Public Relations

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  • 1. Marketing Communications - Public Relations Gary Akehurst
  • 2. Public Relations
    • ‘ The management of communications and relationships to establish goodwill and mutual understanding between an organisation and its public’ (Jobber, 1995: 437)
    • ‘ ...concerns building good relations with the company’s various publics by obtaining favourable publicity, building up a good “corporate image”, and handling or heading off unfavourable rumours, stories and events’ (Kotler et al, 1996: 751)
    • ‘ The process by which we create a positive image and customer preference through third-party endorsement’
    • (Jobber, 1995: 437)
  • 3. Public Relations Organisation Media TV Press Radio Public local communities pressure groups opinion leaders general public Government parliament civil service local authorities Finance shareholders stockbrokers fund managers banks Commercial customers distribution suppliers Employees staff trade unions representatives Source: Jobber, 1995: 437
  • 4. Public Relations
    • Different tools:
    • press relations
      • placing information in news media to attract attention to a person, product or service
      • believable by consumers and creates more impact than ads written by company managers
    • product publicity
      • publicising specific products
      • securing editorial space rather than paid space
      • e.g. new products, special events, redesigned products
  • 5. Public Relations
    • corporate communications
    • creating internal and external communications
    • promoting understanding of the company, eg communications with employees
    • lobbying
    • activities with government officials and parliament
    • to promote or defeat legislation and regulation
    • counselling
    • advising management about public issues and company positions and images
  • 6. Public Relations
    • Product-related Publicity
    • assists in launching new products
    • assists in repositioning a mature product
    • builds up consumer interest in a product category
  • 7. Public Relations
    • Corporate Communication
    • influence specific target groups (e.g. sponsoring special events)
    • defend products having public problems (with such problems it all depends on damage extent, the efficiency with which managers can get the product back on-line and an effective marketing message that the company is open for business)
  • 8. Public Relations
    • Eurostar and the Channel Tunnel Fire
    • have a crisis plan and instruct and train employees in crisis management
    • take immediate steps, appointing a spokesperson to whom all media are referred and who is immediately available
    • ensure effective co-ordination and install an information hot line
    • contact company’s PR agency if it has one
    • process information quickly - notify press and keep them updated (the media will hear about the event anyway, so best to find out from your company)
    • be consistent and flexible but initiate action communications
    • show others the actual recovery
  • 9. Public Relations
    • Build the Corporate Image
    • build awareness and brand knowledge
    • more credible and often more cost effective than advertising
    • but must be jointly planned with advertising within a sufficient budget
    • you need staff to develop and circulate stories and manage certain events
  • 10. Public Relations
    • characteristics of publicity
    • message has high credibility because it appears to be written independently by a media person rather than an advertiser (may therefore, be more persuasive)
    • no direct media costs (although it is not cost free)
    • loss of control of publication (no guarantee news item will be published)
    • loss of control of content
    • loss of control of timing
  • 11. environmental scanning - issues & trends identification research to understand the company’s mission, culture, products & communications targets the company’s marketing plan
    • establish specific marketing objectives
    • build awareness
    • build credibility
    • stimulate sales force
    • distribution channels
    • promotion costs
    Define the target audience identify important issues choose the PR message and vehicles event creation - identify and develop interesting stories the challenge - to create news
    • Implement the Marketing PR Plan
    • how to get media attention
    • who talks to the media and who doesn’t
    • Evaluating PR results
    • difficult to measure as used with other promotion tools
    • exposures
    • awareness/comprehension/attitude change
    • sales and profit contribution
    The PR Process
  • 12. Public Relations
    • major tools of public relations
    • publications companies can reach and influence their target market by annual reports, brochures, cards, articles, company newsletters and magazines, audio-visual media
    • events draw attention to new products or other company activities
    • news cultivating the press to increase better coverage
    • speeches create company and product publicity, accompanied by printed copies for distribution to press and other publics
  • 13. Public Relations
    • public service activities improve public goodwill by giving money and time to good causes
    • identity media ( visual identity - company logos, stationery, signs, uniforms, buildings, dress code, etc
  • 14. Public Relations
    • can build PR around the owner or operator (e.g. Nico Ledonis and Rick Stein) - dangerous but benefits can exceed risks (e.g. Dyson)
    • can build PR around location
    • can build PR around a product or service (e.g. the Raffles Hotel, Singapore - ‘the Singapore Sling’)
  • 15. Public Relations
    • potentially newsworthy topics
    • doing something first
    • marketing issues (new products, research breakthrough, future new products, large contracts/orders, sponsorships, price changes, service changes, new logos, export success
    • production issues (productivity achievements, employment changes, capital investments)
    • financial issues (financial statements, acquisitions, sales and profit achievements)
    • personnel issues (training awards, winners of company contests, promotions/new appointments, success stories, visits by famous people, reports of interviews
    • general issues (conferences, seminars, exhibitions, anniversaries of significant events)
  • 16. Public Relations
    • press releases
    • the headline (factual, avoid flowery and flamboyant language)
    • opening paragraph (brief summary of whole release - if you get this published you have succeeded in getting across your essential message)
    • organising the copy (less important messages at end)
    • copy content (factual not fanciful; back statements up with facts)
    • length (short as possible - one page maximum; make editor’s job easy as possible)
    • layout (short paragraphs, plenty of white space, good margins, double-spaced)
  • 17. Public Relations
    • References
    • Lesly, P., 1991, The Handbook of Public Relations and Communications , Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill
    • White, J., 1991, How to Understand and Manage Public Relations , London: Business Books
    • Miller, J., 1993, ‘Marketing Communications’, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly , Vol. 34 No. 5, October, p49
    • Durocher, J., 1994, ‘Recovery Marketing: What to Do After a Natural Disaster’, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly , Vol. 35 No. 2, April, p66
  • 18. Public Relations
    • References
    • Kotler, P., Bowen, J. and J. Makens, 1996, Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism , Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Ch 18 ‘Promoting Products: Public Relations’ and Ch 17 ‘Promoting Products: Advertising, Direct Marketing and Sales Promotion’
    • Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Saunders, J. and V. Wong, 1996, Principles of Marketing , Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Ch 19
    • Jobber, D., 1995, Principles and Practice of Marketing , London: McGraw-Hill, Ch 13 ‘Other Promotional Mix Methods’