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  • 1. PDFB-GEF. Groundwater in SADC 07 September 2000 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FACILITY PROPOSAL FOR PDF Block B GRANT Countries: Regional: Southern African Development Community (Water Sector) Pilot level: Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique GEF Focal Area: International Waters Project Title: Opportunities for Using Groundwater in Drought Prone Areas in the SADC Region. Total Estimated Project US$ 12 Million Cost Co-financing partners will include: GEF (incremental costs), French Government, Sida, riparian countries and other cooperating partners. Proportions to be confirmed during the PDF B phase (Indicative: GEF US$8 Million, Others US$4 Million) PDF B Co-funding sources SIDA: US$50,000 French Cooperation: US$25,000 In kind contribution from SADC member states: US$50,000 PDF B Parallel Sources French Cooperation for “Minimum Common Standards for Groundwater Development in the SADC Region”. On-going activities related to integrated water resources management in the Limpopo basin, financed by riparian countries and co-operating partners. Implementing Agency The World Bank Executing Agency SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Block A Grant Awarded By-passed SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Page 1
  • 2. PDFB-GEF. Groundwater in SADC 07 September 2000 PDF B Requested US$ 350,000 Endorsement by GEF Botswana Focal Points South Africa Zimbabwe Mozambique Implementing Agency World Bank SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Page 2
  • 3. PDFB-GEF. Groundwater in SADC 07 September 2000 Executive Summary Groundwater is a key element to alleviate the effects of drought in the SADC region. Policy responses to drought have in the past been based on short-term crisis management, and insufficient attention has been paid to the sustainable management of groundwater resources. To address this undesirable situation, prediction and mitigation measures have to be instituted, both for surface and groundwater resources to secure proactive and sustainable management of water resources and protection of the environment. The GEF project will develop a strategic regional approach to support and enhance the capacity of member States in their drought management policies, in relation to the regional significance of the role, availability (magnitude and recharge) and supply potential of groundwater sources. The project will be developed in two levels: the regional level and the river basin level: At the regional level, the project will identify trans-boundary impacts of groundwater development in the various river basins of the region, identify priority groundwater drought prone areas and provide regional management tools such as groundwater drought vulnerability and water scarcity maps, a minimum regional groundwater monitoring network and a regional groundwater information system. The developed tools will be sustained through the SADC system and institutions, which are financed by the Member Countries. At the river basin level, the menu of proactive drought mitigation measures will be demonstrated in the semi-arid Limpopo river basin, on a pilot basis, to evaluate their applicability and replicability on a region wide scale. This component of the project will be carried out on the ground in the Limpopo basin. The exact location of the pilot project will be determined by the four riparian countries during the PDF B phase. The PDF B Grant will be used to prepare a GEF Project Document on “Opportunities for using Groundwater in drought prone areas in the SADC region” in a participatory manner. The PDF B process will involve consultations among institutions in the SADC region, and at the pilot river basin: the Limpopo Permanent Technical Committee, other basin organisations and local communities in the four countries. The process will also include sourcing resources from various Cooperating Partners for the implementation phase of the project. A possible GEF PDF B contribution will have a catalytic effect in that regard. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Page 3
  • 4. PDFB-GEF. Groundwater in SADC 07 September 2000 TABLE OF CONTENTS GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FACILITY 1 1. PROJECT OBJECTIVES AND DESCRIPTION 6 1.1. BACKGROUND AND ORIGIN OF PDF B PROPOSAL............................................................................6 1.2. OTHER REGIONAL ACTIVITIES RELEVANT TO GROUNDWATER..............................................................8 1.3. RELEVANCE TO OTHER WORLD BANK PROGRAMS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA...........................................9 1.4. PROPOSAL FOR GEF SUPPORT.....................................................................................................10 1.5. PROJECT OBJECTIVES...................................................................................................................11 1.6. PROJECT COMPONENTS................................................................................................................12 1.6.1. REGIONAL LEVEL....................................................................................................................................12 1.6.2. DROUGHT PRONE RIVER BASIN LEVEL..........................................................................................................13 1.6.3 TIMING OF PROJECT..................................................................................................................................15 1.7. EXPECTED PROJECT OUTPUTS......................................................................................................15 1.8. GLOBAL/REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT.....................................................16 1.9. SUSTAINABILITY AND REPLICABILITY.............................................................................................16 2. DESCRIPTION OF PDF B ACTIVITIES BY COMPONENT 17 2.1. OBJECTIVE OF PDF B................................................................................................................17 2.2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SECTORAL TRANSBOUNDARY ANALYSES............................17 2.3. CONFIDENCE BUILDING, STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT, OUTREACH AND PUBLIC AWARENESS............18 2.4. APPLIED TRAINING, INSTITUTION AND CAPACITY BUILDING ...........................................................19 2.5. RESOURCE MOBILISATION.............................................................................................................19 2.6. PREPARATION OF GEF PROJECT DOCUMENT................................................................................19 3. ELIGIBILITY 19 4. NATIONAL LEVEL SUPPORT 20 5. JUSTIFICATION FOR PDF B GRANT 20 6. ITEMS TO BE FINANCED BY PDF GRANT/CO-FUNDING 21 SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Page 4
  • 5. PDFB-GEF. Groundwater in SADC 07 September 2000 7. OUTPUTS OF PDF B 21 8. STRATEGY FOR PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION 22 9. WORK SCHEDULE 22 10. BUDGET FOR PDF B ACTIVITIES 24 ANNEXES ANNEX 1. Access to developed water supply in the SADC region ANNEX 2 Common aquifers in the SADC Region ANNEX 3 SADC Groundwater Management Programme ANNEX 4 Characteristics of the Limpopo River Basin ANNEX 5 Letters of Endorsement of GEF Focal Points ANNEX 6 Letter of Support from the Chairman of SADC Sectoral Committee of Ministers of Water SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Page 5
  • 6. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 1. PROJECT OBJECTIVES AND DESCRIPTION 1.1. Background and origin of PDF B Proposal The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a regional grouping of 14 sovereign states with the main purpose of fostering co-operation and mutual benefit from the resources of this region. With the establishment of the SADC Water Sector in August 1996 the critical importance of water to regional integration and economic development was recognised by the Member States. Water was upgraded to a distinct sector. The population of the SADC region is expected to double in 25 years and major water and environment crisis will occur if decisive and concrete actions are not taken towards sustainable and integrated water resources management in the region. Groundwater use in the SADC region and drought management Groundwater is the main source of water supply for about 37% of the total population in the SADC region, while surface water accounts for 23%. Remaining 40% of the population still rely on unsafe water sources, which are more often prone to drought (Annex 1). Groundwater has a potential role to play in the future development of secured water supply facilities and drought management issues. Presently, about one third of the people in the region leave in drought prone areas. In the driest part of the region, groundwater is the primary source of drinking water for human and livestock. Groundwater is the main or a complementary source of intensive irrigation in some parts of SADC (South Africa) and has a significant role to play in the food security through small-scale irrigation (gardens). Meteorological drought is an endemic phenomenon of the region, causing substantial socio- economic hardships, possible decline in public health on a large scale, land degradation and biodiversity loss. Over the past 30 years, rainfall has been increasing in the humid tropical zone and declining in Sub-Saharan and Southern African dry lands (60 % of the total land area of Africa). The frequency of drought has been increasing and is expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change. A meteorological drought usually precedes surface water and then groundwater drought. Characteristic for some parts of Southern Africa is also extreme rainfall variability with flood years followed by extensive drought. The risk of occurrence of drought is threatening even those countries previously thought to be water abundant such as Zambia. The recurring droughts in the region have demonstrated the potential value of groundwater as a more reliable and dependable source of water than surface water. The importance of groundwater in drought management emanates, among others, from its availability in population centres, providing renewable quantities of fresh water. Secondly, most aquifers have enough storage capacity that can be used, if properly managed, to reduce the stress on surface water resources during the dry periods. Using the aquifer’s static reserve as a temporary alternative to surface water can, therefore be envisaged provided that a sufficient recovery/replenishment period is allowed for the aquifer. The potential for future exploitation of static reserves in Southern Africa may involve its conjunctive utilisation with surface water resources, i.e., artificial recharge in wet SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 6
  • 7. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 periods. In this respect, the prospects for huge inter-basin transfers give more value to previously neglected groundwater resources. Groundwater management in the SADC region In majority of the Member States, groundwater occurrence is complex and sustainable development of resources is challenging. The status of groundwater development in each individual country largely reflects the importance of the resource in that country. Member States that are largely dependant on groundwater, are initiating the sustainable development concepts, for instance in Namibia, Botswana, South Africa. In some other SADC Member States, there have been very limited efforts and funding for management of the resource to parallel development. The main drawbacks in terms of groundwater resources management are: - Groundwater level and quality monitoring often limited to a few well fields, and sometimes completely non existent, which may lead to over-exploitation, - General lack of groundwater protection measures and poor regulation framework, - Low understanding of the significance of groundwater resources, poor knowledge of natural recharge and long term viability of withdrawals, - Undervaluing of the groundwater potential, especially in areas and countries where surface water is abundant, - Depletion of aquifers due to mine dewatering and pollution from mining activities, - Inappropriate water supply technology and management, with regard to the water resource and to what is affordable and manageable for the local communities. The vulnerability of groundwater supply systems to drought often results from the poor design and insufficient depth of wells, along with inappropriate pumping devices. The lack of water level monitoring and prediction is an aggravating factor. Proper prediction, development and management of groundwater could alleviate the crisis situation during dry periods. Regional groundwater programme development Several countries share several major aquifers in the region, as shown in annex 2. Local aquifers may also have a regional impact, as groundwater abstraction may reduce the base flow of international river systems shared by several countries and threaten ecosystems and downstream usage requiring a minimum stream flow. Management of groundwater should therefore be part of the multi-national integrated water resources management approach in the region. Despite the present and future eminent socio-economic role of groundwater in the region, surface water issues have so far dominated regional water resources programmes in SADC. The SADC Water Resources Technical Committee (WRTC), the Sectoral Committees of Senior Officials and Ministers of Water have acknowledged that more attention should be given to groundwater development and protection. They identified the need for the establishment of a SADC Sub- committee for Hydrogeology, in which each Member State is represented. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 7
  • 8. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 The Sub-committee for Hydrogeology provides technical backup in the implementation of the Groundwater Management Programme for the SADC region. This Programme was approved by the SADC machinery: The SADC Water Resources Technical Committee, the SADC Sectoral Committee of Ministers of Water (June 1999, Zanzibar), and the SADC Council of Ministers (August 1999, Maputo). It includes 10 projects of regional significance (annex 3). The programme, far from being a substitute to the responsibilities of individual member States, is rather, a support and an incentive to increase the efficiency of national programmes with due consideration to transboundary issues. This programme is, therefore, developed within the framework of SADC’s Regional Strategic Action Plan for Integrated Water Resource Development and Management (RSAP). The main objectives of the Groundwater Management Programme for the SADC region are: - Promote the sustainable development of groundwater resources at regional scale, in terms of research, assessment, exploitation and protection, - Develop a regional framework for technical support to national groundwater assessment and management programmes (including capacity building, institutional and legal framework, policies, socio-economics and financing), - Groundwater resources adequately taken into consideration in the regional integrated water resources development and management approach, with a particular emphasis on major transboundary aquifers and on the role of groundwater in drought management issues. Policy responses to drought have been in the past commonly based on short-term crisis management, and paid insufficient attention to the value of groundwater resources. To alleviate this undesirable situation, prediction and mitigation measures have to be implemented, both of surface and groundwater, in a proactive way. The SADC Regional Drought Task Force, made up of Ministers of Agriculture, Ministers of Transport, Communications and Meteorology, and recently Ministers of Water, put emphasis, at the regional level, on integration of surface and groundwater resources in drought management strategies. In the same manner, in May 1999, the SADC Water Strategy Reference Group (WSRG), composed of the WSCU, SADC secretariat and Cooperating Partners, made recommendations to focus part of the Groundwater Management Programme for the SADC region in drought management issues. 1.2. Other regional activities relevant to groundwater An extensive situation analysis covering general aspects of groundwater management and the foundations for regional cooperation was carried out by the WSCU in 1998 with the support of UNEP, prior to the adoption of the Groundwater Management Programme for the SADC Region. One of the project, “Minimum Common Standards for Groundwater Development”, is currently being implemented with the support of the French Cooperation. Expertise in the region and various aspects of groundwater exploration, drilling, test pumping, analysis, data collection storage and processing are considered in the study. The project includes country visits, interviews SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 8
  • 9. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 with key stakeholders and the organisation of two workshops to be held in September and November 2000. Regarding the development of the Regional Hydrogeological Map, collaboration has been initiated between the SADC Water and Mining Sectors. A common working group has been established (Hydrogeological Map Steering Committee) and had its first meeting in March 2000, in Windhoek (Namibia). A questionnaire has been circulated amongst relevant authorities to identify the existing data, data gaps and develop a needs assessment. The Mining Sector has produced several synthesised maps for the SADC region, including the Mineral Deposits Map. The Sector is currently preparing the 1/2,500,000 SADC Geological Map. A workshop will be held during the next annual conference of the International Association of Hydrogeologists, in November 2000 in Cape Town, and focused on Transboundary Aquifer Resource Management in the Southern Africa. This workshop, organized under the auspices of UNESCO and IAH, will provide international expertise and advice. Other regional projects of interest for the proposed programme are: - The HYCOS project, consisting of installing 50 Data Collection Platforms for Meteorological and Hydrologic parameters in the SADC region. The data are transmitted via satellite to a regional information centre, and made available to the Member States, - The Surface Water Resources database and Watershed Map of Southern Africa using GIS, under the ALCOM project with the financial and technical assistance of FAO and the Belgium Government, - The establishment of a Website for the SADC Water Sector, to facilitate the exchange of information at the regional level. The Website will be accessible on Internet in July 2000, - The development of the Regional Strategic Action Plan for Integrated Water Resources Development and Management, which creates a favourable regional environment in terms of secured regional institutions and general technical framework, - The preparation of the PDF B project “Joint Integrated Management of the Maputo Basin” where UNDP is implementing agency. 1.3. Relevance to other World Bank programs in Southern Africa The proposed project links well into the activities of the World Bank Africa Water Resources Management Initiative (AWRMI). The initiative was launched in 1996 and seek to support water resources analysis and policy reform at the national level and assists riparian countries in the development of cooperative frameworks and programs in relation to shared water resources. The initiative was developed as a direct response to the regional strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa, that was developed through intensive stakeholder consultations between 1994 and 1996. The strategy builds, in turn, upon the World Bank’s long term vision of supporting integrated water resources management programs and projects as stated in the Water Resources Management Policy Paper (1993). SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 9
  • 10. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 The AWRMI is an expanding cross-regional partnership with a multi-disciplinary and multi- sectoral team of staff working currently on water resources management and development programs in about 20 countries and 5 international river basins. In Southern Africa the AWRMI is increasingly active in supporting SADC in developing and implementing a portfolio of regional projects, as well as in supporting several countries in water policy analysis and reform. The AWRMI seeks to establish partnerships with other multi- and bilateral donor agencies and members of the civil society in order to strengthen ongoing and planned initiatives. The AWRMI programs aims at: - intensify riparian dialogue to seek realization of shared benefits from joint water resources development and management projects, - increase capacity amongst riparian countries on the management of international waters, - reduce risks of conflict between riparian countries on the sharing of scarce water resources, - increase the potential for economic cooperation among riparian states. 1.4. Proposal for GEF support The main thrust of the proposal weighs on drought management and environmental protection, with demonstration on the ground of the proposed recommendations in a pilot transboundary river basin. Regional dimension of the project The present project proposal includes regional aspects related to five components of SADC’s Groundwater Management Programme (described in section 1.1), namely: (1) Capacity Building in the Context of the Groundwater Management Programme, (2) The Development of a Regional Groundwater Information System, (3) Compilation of Hydrogeological Map, (4) The Regional Groundwater Monitoring Network, and (5) Groundwater resource Assessment of the Limpopo/Save Basin (Annex 3). These regional tools (2,3,4) are not available at present and are essential for developing a regional groundwater drought policy. Pilot project area The Sub-Committee for Hydrogeology selected the Upper Limpopo sub-basin as a possible pilot area. The SADC WRTC approved the proposed pilot basin in May 2000 in Maputo. This pilot area has been approved by SADC with recommendation that all riparian countries (Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Mozambique) be involved in the determination of the precise location of the pilot area in the Limpopo basin. The Upper Limpopo basin area was selected according to the following criteria: - Water body involving two or more countries, - Drought prone area/river basin/aquifer, - Significant population that will benefit (water supply coverage to be improved), - Size of a small sub-basin, - Environmentally sensitive, SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 10
  • 11. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 - Existing water management structures/institutions to become executing agencies, - Commitment from parties to develop base-line activities, - Good knowledge of geology, - Link to priorities expressed in the Regional Groundwater Management Programme in terms of groundwater resources assessment, focused on Basement rocks aquifers, aquifers of the Karoo series and aquifers of the Limpopo and Save Basins. The Limpopo forms the border between Botswana and South Africa, then between Zimbabwe and South Africa, before crossing the Southern part of Mozambique to reach the Indian Ocean in Xai Xai, to the North of Maputo. The average rainfall along most of the Limpopo River is less than 400mm, including the “Alto Limpopo” (upper part of the river across Mozambique), which is the driest area of Mozambique. The severe droughts observed during the early 90s and the recent exceptional floods in the Limpopo valley illustrate the extreme variability of rainfall and runoff in the basin. How aquifer recharge is affected by such variability has to be investigated in detail, so that optimal abstraction value during dry periods is determined. In Botswana, 80% of the country population, including Gaborone, Francistown and Selebi Pikwe lives in the Limpopo Basin. The relatively high density of population, the existence of major towns such as Gaborone, Pretoria, Pietersburg in the basin, and the large number of dams, industries and mines, exert a considerable pressure on the water resources, particularly during dry periods, while large sectors of the rural population are not adequately supplied. The basin offers a wide spectrum of Southern African shared aquifers. The alluvial aquifers associated with the Limpopo River and its tributaries, are of particular importance in areas where river flow is not permanent and needs to be adequately protected against overexploitation, pollution and destruction from abstraction of sand. More characteristics of the Limpopo river basin are shown in annex 4. 1.5. Project objectives The objectives of the GEF project, to be prepared with PDF B support, are as follows: Development Objective Groundwater resources managed, safeguarded, and developed in an integrated manner, taking into account its regional dimension, as a valuable resource to meet human and environmental needs in drought prone areas of the SADC region. Project Objective Promote sustainable development and management of groundwater resources by enhancing capacity at regional scale and among Member States, in terms of exploration, assessment, exploitation and protection of the resource. Sub-Objective (river basin level) Explore and demonstrate on the ground the optimal use of groundwater resources, engaging key stakeholders, in a drought prone area to secure water supply for human needs and the protection of the environment. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 11
  • 12. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 1.6. Project components The project will develop a strategic regional approach to support and enhance the capacity of member States in their drought management policies, in relation to the magnitude, recharge and supply potential of groundwater sources of regional significance. It will include the establishment of groundwater drought monitoring systems, the mapping of groundwater drought vulnerability, and a menu of proactive mitigation measures to combat the impact of drought. The project will be developed in two levels: the regional level and the river basin level. 1.6.1. Regional Level Three projects related to groundwater drought management will be carried out at the regional scale, namely: (i) The Regional Hydrogeological, Drought Sensitivity and Water scarcity Mapping project, (ii) The Regional Monitoring Network, (iii) The Regional Groundwater Information System. Hydrogeological maps, monitoring networks and data bases/information systems do exist at the national level in the SADC Member States. Nevertheless, they are at various level of accuracy; therefore, there are gaps in monitoring activities, data collection, data storage and access. The development of these activities at the regional level will fulfil the project objectives in: - Providing integrated data at regional level, to enhance the understanding of resources management issues at national level, and at shared river basins level, - Facilitating and intensifying the exchange of information, and institutional strengthening, in view of a shared management of regional aquifers, - Participating in building a regional environment for better integration of water management issues in drought mitigation strategies, - Arising the public conscience on necessary protection of both surface and groundwater resources, and - Creating an enabling environment for better management of the water resources at the national and local levels. The regional component of the project will follow detailed national situation analyses about the regional scope of aquifers, needs assessment in drought prone areas and the preparation of a work programme (to be performed during PDF B). Activities will take full cognition of past experiences in each of the SADC member States in the protection, development, management and integration of groundwater resources in drought management policies. The project activities are briefly listed hereafter: Regional Hydrogeological Map, drought sensitivity and water scarcity mapping - Agreement on legend and design of small scale (1/2,000,000 or 1/2,500,000) hydrogeological map for the SADC region, SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 12
  • 13. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 - Identification of areas vulnerable to pollution, groundwater drought and overexploitation, - Collection of existing data for drought sensitivity mapping, based among others on approaches developed in Malawi and South Africa, combining groundwater availability, recharge, aquifer characteristics, supply coverage, water demand, - Develop GIS based formal Regional Hydrogeological map and Atlas, Regional Drought Sensitivity Map, and Regional Scarcity Map for the SADC region. - Ranking of drought prone areas according to groundwater occurrence and quality, drought sensitivity, existing and potential degradation from pollution and proposal to develop a range of solutions. Monitoring Network and regional Groundwater drought monitoring system - Develop a proposal to enhance data reliability, relevance and cost effectiveness of national monitoring networks, - Design the regional monitoring network, as a complement to the local and national monitoring activities, with focus on the major multi-national aquifers that might be subject to regional impact of drought, and on the joint management of surface and sub-surface water resources in the main river basins. - Implement a minimum common regional monitoring network and - Establish procedures for a regional groundwater drought monitoring and early warning system of drought events. Regional Groundwater Information system The regional Groundwater Information system will be closely linked to the time-dependant flow data management of regional information related to the drought sensitivity and monitoring along with the updating of Atlas and Regional Groundwater Maps, using GIS. - Design the Regional Groundwater Information System. - Implementation and Operation Plan, including data accessibility and cost effectiveness of data bases operation and maintenance. 1.6.2. Drought prone river basin level A pilot groundwater drought management plan will cover groundwater protection, monitoring and sustainable use linked to other aspects of integrated land and water resources management. Drought groundwater mitigation measures will be implemented. It will be a country driven project involving the group of countries covered by the river basin/sub basin. The initial situation analysis, needs assessment and identification of relevant groups of stakeholders is proposed to be implemented during the PDF B phase. Activities of the GEF project in the drought prone river basin include three components: - Develop a groundwater resource assessment programme, with particular attention to the interaction between groundwater and the river, SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 13
  • 14. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 - Develop a management plan comprising institutional set up, communities based management of water supply systems, operation and maintenance structure, identification of financing structures, regular groundwater monitoring, - Carry out a groundwater development programme in which various options will be implemented: Well deepening, drilling, artificial recharge, use of groundwater dams, protection and exploitation of river bed aquifers, etc. in conjunction with other options such as rainwater harvesting, and in the context of community based management water supply. Due to the pilot nature of the project, all measures implemented will be thoroughly monitored and analysed in view of their replicability. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 14
  • 15. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 1.6.3 Timing of project The tentative timing is presented below over a period of 4 years (figure 1). A detailed work programme will be established during PDF B. Year 1 2 3 4 Activities Completion of PDF B REGIONAL LEVEL (SADC + specialised institutions) Regional Hydrogeological Map, drought sensitivity and water scarcity mapping Monitoring Network and Regional implementation management Groundwater Drought Monitoring system implementation management Regional Groundwater Information System DROUGHT PRONE RIVER BASIN LEVEL (Group of countries, local authorities, communities) Groundwater Resources Assessment Groundwater Management Plan Groundwater Development (Well deepening, drilling, artificial recharge, community based water supply) Figure 1 Scope of activities and indicative timing of the GEF project 1.7. Expected Project Outputs It is expected that the implementation of the GEF project will lead to the following outputs: Regional level - Regional Hydrogeological map - Regional Drought Sensitivity Map - Regional SADC Water Scarcity Map - Monitoring network designed and in place of major trans boundary aquifers, - Monitoring system of selected groundwater bodies in drought prone areas designed and in place, - Operational Regional groundwater information system developed, - Water professionals, decision makers and users groups aware about the programme. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 15
  • 16. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 Pilot level - Detailed integrated Surface and Groundwater resources assessment, using various exploration techniques, - Detailed integrated drought vulnerability map, - Groundwater management analysis of various management options such as GW dams, artificial recharge, etc., - Pre feasibility study of groundwater abstraction scenarios for human consumption, small-scale irrigation, livestock, etc. and environmental uses, - Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of utilising surface and groundwater options for sustainable livelihood in the pilot area, - Awareness raised about the benefits of integrated use of surface and groundwater resources, - Drought Management Plan developed by users group, - Drought Management Plan implemented, - Pilot project monitored and analysed and lessons learned and then replicated throughout the region within the regional component framework. 1.8. Global/Regional environmental benefits of the project The following are envisaged to be major global/regional outcomes of the project (More outcomes may emerge during project preparation and/or pilot implementation): - Wise protection, use and management of groundwater resources resulting from a better understanding and knowledge of groundwater resources and their regional importance, - Wider integration of groundwater and surface water resources for an efficient drought mitigation and management in the region, - Significantly reduced impact of drought on socio-economic development and natural environment, particularly reduced negative impact on transboundary aquatic eco- systems. 1.9. Sustainability and replicability The tools developed during the project for managing groundwater on a regional level will be sustained through the SADC system. The SADC-Water Sector Unit (SADC-WSCU) mandate is to coordinate the sustainable development and management of shared water resources in the SADC region. Its running costs are e.g. financed by the Kingdom of Lesotho. In addition, SADC member states contribute to relevant expenses such as regional meetings, workshops and training. River Basin Commissions are being established and the existing ones are strengthened, as a result of implementation of the Protocol on Shared Watercourse Systems in the SADC region. They provide the framework to develop sustainable integrated water resources management approach. Project activities are in many cases externally funded by developing agencies. Options for sustainability will be explored during the PDF B phase and during actual project implementation. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 16
  • 17. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 The purpose of the pilot component at the basin level is to test various management options at the local scale, learn from them and replicate the lessons learned within the regional framework. The project as such will also in itself be a pilot project for how to manage regional groundwater resources shared between several countries in drought prone regions. Lessons learned can be replicated in other parts of the world through the GEF framework which provides excellent opportunities for wider dissemination of results on the global level. 2. DESCRIPTION OF PDF B ACTIVITIES BY COMPONENT 2.1. Objective of PDF B The Objective of the PDF B is to prepare a GEF project document for “Opportunities for using Groundwater in drought prone areas in the SADC region”, through a process involving institutions in the SADC region, and on the pilot level, the Limpopo river basin organisation and local communities in the four countries, as well as sourcing resources from cooperating partners. 2.2. Socio-economic, Environmental and Sectoral Transboundary Analyses Two situation analyses will be carried out during the PDF B. The first will be conducted at the regional level (14 SADC Member States) and the second at the scale of the river Limpopo Basin level (4 countries): Regional level - Inventory and analysis of regional groundwater issues, various actions at national level and past experiences, - Detailed Inventory of existing national hydrogeological maps and legends (definition of groundwater units, parameters included in the maps, etc.) - Review of existing data at national level for drought sensitivity mapping and water scarcity mapping, combining groundwater availability, recharge aquifer characteristics, water demand, use of groundwater and surface water in water supply, - Inventory and analysis of existing Groundwater Level and Quality Monitoring networks in SADC Member States, - Assessment of their suitability for long term conservation of the groundwater resources in the region, needs assessment for monitoring networks focused on drought occurrence, - Inventory and analysis of national Groundwater data management systems, compatibility analysis for exchange of information. Limpopo River basin level - Assessment of the Upper Limpopo, sensu lato area (geology, soils water use, demography, groundwater development, socio-economy, etc.), SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 17
  • 18. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 - Review of current conditions and potential threats to vulnerable groundwater resources, - Identification of executing agency, - Identification of local stakeholders and role of stakeholders. 2.3. Confidence building, Stakeholder Involvement, Outreach and Public Awareness The GEF project involves the water users as well as local and national authorities and regional institutions. The Pilot project in the Limpopo basin will build upon the existing transboundary institutions, namely the Limpopo Permanent Technical Committee grouping representing the four countries of the basin. For project management, and future operation and maintenance, the principle of community-based management will be applied at the lowest appropriate level. During PDF B, the Situation Analyses will include wide consultations at both Regional and River Basin Level. All parties related to groundwater development and use will be consulted and proactively involved. Their potential role as actors of the GEF project will be identified. To mention major stakeholders: - SADC institutions, in particular the Water Sector, Mining Sector, Agriculture Sector, Food Security and Drought Management Unit, - Limpopo Permanent Technical Committee, - Relevant government departments, - Authorities at different levels (local authorities, communities, traditional chiefs, etc.), - Farmers unions, development and water users associations, - Women groups, - NGOs involved in groundwater development and in water supply construction and management, - Relevant professional associations, - The academia, universities and research institutions, - Global Water Partnership, Southern Africa Technical Advisory Committee (GWP- SATAC), and - The private sector, both as water users and service providers. Regional consultations will be conducted in the first three months of the project, using all means available, including the Water Sector Web Site, open in July 2000. Other consultations will occur during Consultant’s visits. Several meetings will be held and will provide additional opportunities to involve stakeholders: - The establishment of a Regional Steering Committee for the PDF B project development, comprising tentatively representatives of the SADC Sub-Committee for Hydrogeology, for Water Supply and Sanitation (SADC Water Sector) and for Geology (SADC Mining Sector), Limpopo Permanent Technical Committee, SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit, one representative of one appropriate research institution dealing with water and climate. It is expected that the Regional Steering Committee will have three meetings during the course of PDF B activities. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 18
  • 19. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 - The involvement of the existing Regional Hydrogeological Map Steering Committee. Two meetings are planned during the course of PDF B project. - A workshop gathering the key stakeholders within the selected pilot area in the Limpopo River Basin. 2.4. Applied Training, Institution and Capacity Building This component will identify the existing local authorities, institutions and other organisations in the pilot Limpopo river basin, assess the needs for training in groundwater management issues at both institution and public level, and support the development of the Limpopo Permanent Technical Committee on capacity building in the field of groundwater management. Possible links with Universities, Research Institutions and other bodies, responsible for the training of professionals, will be investigated as well. 2.5. Resource mobilisation The situation analysis will evaluate in details the contribution from member States as well as from regional financial sources for implementation of the GEF project. Support will be provided to the SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit for resource mobilisation activities directed towards co-funding and technical assistance from cooperating partners and non-governmental organisations at Regional and International level. 2.6. Preparation of GEF Project Document The GEF Project document will be the major output of the PDF B. It will be developed in an interactive way with the Regional Steering Committee and Major Stakeholders. The Project Document will include all information derived from the situation analysis. It will detail the various components of the GEF project, develop the strategy for implementation, and identify the executing agencies and the role of various actors for the project. The project Document will develop a work programme at both regional and pilot area levels, a cost analysis and a detailed cost assessment for the project. Indicators for monitoring and evaluation of activities will be provided. The GEF Project Document will set the foundations of the various project components and reflect the progresses made on the ground in terms of implementation. The Project Document will be discussed and submitted for approval to the Regional Steering Committee. 3. ELIGIBILITY All SADC members States are eligible to GEF grants. The proposed project is eligible under the GEF Focal Area “International waters”. A water body based operational programme OP # 8”. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 19
  • 20. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 The four countries involved in the pilot component of the project, Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe have ratified the Protocol on Shared Watercourse Systems in the SADC region. They also ratified the UN Convention on Climate Change. 4. NATIONAL LEVEL SUPPORT Endorsements from the National GEF Focal points are attached in annex 5. It is planned that the members of the SADC Sub-Committee for Hydrogeology will act as technical national contact points during the PDF B implementation phase. Members of the SADC Water Resources Technical Committee (WRTC) have the overall responsibility of national level support. The project proposal has been discussed and approved by the Sub-Committee for Hydrogeology, the WRTC, the Sectoral Committees of Senior Officials and Ministers of Water (annex 6.). For the Hydrogeological Mapping Project, collaboration between the two SADC Sectors of Mining and Water has been initiated and a common project steering committee has already been established, in which each country is represented. 5. JUSTIFICATION FOR PDF B GRANT The SADC institutions have demonstrated their commitment to developing regional components of sound environment-friendly management of water resources. They approved a Regional Groundwater Management Programme along with the Project Profile on “Opportunities for using groundwater in drought prone areas in the SADC Region”. The numerous national activities in the field of groundwater resources management need to be placed in the broader context of shared water resources regional initiatives. The PDF B Grant is needed to analyse the situation as mentioned above, determine the appropriate size and location of the pilot area and establish the regional framework to develop the GEF Project, establish a regional coordination mechanism and develop a project monitoring system. The provision of PDF B Grant will help in raising awareness of water users and decision makers about the use and protection of groundwater resources in the fragile environment of drought prone areas. Regional groundwater activities have been initiated with the support of UNEP and the French Cooperation. Co-funding of the proposed GEF project has been secured through SIDA and French Cooperation. The GEF PDF B sources are important since they will cover a large part of the incremental costs together with the bilateral resources from France and Sweden. Without the opportunity of receiving support from GEF, the support from the bilateral donors would not be available. The project preparation phase will allow for all key stakeholder including potential financiers to participate and develop the project. Financing of the project will be explored and confirmed during the preparation phase. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 20
  • 21. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 6. ITEMS TO BE FINANCED BY PDF GRANT/CO-FUNDING The PDF B GEF Grant and co-funding from SIDA and French Cooperation will be utilised to cover the following expenses: 1. Assistance of a Project Management Consultant (PMC) for about 5 months. The PMC will assist the SADC WSCU in particular for holding regional workshops and prepare the GEF Project document, 2. Develop regional consultations of experts, 3. Three meetings of the Regional Steering Committee, 4. Two meetings of the Hydrogeological Map Steering Committee, 5. A consultancy for the regional Situation Analysis (about 8 man/months), 6. A consultancy for the Limpopo river situation analysis and community awareness (about 9 man/months), 7. One stakeholder workshop in the selected pilot area, 8. Reports, publications and others. 7. OUTPUTS OF PDF B The following outputs are expected from the implementation of the PDF B: At the regional level: - A situation analysis on the applicability of regional groundwater management tools, - Consensus reached between major actors and stakeholders about the project on “Opportunities for using Groundwater in Drought Prone Areas in the SADC region”, - Awareness on the use and protection of groundwater resources improved, - The regional component of the GEF Project Document prepared including Work Plan and budget. At the Limpopo basin level: - A situation analysis report available, - Stakeholders identified, briefed and consulted in the Pilot area, - Pilot area determined in the Upper Limpopo basin with all water users and key stakeholders involved, - The basin level component of the GEF Project document prepared including Work Plan and budget. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 21
  • 22. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 8. STRATEGY FOR PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION The WSCU will be the executing Agency for PDF B and will also identify suitable agents to execute various components of the project. Three consultants and/or consultants firms will be contracted to carry out activities mentioned in paragraph 6 above, using the regional contracting procedures already developed by WSCU for implementing SADC water projects. The strategy to guide the project implementation will be participatory and consultative. A Regional Steering Committee will be established and a specific existing committee will deal with the Hydrogeological mapping activities (Hydrogeological Mapping Steering Committee). One workshop will be held to involve the key stakeholders at the pilot area level. 9. WORK SCHEDULE The total PDF B phase is expected to last 18 months, starting from the date when the funds will be made available. Activities, Personnel involved and regional/national contributions are shown in figure two. Subsequent to the second Regional Steering Committee Meeting and the Limpopo Stakeholder Meeting the World Bank Project Concept Document (PCD) will be developed based on the draft project document produced during PDF B prepared by the Executing Agency. The PCD is scheduled to be available after 14 months of work. Appraisal of the final project document is scheduled to take place after 17 months. The Project Appraisal Document (PAD) should be ready after 18 months of PDF B work. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 22
  • 23. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 MONTH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Funds available FIGURE 2 SCHEDULE OF Determination of ACTIVITIES exact location of ACTIVITIES FOR PDFB pilot area Regional Experts consultation Regional Steering Committee (RSC) RSC 1 RSC 2 RSC 3 Hydrogeological Map Steering Committee (HMSC) HMSC 1 Reports HMSC 2 Tendering procedure Regional Situation Analysis and Project Inception LSW Pilot area situation analysis and project Inception Review by countries Limpopo Stakeholders Workshop (LSW) Awareness building in the Pilot area, Preparation and debriefing of LSW. World Bank Documents (Project Concept Document and Project Appraisal Document) PCD PAD Preparation of GEF Project Brief PERSONNEL Draft Final Project Management Consultant Consultant group 1 Consultant group 2 CONTRIBUTIONS SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit + General coordination and project management French Technical Assistance SADC countries World Bank SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 23
  • 24. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 10. BUDGET FOR PDF B ACTIVITIES The Cost Breakdown of PDF B is shown hereafter. It does not include the contributions in kind (table 1). Table 1 Budget for PDF B Activities (in US$) Component Cost GEF SIDA French estimate Coop. 1. Project Management Consultant 40,000 40,000 2. Regional 10,000 10,000 Consultations 3. Three Meetings of the Regional Steering 75,000 50,000 25,000 Committee 4. Meetings of the Hydrogeological Map 50,000 25,000 25,000 Steering Committee 5. Consultancy for the Regional Situation 100,000 100,000 Analysis 6. Consultancy for the Limpopo River 110,000 110,000 Situation Analysis and project inception 7. One stakeholder workshop in the 25,000 25,000 selected pilot area 8. Reports, publications and miscellaneous 15,000 15,000 TOTAL in US$1 425,000 350,000 50,000 25,000 1 In addition, in kind contributions from the SADC member states will be in the order of 50 000 USD. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit page 24
  • 25. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 ANNEXES ANNEX 1. Access to developed water supply in the SADC region ANNEX 2 Common aquifers in the SADC Region ANNEX 3 SADC Groundwater Management Programme ANNEX 4 Characteristics of the Limpopo River Basin ANNEX 5 Letters of Endorsement of GEF Focal Points ANNEX 6 Letter of Support from the Chairman of SADC Sectoral Committee of Ministers of Water SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Annexs
  • 26. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 ANNEX 1. ACCESS TO DEVELOPED WATER SUPPLY IN THE SADC REGION PopulationPart of the population Part of the population having access Total Ratio having access to to developed Groundwater Supply SADC Member Popu- developed water supply Urban Rural State -lation Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Millions % % % % % % % % ANGOLA 12.6 37 63 60 20 35 9 18 15 BOTSWANA 1.6 43 57 98 50 71 66 50 57 D.R.CONGO 49.0 20 80 LESOTHO 2.1 27 73 65 56 58 14 56 45 MALAWI 11.2 13 87 82 49 53 25 29 28 MAURITIUS 1.2 50 50 98 98 98 46 46 46 MOZAMBIQUE 16.5 15 85 34 37 37 7 37 33 NAMIBIA 1.6 32 68 99 62 74 27 43 38 SEYCHELLES 0.08 SOUTH AFRICA 42.3 59 41 80 60 72 56 41 50 SWAZILAND 1.0 25 75 80 45 54 4 40 31 TANZANIA 32.0 22 78 68 48 52 20 29 26 ZAMBIA 10.1 43 57 85 58 70 20 52 38 ZIMBABWE 11.9 31 69 98 80 86 1 72 50 SADC 193.1 32 68 77 50 60 35 38 37 Source: Statistics established by the SADC Water Sector Coordination Unit. Figures in regular characters are abstracted from country situation reports (1996-1998). Figures in italic are rough estimates. 160 Population 140 in millions 120 40% 100 80 23% 50% 60 23% 40 12% 41% 37% 20 38% 36% 0 Urban Rural Total Groundwater Surface water Unserved Source of domestic water supply in the SADC region (DRC and Seychelles not included) SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Annexs
  • 27. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Annexs
  • 28. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 ANNEX 3 - GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME FOR THE SADC REGION Project Title Objectives Project Title Objectives 1- Capacity Address the various 2- Develop Minimum Develop Minimum Building within the issues on capacity of Common Standards Common Standards Context of SADC Member for Groundwater and Guidelines for Regional States for the development in the Groundwater Groundwater successful SADC Region Development. Management programme Programme implementation 3- Development of Management of 4- Establishment of a Assess regional a Regional monitoring and Regional Groundwater impact of recharge Groundwater groundwater data of Monitoring Network and drought. Joint Information regional significance. management of System river basins. 5- Compilation of a Support to regional 6- Establish a Regional Co-ordination of Regional Hydro- integrated water Groundwater Research research and -geological Map resource Institute/Commission training activities at and Atlas for the development and regional level. SADC Region management. 7- Construct a Facilitate access and 8- Regional Resource Website on Internet exchange of Groundwater Resource assessment for joint and publish groundwater related Assessment of Karoo management of a quarterly information. Aquifers major aquifer Newsletters system at regional scale. 9- Regional Characterisation of 10- Groundwater Develop a pilot Groundwater groundwater Resource Assessment study on surface Resource occurrence and of Limpopo/Save and groundwater Assessment of assessment of the Basin interaction at basin Precambrian potential level, including Basement Aquifers development of drought Precambrian aquifers. management. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Annexs
  • 29. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 ANNEX 4 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LIMPOPO RIVER BASIN Member States Sharing: Botswana, South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe Drainage Basin : 415,000 km2 River length : 1,750 km Number of dams: > 40 Uses of dams: Irrigation, Domestic, Hydropower, Mining, Industrial Level of Development: It is envisaged that by the year 2020, almost all tributaries will be fully utilised The Limpopo River is the most important source of surface water in eastern Botswana as well as South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique, as it serves areas of important developments. The climate in the basin is semi-arid, but more humid and temperate over South African Highveld. In Botswana and South Africa, the tributaries of this river have so many dams that they contribute very little to downstream flow during low flows. Flow in the lower Limpopo is derived almost entirely from tributaries in Zimbabwe. Contribution of groundwater to low flows in Lower Limpopo might be of importance, although no assessment at the scale of the basin is available. In several tributaries of the river, water use is already equal to resources potential and in some cases well in excess of yield potential. Transfers are operated within the basin, from Molatedi Dam in South Africa on the Groot Marico river to the Gaborone Dam in Botswana, on the Notwane river. Another major transfer is the North South Carrier in Botswana, which will bring the water from the Motlouse Dam to Gaborone. Interbasin transfers are also applied from the Vaal, the Usutu and the Komati rivers to the main tributary of the Limpopo, the Olifants river in South Africa. The total capacity of existing dams is as follows: Botswana: 4 dams and 349 Mm3 South Africa: 29 dams and 1891 Mm3 Mozambique: 2 dams and 2264 Mm3 Zimbabwe: 13 dams and 1028 Mm3 The annual runoff of the Limpopo is only 5500 Mm3 A project proposal to develop a water resources management strategy of the basin has been prepared. The strategy will facilitate co-ordination of the present arrangements in the riparian member States and will culminate in proposals for long term management strategy. The project has been approved in principle by the Limpopo Permanent Technical Committee (LPTC), which was established in 1986. The approach is focused on surface water and groundwater still need to be integrated. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Annexs
  • 30. PDFB –GEF . Groundwater in SADC 29 April 2010 As far as groundwater is concerned, the basin comprises several major aquifer systems of transboundary nature: The alluvial aquifers all along the Limpopo and the major tributaries. They form one of the best aquifer in Mozambique. They have been extensively studied in Botswana. They are under threat of pollution from mining activities (Selebi Pikwe area in particular). Abstraction of sand in the river bed also degrades the aquifer. The Cretaceous-Sedimentary basin covering large areas in Mozambique and part of the river basin in South Africa and Zimbabwe. In Mozambique, recent studies in the Limpopo indicate the existence of a deep aquifer at depth between 80 and 150 m, which seems to extend under the entire part of the Limpopo river valley. The potential seems promising, and there is a need for further resources assessment. The Karoo sediments aquifers. They have been the target of detailed investigations in Botswana in the Limpopo basin and in South Africa. Current developments occur in both countries in terms of bulk water supply. Small scale rural water supply is currently being developed in Northern Province of South Africa, where disadvantaged populations are targeted. The ante Cambrian sediment aquifers. They are mobilized (Karstic Dolomites of the Transvaal Supergroup) in the upper reaches of the Limpopo basin, both in Botswana and South Africa. The basement complex cover large parts of the basin in North Eastern Botswana, Zimbabwe and Northern South Africa. Despite the poor productivity of basement aquifers, they are essential in providing water to remote rural communities, and the potential for development is high in the three countries. Cooperation between the riparian States has been initiated with the Limpopo Permanent Technical Committee in terms of water resources management. Groundwater resources in the basin were subjected to various degrees of attention at the national level. A more regional perspective at the basin level is to be considered in view of using groundwater as a valuable resource in drought prone areas. SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit Annexs