrief’ integrates the simulation
subsequent workshop involving some of the panel
experience into the learning environment. Debriefing is experts was also used to confirm and develop their
the critical phase of learning, where the individual responses.
begins to understand events experienced. These
accommodations of new information form the essence The following is a summary of the responses received
of meaning. Students learn to tie things together, to from the panel of experts in reply to 19 questions sent
connect part to part to whole. Students may, or may not to them in order to further clarify the main arguments
process their newly acquired information correctly. for and against the proposed training policies.
Through the debriefing process, the lecturer can ensure
that new learning is processed in the correct manner. Training Policy 1: The Use of Full Mission
The debriefing process should provide feedback to the Simulators for Team Based Exercises
lecturer on the students’ value of, and understanding of,
the simulation. It also provides feedback to the students The panel of experts believed that the strength of this
about the consequences of their behaviours. Lecturers option was the ability to undertake team-based
need to ascertain whether the students’ experiences activities in an environment that provided realism.
matched those of the real world and whether they However, the experts also thought that the cost of full-
believed that the experiences were useful. mission simulators was a significant disadvantage. The
experts also made some important observations
Although the course at Warsash is student-centred, regarding team based activities and these were that:
considerable thought is given to the instructional design
• training and assessment of resource
to ensure that the students have a sound conceptual
management skills should only ever be
framework to guide them towards achieving the course
undertaken separately, and
objectives. Good instructional design also includes
aspects of the mode and medium of instruction, i.e. the • the tutor should never also be the assessor
context in which the training is delivered. The next within the same time-frame
section reviews the results of some recent research to
determine the likely effectiveness of different forms of
simulation in CRM skill development.
Training Policy 2: The Use of Full Mission simulation were more team-based it would become
Simulators for Single Trainee Exercises more difficult to control and it would be more difficult
to carry out assessments.
There was agreement that this policy option was not
Training Policy 5: The Use of Table-top
generally beneficial, but could be useful in special
circumstances such as remedial and pre-team training.
All participants agreed that this policy option could be
Training Policy 3: The Use of Virtual Environments
used for training. However, there were arguments made
both for and against the use of this policy option for
Although there was still a very positive response to this
policy option, little empirical evidence was cited to
support the opinions given.
The argument against was based on the lack of fidelity
provided by this type of simulation and the difficulty in
There was general agreement that the communications
observing relevant competent behaviour in a context
systems used within this policy option could be
that is very different from the actual workplace.
embedded, as long as they allowed actual voice
communications, and this could be used in a similar
The argument for was based on assessment being
way to real communication systems.
undertaken against those relevant behavioural markers
that could be observed within the context of the
Most responses indicated that the co-workers within
virtual reality training environments should be real and
not simulated in order to facilitate effective team
Training Policy 6: The Use of Class Room Based
training. However, the possibility was raised that
simulated co-workers could be used to afford a greater
variety of training opportunities for team members.
There was general agreement that this policy option is
best suited to training only.
There was general agreement that a high level of
fidelity was required for certain elements of the virtual
The following strengths were associated with this
environment, but there was a wide diversity of opinion
as to what these elements were. The elements discussed
were all part of the functional representation of the real
• cost beneficial
environment, both physical and procedural. One
response stated that virtual environment did not have to • flexible
have a high degree of fidelity as long as it allowed for • gives the opportunity to discuss operational /
the replication of the skills inherent in the task being emergency problems with others
trained. • tutor guided
The following weaknesses were associated with this
Training Policy 4: The Use of Desktop Computer policy option:
• there is no environment to manage
There was agreement that this policy option required a • not suitable for the assessment of competence
certain level of interactivity to be effective and that an
increase in interactivity could improve effectiveness One response suggested that any weaknesses associated
and efficiency up to a point, beyond which the trainee with this policy option could be overcome by providing
may start to feel confused. a good tutor and ensuring interactivity. There was a
wide spread of opinion regarding which other methods
A number of ways of improving interactivity were of training this policy option could be usefully used in
proposed including the: conjunction with. The overall range of opinion covered
all of the remaining five policy options. One response
• creation of multiple training paths suggested that classroom-based workshops followed by
• provision of training scenarios with more than one practice in context would allow increased transfer.
• use of a facilitator to guide the trainee.
If this policy option could be team-based there was
general agreement that this would be more beneficial,
because it would allow trainees to discuss alternative
solutions. However, one response indicated that if the
The following were proposed as being suitable to be increasingly as a fundamental part of the human error
trained using this policy option: management philosophy. The International Maritime
Organization recognises the need for non-technical or
• appreciation of technical risks resource management skills, but both the standards of
• knowledge of systems competence and their assessment criteria are immature
• knowledge of procedures in comparison with civil aviation. Although CRM
• theoretical knowledge training has become well established in the maritime
• planning curricula, as with civil aviation, there remains a
• risk management question mark about how effective such training
• problem solving actually might be in improving safety performance.
Analysis of recent casualties also suggest that CRM
training, although important, may not be a panacea for
The workshop concluded that the inclusion of full
prevention of accidents and that organisational factors,
mission simulation was the only viable assessment
as well as operator error, must also be taken into
option. This method is used extensively by the nuclear
and aviation industries. The argument is that it is the
only safe method that guarantees that the majority of In setting an agenda for future maritime research in this
the cues that seem important are present and that the area, the authors conclude that the following issues
perceived required skills may be demonstrated. need to be addressed:
The search for a single cost-effective training option to If the direct training of resource and crisis management
deliver the required standard of competence may be skills is pursued, to what extent will such skills, learned
misplaced. The principle enshrined in STCW95 and in a simulated environment, transfer to the real world?
National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) is that once What are the optimum training environments to ensure
the standard of competence has been defined, how an effective transfer? How can these non-technical skills
individual reaches that standard is irrelevant. Among a be assessed most effectively, both at the level of the
number of variables, it is the motivation of the learner individual and at the level of the team? What
and the ingenuity of the trainer that will determine the behavioural markers, both at individual and team level,
most cost-effective training option. In an ideal world, predict safe performance? In multi-national
the trainer would select the most appropriate method environments, how may cultural factors be
from his/her training “toolbox” to suit the individual characterised and what is the impact on overall safety
trainee, their learning style, and stage of development performance of cultural differences?
identified through continuous assessment. However, as with any scientific endeavour, it is not
sufficient to just ask questions. There is much that is
Research conducted by Crichton and Rattray (2002) still not known about human behaviour in response to
since this exercise describes the potential of Tactical unexpected, unplanned, and seemingly uncontrollable
Decision Games (TDGs) for crisis management events. CRM training is a method that has been
training. TDGs are a low-cost, low fidelity classroom devised for preparing people to manage such events.
based simulation that focuses on improved decision The maritime community is to some extent playing
making and heightened situational awareness. ‘catch up’ with the research being carried out in the
Evaluation of their effectiveness and their validity and military and aviation arenas; and this is a privileged
reliability as a competence assessment tool is currently position. Maritime researchers are able to cogitate on
underway. the issues that their counterparts in other industries
raise and it is their efforts that have inspired us to offer
In summary, the most cost-effective training option will this maritime research agenda. It is offered, not as a
be determined by a number of “local” factors, including guiding light for all now to follow, rather as a stimulus
the ingenuity of the instructor. At present, however, the for debate. As a research community, interested in
assessment of competence, particularly for marine describing, predicting and ultimately, enhancing human
certification purposes, through the use of currently performance, we need to make sure we are asking the
available full mission simulations represents the most right questions; questions that will lead us to conduct
viable option. meaningful and fruitful research.
6. CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE
As in similar safety-critical industries, the analysis of
maritime accidents over the years has revealed
shortcomings in the ability of operators to manage both
resources and crises. CRM training has been seen
Thinking and learning skills: Vol 1. Relating
REFERENCES instruction to research (pp. 363–388). Hillsdale, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
ABS (2004) ABS Review and Analysis of Accident
Databases: 1991-2002 Data. American Bureau of Ellman, N., (1977) Before the simulation fails:
shipping Technical Report: SAHF 2003-5.1, March Avoiding potential pitfalls. The Social Studies, 68(6),
2004. 251-253. Washington D.C.:Heldref Publications.
Barnett, M. L., Gatfield, D., and Habberley, J (2002) Flin, R., O’Conner, P., Mearns, K., Gordon, R., &
Shipboard crisis management: A Case Study. Proc Int. Whitaker, S. (2000). Crew Resource Management
Conf. Human Factors in Ship design and Operation. pp Training for Offshore Operations. Factoring the Human
131-145 RINA, October 2002. into Safety: Translating Research into Practice. Volume
3 of UK Health and Safety Executive report HSE OTO
Barnett, M. L., Pekcan, C.H., and Gatfield, D. (2003) A 2000 063. London: HSE.
Research Agenda in Maritime Crew Resource
Management. Proc Int Conf. on Team Resource Flin, R., & Martin, L. (2001). Behavioral Markers for
Management, Embry Riddle, Fl. USA, October 2003 Crew Resource Management: A Review of Current
Practice. The International Journal of Aviation
Barnett, M. L. (2004) Risk management training: the Psychology, 11(1), 95-118.
development of simulator-based scenarios from the
analysis of recent maritime accidents Proc. Conf Gyles J.L. & Salmon, D. (1978) Experience of Bridge
Advances in International Maritime Research. IAMU, team Training using the Warsash Ship Simulator. Proc
Tasmania, November 2004 First Int Conf. on Marine Simulation MARSIM (1978)
pp 1-26 Nautical Institute.
Biggs, J. (2003) Teaching for Quality Learning at
University Second Edition. Maidenhead: OU Press. Helmreich, R.L. and Merritt, A. (1998) Culture at Work
in Aviation and Medicine.” Ashgate, England.
Brabazon, P., & Conlin, H. (2000). Assessing the safety
of staffing arrangements for process operations in the International Maritime Organization. (1995). Seafarer’s
chemical and allied industries. Report for the Training, Certification and Watchkeeping Code (STCW
Hazardous Installations Directorate of the UK Health Code). London: IMO.
and Safety Executive. London: HMSO
Klein, G. Orasanu, J. Calderwood, R. & Zsambok C.
Civil Aviation Authority Safety Regulation Group (1993) Decision making in action: Models and
(2003). CAP 737 Crew Resource Management (CRM) methods. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Training: Guidance For Flight Crew, CRM Instructors
(CRMIs) and CRM Instructor-Examiners (CRMIEs). Krause, T. R. (1997) The Behaviour-Based Safety
www.caa.co.uk. Process: Managing Involvement for an Injury Free
Culture. Second Edition. New York: Wiley.
Canon-Bowers, J.A. & Salas, E. (1998). Individual and
Team Decision Making Under Stress. In: J.A. Cannon- Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) Marine
Bowers & E. Salas (Eds) Making Decisions Under Accident Report 5/99 “Report of the Inspector’s
Stress: Implications for individual and team Inquiry into the loss of mv Green Lily on 19 November
training.Washington D.C.: American Psychological 1997 off the East Coast of Bressay, Shetland Islands”.
Orasanu, J.M (1997). Stress and naturalistic decision
Covington, M.V. (1987). Instruction for problem- making : Strengthening the weak links in ‘Decision
solving planning. In S.L. Friedman, E.K. Scholnick & making under stress: emerging themes and
R.R. Cocking (Eds.), Blueprints for thinking: The role applications’ (eds: R Flin, E Salas, M Strub and L
of planning in cognitive development. Cambridge: Martin) Ashgate.
Cambridge University Press.
Raths, J., (1987) Enhancing understanding through
Crichton, M and Rattray, W (2002) “Tactical Decision debriefing. Educational Leadership. 45(2), 24-27.
Games: What are they and how can they help?” Proc. Alexandria VA: Association for Supervision and
Critical incident Management Conference, Aberdeen, Curriculum Development.
Rescorla, R.A. (1987) A Pavlovian analysis of goal
de Bono, E. (1985). The CoRT thinking program. In directed behaviour. American Psychologist. 42 2, 119-
J.W. Segal, S.F. Chipman & R. Glaser, (Eds.)., 129.
Resnick, L.B. (1987). Education and learning to think. Wales, C.E., & Nardi, A.H. (1985). Teaching decision-
Washington, DC: National Academy Press. making: What to teach and how to teach it. In A.L.
Costa, (Ed.), Developing Minds: A resource book for
Thorndike, E. L. (1898) Animal intelligence: An teaching thinking. Alexandria, VA: Association for
experimental study of the associative processes in Supervision and Curriculum Development.
animals. Psychological Monographs, 2 8.
Woods, D.R. (1983). Introducing explicit training in
Turoff, M, (1970) "The Policy Delphi," Journal of problem solving into our courses. Higher Education
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, (2:2), Research and Development, 2, 79–102.
Social Skills Cognitive Skills
Co-operation Leadership & Situation Decision
Managerial Awareness Making
Course Objectives Skills
Develop a quality improvement orientated culture with respect to safety
of operations, protection of the environment and achieving goals within
Develop a pro-active methodical and systematic approach to the
management of systems, operations and communications through
teamwork and to evaluate any deviation from a specific operational
objective plan and analyse the reasons for this deviation.
Identify and analyse risk factors, this to include consideration of human
behavioural factors, which contribute to human error and situational
Identify the priorities to which a manager must attend with respect to the
safety of operations:
i) within hours of joining the vessel;
ii) during the commissioning of the vessel;
iii) before the vessel gets underway;
Develop the skills and confidence of the more junior members of the
team through appropriate briefing, guidance and de-briefing techniques.
Social Skills Cognitive Skills
Co-operation Leadership & Situation Decision
Managerial Awareness Making
Course Objectives Skills
Assess own performance and formulate objectives for 'Continuing
Professional Development' purposes.
Develop fault diagnosis strategies and methodologies.
Identify and terminate the development of error chains.
Identify essential on-board training needs of both individuals and the
team with regard to both operational, emergency and crisis situations.
Practice and develop critical thinking skills during emergency and crisis
Table 2. The mapping of course objectives against CRM skills.