Safety and Security Issues


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Safety and Security Issues

  1. 1. Chapter 14 Safety and Security Issues
  2. 2. Security and Safety Issues <ul><li>The Importance of a Protected Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and Security Programs: Four-Step Safety and Security Management Method </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes Against Hospitality Businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis Management Programs </li></ul>
  3. 3. In This Chapter, You Will Learn: <ul><li>To recognize the responsibility hospitality managers have to protect the safety and security of guests and employees in hospitality operations. </li></ul><ul><li>To carry out the procedures needed to limit the potential liability of safety risks and security risks. </li></ul><ul><li>To recognize the need for and benefit of implementing an effective crisis management plan. </li></ul><ul><li>To minimize the risk of crimes against your own business operation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Importance of a Protected Environment <ul><li>Legalese: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Program – Those procedures and activities designed to insure the physical protection and good health of guests and employees. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Importance of a Protected Environment <ul><li>Legalese: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Program – Those procedures and activities designed to protect the property or assets of guests, employees, and the business. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Analyze the Situation 14.1 <ul><li>Mr. and Mrs. Angelo were frequent diners at the Buffet World restaurant, a moderately priced operation that featured an all-you-can-eat lunch and dinner buffet. Jessie Carroll was the manager of the restaurant. </li></ul><ul><li>On a busy Sunday, Mr. and Mrs. Angelo entered the restaurant, paid for their meal, and were directed to their table by the dining room greeter. As Mrs. Angelo sat down, the wooden dining room chair snapped under her weight. Her neck was injured as she fell on the restaurant's tile floor. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Analyze the Situation 14.1 <ul><li>The Angelos sued Buffet World, charging negligence in the operation of the restaurant. Their attorney argued that the normal wear and tear of chairs was a foreseeable event, and thus an inspection program should have been in place. No such program could be shown by the restaurant to have existed. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Analyze the Situation 14.1 <ul><li>The attorney for the restaurant countered that Mrs. Angelo was “larger” than the average guest, and therefore Buffet World could not have foreseen that she would be seated in a chair that was not capable of holding her weight. The restaurant's attorney also noted that Buffet World had never experienced a problem like this before. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Analyze the Situation 14.1 <ul><li>Is Mrs. Angelo's actual weight a relevant issue in her case against the restaurant? </li></ul><ul><li>What evidence could the restaurant have provided to its attorney to demonstrate reasonable care in the inspection of its dining room furniture? </li></ul><ul><li>If it were independently owned, who would be responsible for designing and implementing an effective furniture inspection program for Buffet World? </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Importance of a Protected Environment <ul><li>Legalese: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis – An occurrence that holds the potential to jeopardize the health of individuals and or the business. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Crisis Management <ul><li>Power outages </li></ul><ul><li>Vandalism </li></ul><ul><li>Arson / fire </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb threats </li></ul><ul><li>Robbery </li></ul><ul><li>Looting </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes </li></ul><ul><li>Tornados </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Snow </li></ul><ul><li>Ice </li></ul><ul><li>Accident / injury </li></ul><ul><li>Drug overdose </li></ul><ul><li>Medical emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue breathing / cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) </li></ul><ul><li>Death / suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Intense media scrutiny </li></ul><ul><li>Adversarial governmental agency investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Civil disturbance </li></ul>
  12. 12. Analyze the Situation 14.2 <ul><li>Wayne Dobinion was the District Manager for a franchised quick-service Mexican-style restaurant in a large city. On a Friday night at 11:30 P.M., just after the restaurant locked its front doors to the general public, three masked men entered the store through the unlocked back kitchen door. They demanded that the Assistant Manager on duty at the time turn over all the restaurant's cash. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Analyze the Situation 14.2 <ul><li>Nervously, the 18-year-old assistant manager explained that all the cash had been deposited in a safe in the Manager's office and that he had no ability to open it. </li></ul><ul><li>Angry at their inability to rob the store, the gunmen shot two of the restaurant workers, including the assistant manager, as they fled the restaurant. The assistant manager died from his wounds. The robbery and shootings made that night's local television news. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Analyze the Situation 14.2 <ul><li>A lawsuit filed by the assistant manager's parents charged that the restaurant lacked proper alarms and locks on the back door. In addition, they charged that the restaurant owners and the franchise company failed to provide any training to its staff regarding the proper response to an armed robbery. The lawsuit was reported in a front-page article in the local paper. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Analyze the Situation 14.2 <ul><li>An Investigative Reporter from another television station in the city called the restaurant's manager requesting an on-air- interview regarding the training employees receive related to robberies. The manager referred the call to Mr. Dobinion. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Analyze the Situation 14.2 <ul><li>What issues will the courts and a jury likely consider as they evaluate the legitimacy of the parent's lawsuit? </li></ul><ul><li>What legal position might the franchisor take if it had provided training materials to the local franchisee, but never utilized those materials? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the likely outcome if Mr. Dobinion refuses to meet with the investigative reporter? What if Mr. Dobinion has not been trained to do so? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Advantages of Preplanning <ul><li>Improved employee morale. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved management image. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved employee recruiting effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced insurance rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced employee costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved operating ratios. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Advantages of Preplanning <ul><li>Reduced penalty costs for violations. </li></ul><ul><li>Support in the event of an accident. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased guest satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing advantages. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced likelihood of negative press. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Four-Step Safety and Security Management Method <ul><li>Recognition of threat. </li></ul><ul><li>Program development (response to threat). </li></ul><ul><li>Program implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of program results. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Program Development <ul><li>Training for threat prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased surveillance and/or patrol. </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic inspections. </li></ul><ul><li>Modification of facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing standard procedures. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Significant Elements of a Hotel Security Program <ul><li>Key controls </li></ul><ul><li>Effective guestroom lock system </li></ul><ul><li>Proper and adequate training of security staff </li></ul><ul><li>Guestroom doors with one-way viewers and chain / latch bars </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate lighting and ongoing maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Perimeter controls </li></ul>
  22. 22. Significant Elements of a Hotel Security Program <ul><li>Employee background checks </li></ul><ul><li>Employee education </li></ul><ul><li>Guest safety education </li></ul><ul><li>Written security policies and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Established responses to incidents and corrective action </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison with local authorities </li></ul>
  23. 23. Analyze the Situation 14.3 <ul><li>The Commodore Hotel was owned by the First Community Insurance Company, and managed by Fieldstone Hospitality Management. After two separate guest assaults occurred inside the hotel rooms, Fieldstone Management approached First Community Insurance with the idea of either installing a closed circuit video camera (CCVC) system in all hallways, or increasing the lighting levels of the hotel's corridors. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Analyze the Situation 14.3 <ul><li>First Community Insurance authorized Fieldstone Management to purchase a video surveillance system consisting of six cameras and a central location to view them. The events shown by the cameras were not committed to tape. </li></ul><ul><li>Late on the evening of February 6, Mrs. Cynthia Larson checked into the Commodore and was assigned a room at the end of one of the hotel's corridors. As she attempted to insert her electronic key card into the door lock, she was assaulted. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Analyze the Situation 14.3 <ul><li>Mrs. Larson sued both Fieldstone Management and First Community Insurance, claiming that both companies' failure to monitor their cameras was a direct cause of her assault. In addition, she claimed that the cameras' use was deceptive, in that it gave her a false sense of security. As she stated, “The cameras showed me the hotel cared about my security, and I wanted to stay in a safe location.” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Analyze the Situation 14.3 <ul><li>According to timesheets provided under subpoena by the hotel, an employee was assigned to view the cameras in the central location for an average of two hours per night between the hours of 8:00 P.M. and 6:00 A.M. The assault occurred at a time when no employee was monitoring the cameras. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Analyze the Situation 14.3 <ul><li>The attorney for First Community Insurance stated that the company was merely the owner of the hotel, and not responsible for day-to-day management, thus it should not be held responsible for Mrs. Larson's injuries. Fieldstone Management maintained that it too should not be held responsible just because the cameras installed were not monitored at all times. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Analyze the Situation 14.3 <ul><li>The presence of the cameras themselves and electronic locks on their guestroom doors demonstrated that the company used reasonable care in the protection of its guests. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Analyze the Situation 14.3 <ul><li>Will First Community Insurance be held partially responsible for the actions of Fieldstone Management? </li></ul><ul><li>Did Fieldstone Management use reasonable care in the installation and operation of the camera system? Would it matter if the cameras were recording to tape? </li></ul><ul><li>What could the hotel owners do in the future to help avoid a similar situation with a guest? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Safety and Security Programs <ul><li>Legalese: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdiction Programs – An arrangement whereby citizens contact police to report suspected criminal activity before a crime is committed. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Program Implementation <ul><li>Safety and Security Departments </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and Security Guards </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Committees </li></ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regularly scheduled meetings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood business watch programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property safety and security reviews. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdiction programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training programs. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Establishing an Effective Guestroom Lock Policy <ul><li>Install an electronic locking system. </li></ul><ul><li>Train ALL new employees on the procedures used to insure key security. </li></ul><ul><li>Never announce guestroom numbers out loud. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow the room number to be marked directly on the key. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not identify the hotel with the key. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Establishing an Effective Guestroom Lock Policy <ul><li>Do not reissue keys to guests without a positive ID check. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not issue duplicate keys to anyone except the registered user. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize the number of master keys. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a log of all existing masters and submasters. </li></ul><ul><li>Train all managers on duty (MODs) on the procedures to conduct a lock audit. Record the results of any audits performed. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Monitoring Program Results <ul><li>Number of inspections performed </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection or quality scores </li></ul><ul><li>Number of incidents reported </li></ul><ul><li>Dollar amount of losses sustained </li></ul><ul><li>Number if insurance claims filed </li></ul><ul><li>Number of lawsuits filed </li></ul><ul><li>Number of serious or minor accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Number of lost workdays by employees </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance premium increases </li></ul><ul><li>Number of drills or training exercises correctly performed </li></ul>
  35. 35. Analyze the Situation 14.4 <ul><li>Peggi Shulkey managed a commissary for a large cafeteria company. Her facility prepared food products for 75 company restaurants. While her operation did not have a tremendous number of work-related accidents, Peggi believed the number of accidents could be reduced. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Analyze the Situation 14.4 <ul><li>She formed a safety committee made up of employees and management, and charged them with the task of developing a model program to reduce employee injuries. The committee proposed the six-step plan presented below. Their rationale for each step is shown in italics. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Analyze the Situation 14.4 <ul><li>Proper selection of employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Since an employee with a drug problem is dangerous, applicants should be required to take a drug test before being hired. The applicant must also execute a continuous authorization for drug testing, which permits the employer to administer a drug test in the event of an accident. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Analyze the Situation 14.4 <ul><li>Designation of a Safety/Injury Coordinator. </li></ul><ul><li>The Safety/Injury Coordinator will review past accident records and implement programs to reduce situations that may result in accidents. The Safety Coordinator will maintain a logbook of incidents so each Department Supervisor can review the log for incident trends. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Analyze the Situation 14.4 <ul><li>Implementation of mandatory safety training. </li></ul><ul><li>Each employee will be trained in safety related to his or her job. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased awareness of safety. </li></ul><ul><li>By implementing programs, games, and posters, employees will be reminded to think intelligently and safely. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Analyze the Situation 14.4 <ul><li>Implementation of incentive programs for safety. </li></ul><ul><li>To further encourage safety, rewards and incentives will be given to employees who practice safe behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of results. </li></ul><ul><li>To be determined by the General Manager. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Analyze the Situation 14.4 <ul><li>What specific measurements might Peggi use to gauge the effectiveness of the group's plan? </li></ul><ul><li>How effective is training likely to be in reducing this particular threat to safety? </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the committee's plan for thoroughness. Are there potential liabilities that still need to be addressed? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Analyze the Situation 14.5 <ul><li>Karin Pelley was employed as a District Manager by Ron's Roast Beef, a regional chain of 150 quick-service restaurants serving sandwiches, soups, and soft drinks. Most of the stores were located in shopping mall food courts or strip malls. Ms. Pelley worked out of her home office, traveling to visit her 12 assigned stores on a regular basis. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Analyze the Situation 14.5 <ul><li>Ms. Pelley communicated with the corporate office via telephone, fax machine, and modem, all of which were installed in her home by Advance Technology, a telecommunications company selected by Ron's Roast Beef to supply telecommunications equipment and services to its employees. As part of its contract with Ron's Roast Beef, Advance Technology serviced the machines used by Ms. Pelley in her daily work. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Analyze the Situation 14.5 <ul><li>When Ms. Pelley's modem stopped working one day, she contacted her home office, which then called Advance Technology to request that a Service Technician be dispatched to Ms. Pelley's home. The technician arrived, but in the course of his visit assaulted Ms. Pelley. The technician was later apprehended by the police and convicted of felony assault, his third such conviction in three years. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Analyze the Situation 14.5 <ul><li>Ms. Pelley sued Advance Technology claiming negligent hiring. In addition, her attorney submitted a demand letter to Ron's Roast Beef, requesting a $400,000 settlement from the company for negligence in contracting its telecommunications services from Advance Technology. The attorney for Ron's Roast Beef refused to pay theclaim stating that: </li></ul>
  46. 46. Analyze the Situation 14.5 <ul><li>Ron's had no control over the hiring practices of Advance Technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Pelley was prohibited by law from pursuing any injury claim against her employer other than workers' compensation, because the assault occurred in Ms. Pelley's “office.” </li></ul>
  47. 47. Analyze the Situation 14.5 <ul><li>What responsibility did Ron's Roast Beef have for providing a safe home working environment for Ms. Pelley? </li></ul><ul><li>Will Ron's Roast Beef be held liable for the damages suffered by Ms. Pelley? Will Advance Technology be held liable? </li></ul><ul><li>What should Ron's do in the future to avoid potential liability in situations such as this? </li></ul>
  48. 48. Crimes Against Hospitality Business <ul><li>Consumer Theft of Services </li></ul><ul><li>Fraudulent Payment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal checks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Theft of Assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embezzlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft of company property </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Crimes Against Hospitality Business <ul><li>Legalese: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bond-(ing) – An insurance agreement in which the insurer guarantees payment to an employer in the event of financial loss caused by the actions of a specific employee. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Crisis Management Programs <ul><li>Legalese: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency Plan – A procedure or series of procedures implemented in response to a crisis. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Crisis Management Programs <ul><li>Legalese: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – A severe reaction to an event that threatened an individual’s physical or emotional health. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Crisis Management Programs <ul><li>Legalese: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Press Release – An official statement, from an individual or organization, that is distributed to the media and other parties judged to be interested in the information it contains. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Crisis Management Programs <ul><li>Legalese: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Off The Record – An oral agreement between a reporter and an interviewee wherein the reporter promises not to quote the interviewee’s comments for publication. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Crisis Management Programs <ul><li>Precrisis Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Plan Development </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Plan Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guest Response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Postcrisis Assessment </li></ul>
  55. 55. Search the Web 14.1 <ul><li>Log on to the Internet and enter </li></ul><ul><li>You will arrive at a Web site developed and operated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH is operated by the federal government's Centers for Disease Control (CDC). When you arrive, locate and read NIOSH Publication No. 93-109, then proceed to the following: </li></ul>
  56. 56. Search the Web 14.1 <ul><li>Currently, only the operation of motor vehicles and machinery caused more workplace deaths than homicide. List five explanations you believe can be used to help understand the proliferation of workplace homicide incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the 10 occupations that most put workers at the risk of serious workplace violence. </li></ul><ul><li>List five actions suggested by NIOSH to reduce life-threatening situations at work. </li></ul><ul><li>Address the question of how a serious incident of workplace violence would impact: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(a) Other employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(b) Guests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(c) The business itself </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Analyze the Situation 14.6 <ul><li>Irving Nash managed a 24-hour table service restaurant that specialized in breakfast items. Lendal Ketchar, a customer, arrived at the restaurant at approximately 2:00 A.M. one morning. Upon entering the restaurant, Mr. Ketchar tripped over the curb leading to the sidewalk and broke his hip. Because Mr. Ketchar was a very visible city councilman, the incident was reported in the local paper. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Analyze the Situation 14.6 <ul><li>Mr. Nash was interviewed extensively about the cause of the accident. He specifically mentioned to reporters that the curb had not been painted bright yellow as a warning to guests, nor were lighting levels very high at the entrance area where he fell. Irving Nash read the interviews and shared them with his two assistant managers. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Analyze the Situation 14.6 <ul><li>Both suggested that the restaurant paint the curb area, install additional lighting, and inform the media that these actions were undertaken. Mr. Nash's boss vetoed this idea, however, stating that any action such as painting the curb and installing light could imply previous negligence on the part of the organization and thus could increase the organization's potential legal liability. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Analyze the Situation 14.6 <ul><li>Which factors would influence the potential liability of Mr. Nash's restaurant for the accident? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the future liability of the restaurant greater under the proposed action of Mr. Nash's assistant managers or his boss? </li></ul><ul><li>What effective safety and security programs could be undertaken to limit legal liability if Mr. Nash is required to follow the advice of his boss? </li></ul><ul><li>As a professional hospitality manager, is Mr. Nash ethically obligated to take action to prevent a further occurrence of this type? </li></ul>
  61. 61. What Would You Do? <ul><li>You are the manager of a 150-room limited service, all-suite hotel located off the interstate highway near a large metropolitan area. Kate Roessler is your executive housekeeper. Ms. Roessler contacts you to ask you to go with her to inspect room 415, which is occupied by a guest, Mr. Barney. </li></ul>
  62. 62. What Would You Do? <ul><li>Ms. Roessler explains that the guest has been checked in for 10 days, and has had a “Do Not Disturb” sign on the door for all but two of those days. She has asked you to view the room before it is cleaned, because she says she is concerned for the safety of her housekeepers in their routine cleaning tasks. </li></ul>
  63. 63. What Would You Do? <ul><li>Upon entering the room, you observe several ripped plastic baggies, money wrappers, large quantities of empty fast food containers, a scale, and a pistol holster partially hidden under a mattress. You recall that this is the same man who arrived by cab to the hotel, and paid cash up front for a two-week stay. </li></ul>
  64. 64. What Would You Do? <ul><li>Write a memo to your Executive Housekeeper outlining the steps she is to take for servicing Mr. Barney’s room. </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming a drug interdiction program is in place in your city, would you contact that program to report Mr. Barney? </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of your decision in question 2 above, if the police asked to use the room next to that of Mr. Barney for an undercover operation, would you allow them to do so? </li></ul><ul><li>Write a memo to the chief of police stating your position in question 3, along with your rationale for the decision. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Rapid Review <ul><li>Describe three threats to safety and three threats to security in the hospitality organization with which you are most familiar. Explain how management currently addresses (manages) these threats. </li></ul><ul><li>Assume you are the Foodservice Manager of a college dormitory. You are asked to address parents regarding the impact your facility will make on the overall educational experience of their children. Compose a five-minute presentation that addresses your safety and security philosophy and its relation to the well-being and educational experience of your residents. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Rapid Review <ul><li>Analyze the four-step safety and security management method. Select one of the steps and prepare a three-minute presentation that could be delivered to members of your safety committee, in which you emphasize the importance of this step. </li></ul><ul><li>Assume you have implemented a safety program designed to reduce employee accidents resulting from improper lifting techniques. Identify at least three different measurable outcomes that could be used to evaluate the program's effectiveness. Explain which of these three you would use and why. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Rapid Review <ul><li>Contact your local law enforcement officials to determine what training programs are offered to businesses for the purpose of assisting those businesses in their safety and security efforts. Determine the cost, if any, of the programs, and the frequency with which they will be offered in the coming 12 months. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Rapid Review <ul><li>The Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association (EI) certifies hospitality security guards. Log on to its Web site at and identify the methods of qualifying for the designation of Certified Lodging Security Director (CLSD). Assume your property is considering such a program for the head of your Safety and Security department. Prepare a memo for your immediate supervisor detailing the advantages and disadvantages of using the EI program, as opposed to one you would develop yourself. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Rapid Review <ul><li>Assume that a bomb threat has forced you to evacuate your restaurant. The police have arrived; no one has been hurt, but the press is at your property. Create an outline of a one-page press release that would address the items about which the media would be most interested in learning. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Rapid Review <ul><li>An employee who burned himself while working did not seek medical treatment. The employee missed five days of work, then later filed, and won, a workers' compensation claim, because the burn became infected. Draft a memo outlining the criteria your managers should use in the future for determining which employee accidents will result in mandatory medical treatment. </li></ul>
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