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  1. 1. Presented By: Winton I. Goodrich Vermont School Boards Association Preventing Bullying and School Crisis
  2. 2. (Packet Materials)
  3. 4. Participating Districts 15 CUBE member districts in 13 states Average enrollment of 69,172 students 108 Schools 40 elementary 26 middle 28 high schools 14 K-8 schools
  4. 5. American School Climate Survey © Constructs <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Trust, Respect & Ethos of Caring </li></ul><ul><li>Racial Self-Concept </li></ul><ul><li>General Climate </li></ul>
  5. 6. Study Demographics
  6. 7. Study Demographics
  7. 8. School climate is the learning environment created through the interaction of human relationships, physical setting and psychological atmosphere. Perkins, 2006
  8. 9. CUBE Survey of Urban School Climate Safety
  9. 10. CUBE Survey of Urban School Climate Safety
  10. 11. CUBE Survey of Urban School Climate Bullying
  11. 12. CUBE Survey of Urban School Climate Bullying
  12. 13. CUBE Survey of Urban School Climate Bullying
  13. 14. Recommendations <ul><li>Districts should include a climate assessment in their annual evaluation processes </li></ul><ul><li>Schools should identify one or more key areas on the basis of these assessment findings </li></ul><ul><li>Parents should be encouraged to participate in discussions on the improvement of school climate </li></ul>
  14. 15. Recommendations <ul><li>Students should engage with members of the school community to address climate issues </li></ul><ul><li>School officials should engage members of the community about ways in which they can participate </li></ul><ul><li>Boards of education should establish clear policies to create a positive school climate </li></ul>
  15. 16. Internet Bullying Prevention
  16. 19. 1995 Relationship Between Increases in Obesity & Bullying 2005 1990 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
  17. 21. Support <ul><li>1. Family support </li></ul><ul><li>2. Positive family communication </li></ul><ul><li>3. Other adult relationships </li></ul><ul><li>4. Caring neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li>5. Caring school climate </li></ul><ul><li>6. Parent involvement in schooling </li></ul>
  18. 22. Empowerment <ul><li>7. Community values youth </li></ul><ul><li>8. Youth as resources </li></ul><ul><li>9. Service to others </li></ul><ul><li>10. Safety </li></ul>
  19. 23. Boundaries & Expectations <ul><li>11. Family boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>12. School Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>13. Neighborhood boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>14. Adult role models </li></ul><ul><li>15. Positive peer influence </li></ul><ul><li>16. High expectations </li></ul>
  20. 24. Constructive Use of Time <ul><li>17. Creative activities </li></ul><ul><li>18. Youth programs </li></ul><ul><li>19. Religious community </li></ul><ul><li>20. Time at home </li></ul>
  21. 25. Commitment to Learning <ul><li>21. Achievement Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>22. School Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>23. Homework </li></ul><ul><li>24. Bonding to school </li></ul><ul><li>25. Reading for Pleasure </li></ul>
  22. 26. Positive Values <ul><li>26. Caring </li></ul><ul><li>27. Equality and social justice </li></ul><ul><li>28. Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>29. Honesty </li></ul><ul><li>30. Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>31. Restraint </li></ul>
  23. 27. Social Competencies <ul><li>32. Planning and decision making </li></ul><ul><li>33. Interpersonal Competence </li></ul><ul><li>34. Cultural Competence </li></ul><ul><li>35. Resistance skills </li></ul><ul><li>36. Peaceful conflict resolution </li></ul>
  24. 28. Positive Identity <ul><li>37. Personal power </li></ul><ul><li>38. Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>39. Sense of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>40. Positive view of personal future </li></ul>
  25. 29. Pair Share <ul><li>Share with a new partner 2 effective child well-being initiatives in your school/community. </li></ul><ul><li>How does the Board assess this program effectiveness? </li></ul>
  26. 30. Pair Share <ul><li>Discuss with partner what your school has done to identify and respond to bullying. </li></ul><ul><li>Report out results </li></ul>
  27. 31. Creating a School Public Safety Committee
  29. 33. School Public Safety Committee School Crisis Team Emergency Management Rescue Squad Fire Police Principal/Superintendent CERT/LEPC/RPC Principal/Asst. Principal Nurse Guidance/SAP Teachers SRO Custodian School Public Safety Committee
  30. 34. Periodically Host School Public Safety Committee Meetings
  31. 35. Set Committee Goals and Objectives <ul><li>Create “Incident Command” structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal “Incident Commander” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directs command to Fire Chief if hazmat or fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directs command to police if law violation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish “Unified Command” system for “Mutual Aid” </li></ul>
  32. 36. (Packet Material) Incident Command System
  33. 37. Committee Objectives (continue) <ul><li>Establish and maintain a school emergency plan </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on ways to implement universal safety practices </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency responders and school leaders prepare for a variety of crises </li></ul>
  34. 38. Committee Objectives (continue ) <ul><li>Conduct tabletop exercises and emergency drills </li></ul><ul><li>Help conduct evacuation and relocation drills </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and train volunteers for relocation sites </li></ul>
  35. 39. Types of Emergency Exercises <ul><li>Tabletop: Focus on an incident and discuss the school & community response </li></ul><ul><li>Functional: Simulate a crisis situation and </li></ul><ul><li>respond verbally or in writing to your action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Full Scale: People and equipment are mobilized to practice specific emergency functions </li></ul>
  36. 40. Tabletop Exercise <ul><li>Exercise should be a learning process intended to train personnel, not test or criticize response </li></ul><ul><li>Tabletop goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveal planning weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify roles and responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster cooperation among emergency providers and school leaders </li></ul></ul>
  37. 41. Tabletop Exercises <ul><li>School Shooting </li></ul><ul><li>Student Knife Attack </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Custodial Parent Kidnapping Child </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb Threat </li></ul>
  38. 42. “ CLEAR THE HALLS” <ul><li>Students report immediately to an adult in the nearest classroom or other secured area </li></ul><ul><li>Lock classroom doors when possible </li></ul><ul><li>Students and staff stay away from doors and windows </li></ul>
  39. 43. “ SECURE THE BUILDING” <ul><li>Same as “Clear the Halls” but also includes designated staff securing external doors and allowing emergency responders to enter </li></ul><ul><li>Students outside move away from the building to safe area </li></ul>
  40. 44. “ EVACUATE THE SCHOOL” <ul><li>All students and staff evacuate the building and move to designated areas </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and staff take attendance and report missing students </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain order and wait for direction </li></ul>
  41. 45. School Shooting
  42. 46. “ CLEAR THE HALLS” School Shooting <ul><li>How do you encourage students to come forward with information relating to potential crimes that are believed to about to occur or have already taken place? (i.e. peer counselors, posters, school resource officer… </li></ul><ul><li>What system does your school have for students to report potential or actual crimes that have already taken place? </li></ul><ul><li>How often is this system reviewed? </li></ul>
  43. 47. “ CLEAR THE HALLS” School Shooting <ul><li>What system is available for students who wish to report possible or real crises on weekends or holidays? </li></ul><ul><li>How does follow-up occur when the school receives a report from a student? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of plans are in place if your school evacuates students and staff? (class roster, coats in winter…) </li></ul><ul><li>Who oversees this plan? </li></ul>
  44. 48. Student Knife Attack
  45. 49. “ CLEAR THE HALLS” Student Knife Attack <ul><li>Should staff members at the scene attempt to disarm the student with the knife? Does your school have a policy on dealing with armed students? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the principal or designee communicate the “Clear the Halls” command over the intercom? Have you ever held a drill to like “Clear the Halls”? Do you think such a directive could help safeguard other students? </li></ul>
  46. 50. “ CLEAR THE HALLS” Student Knife Attack <ul><li>As an administrator, you are most likely going to have to inform the staff and students of what took place. </li></ul><ul><li>How are you going to inform the parents about the incident? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you communicate with the police before finalizing your notice to the students, staff and parents and possibly the media? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you have your Crisis Team available to meet with the students that were affected by this incident? </li></ul>
  47. 51. Non-Custodial Parent Kidnapping Child
  48. 52. “ SECURE THE BUILDING” Non-Custodial Parent Child Kidnapping <ul><li>If you were the school administrator should you have informed the father that he was not allowed to enter onto school property and if he did, you would file a trespassing complaint with the police? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you going to give the order for the staff to “Secure the Building” at this time? </li></ul>
  49. 53. “ SECURE THE BUILDING” Non-Custodial Parent Child Kidnapping <ul><li>Have you practiced the “ SECURE THE BUILDING ” drill before? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know if your intercom system is heard in every part of the building? </li></ul><ul><li>If your intercom system does not reach every part of the building, what plan do you have in place to notify all staff and students? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have pre-arranged assignments with identified staff to lock all entry doors to the building and remain available to monitor them? </li></ul>
  50. 54. Bomb Threat
  51. 55. “ EVACUATE THE SCHOOL” Bomb Threat <ul><li>Ask if FBI bomb questionnaire cards have been placed at locations where outside phone calls are received? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you designated the location where the Incident Command system will be set up? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you going to evacuate the school? </li></ul><ul><li>If you evacuate, do you have designated relocation sites? </li></ul>
  52. 56. “ EVACUATE THE SCHOOL Bomb Threat <ul><li>Have you previously held a drill that moved students and staff to the relocation site(s)? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you made arrangements to have someone search your designated relocation site for suspicious items before you move to it? </li></ul><ul><li>Have school administrators worked with law enforcement, fire and rescue staff on how students and staff will be re-located off-site? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a plan in place for how meals would be delivered to the re-location site(s) if the situation warrants missing lunch? </li></ul>
  53. 57. TEAM WORK <ul><li>School Public Safety Committee can help plan for various emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Can organize drills </li></ul><ul><li>They cannot make it work without you being part of the team! </li></ul>
  54. 58. “ Four on the Floor” Debrief in Small Groups Tabletop Exercise
  55. 59. DVD Distribution in PM
  56. 60. School Threat Assessment Resources Provided By: United States Secret Service Presented By: Vermont School Boards Association 2006
  57. 61. What School Boards Can Do <ul><li>Adopt policies and procedures on prevention and response to school emergencies and crises. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure administrators and emergency service providers routinely run practice drills. </li></ul>
  58. 62. What School Boards Can Do <ul><li>Direct administrators to develop and monitor the safety of the school climate for students and staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Receive periodic reports on the types, number, and response to school incidents. </li></ul>
  59. 63. Making and Posing a Threat <ul><li>Ensure administrators receive training to better understand the difference between a threat that is made vs. one that is posed . </li></ul><ul><li>Use the School Public Safety Committee to decide response to both made and posed threats. </li></ul><ul><li>Different responses for each type. </li></ul>
  60. 64. Secret Service Targeted Violence Prevention Resources <ul><li>Analyzed School Gun & Bomb Incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest cases began in 1974 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researched 37 highest profile incidents over past 26 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurred in 26 states </li></ul></ul>
  61. 65. School Gun & Bomb Incident Characteristics <ul><li>Perpetrated by boys or young men </li></ul><ul><li>Students, staff and administrators were targets </li></ul><ul><li>In 2/3 of incidents, attacker killed one or more students and staff </li></ul>
  62. 66. Preliminary Findings <ul><li>Incidents were rarely impulsive </li></ul><ul><li>Students developed idea 2 weeks in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Over half created plan 2 days prior to attack </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge primary motive </li></ul>
  63. 67. Preliminary Findings <ul><li>2/3 of attackers had multiple reasons </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 had grievance at time of attack </li></ul><ul><li>Many told someone in advance about idea or plan! </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 1/4 communicated intent to attacker </li></ul>
  64. 68. Preliminary Findings <ul><li>No accurate or useful attacker profile </li></ul><ul><li>Student ages ranged from 11 to 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of racial and ethnic backgrounds </li></ul>
  65. 69. Preliminary Findings <ul><li>Range from intact family situations to foster homes with histories of neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Academic performance ranged from excellent to failing </li></ul><ul><li>Range of friendship patterns from socially isolated to popular </li></ul>
  66. 70. Preliminary Findings <ul><li>Behavioral histories varied from no problems to multiple discipline issues </li></ul><ul><li>Few showed marked change in academic performance, friendships, or discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Few diagnosed w/ mental disorder or histories of drug or alcohol abuse </li></ul>
  67. 71. Implications <ul><li>Risk in attempting to profile students </li></ul><ul><li>Profiles will fail to identify some attackers </li></ul><ul><li>Fact-based approach more accurate than trait-based analysis </li></ul>
  68. 72. Implications <ul><li>Many cases, other students involved </li></ul><ul><li>Attacker acted alone in 2/3 of cases </li></ul><ul><li>50% of cases, attacker influenced or encouraged by others </li></ul>
  69. 73. Implications <ul><li>One case, one attacker brought gun to school to stop student harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Friends convinced attacker to shoot harassers </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 of cases other students knew about attack in advance </li></ul>
  70. 74. Implications <ul><li>2/3 of cases, attackers were bullied or threatened prior to incident </li></ul><ul><li>Many had experienced longstanding and severe bullying </li></ul><ul><li>This behavior played key role in attacks </li></ul>
  71. 75. Implications <ul><li>Most incidents, attacker engaged in behaviors which caused others to be concerned </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 of cases, staff or adm. expressed concern about attacker prior to incident </li></ul><ul><li>Over 50% of attackers’ behavior was identified in advance </li></ul>
  72. 76. For More Information <ul><li>National Threat Assessment Center </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Secret Service </li></ul><ul><li>950 H Street NW, Suite 9100 </li></ul><ul><li>Washington, DC 20223 </li></ul><ul><li>202-406-5470 </li></ul><ul><li>202-406-6180 fax </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  73. 77. Kevin Flanders, President PeopleGIS School Virtual Tour
  74. 78. School Mapping by PeopleGIS Copyright 2004 PeopleGIS Inc.
  75. 79. Presentation Agenda <ul><li>What is School Mapping? </li></ul><ul><li>School Mapping Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>The Mapping Process Step-By-Step </li></ul><ul><li>Your Role in the Process </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-On </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
  76. 80. What Is School Mapping? <ul><li>Created In Littleton NH for an Active Shooter Program </li></ul><ul><li>Extended to support all police and fire needs for school incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates multimedia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spherical photography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>floor plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>voice files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and more </li></ul></ul></ul>
  77. 81. What Is School Mapping? <ul><li>Mobile technology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For use in the field </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For use in cruisers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For use in fire trucks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be built locally by students </li></ul><ul><li>Can be distributed inexpensively </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based (easy to use) </li></ul>
  78. 82. Crisis Response by PeopleGIS <ul><li>GIS Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Multi-Media </li></ul><ul><li>Document Management </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Searches </li></ul><ul><li>Real-Time Security Camera Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Secure/Portable Data Access </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Effective Project Execution with Students or Seniors </li></ul>
  79. 83. Crisis Response by PeopleGIS <ul><li>GIS Mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial Photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical & HVAC Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated Multi-Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Tours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still Photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul></ul>
  80. 84. Crisis Response by PeopleGIS <ul><li>Document Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis Lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis Contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated Searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoom To Rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoom To Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoom To Zones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Real-Time Security Camera Connectivity </li></ul>
  81. 85. Crisis Response Demo
  82. 86. Crisis Response by PeopleGIS <ul><li>Secure/Portable Data Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Safety Laptops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB Drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB Watches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost Effective Project Plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seniors </li></ul></ul>
  83. 87. SMART School Multi-Hazard Assessment & Resource Tool <ul><li>5 current modules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 future modules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual Violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drills & Exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bombs / Threats </li></ul></ul>
  84. 88. <ul><li>The NI2 web site was developed by </li></ul><ul><li>Kevin Flanders at PeopleGIS. Kevin and </li></ul><ul><li>staff developed the school virtual tour </li></ul><ul><li>software that is being used to film the </li></ul><ul><li>interior of schools in Vermont. </li></ul>
  85. 89. School Violence Questions
  86. 92. Communication Questions
  87. 96. Assessment Outcome
  88. 98. SMART Violence Questions <ul><li>32 Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your school have a written policy defining what objects are prohibited in the school, what types of objects are considered weapons or potential weapons, and is this policy communicated to both staff and students? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your school have an emergency guidelines in place to notify parents how, when, and where to pick up their children if there is a violent incident? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your school policy handbook clearly define and outline when parents will be notified if their child is involved in a violent incident at school? </li></ul></ul>
  89. 99. SMART Intrusion Questions <ul><li>27 Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your school have an Intrusion Response Plan? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your school's Intrusion Response Plan include the various types of evacuations (such as lock-downs and shelter-in-place) and are they practiced with drills? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your school have an assigned school resource officer with powers of arrest? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are visitors required to present identification and sign in and out? </li></ul></ul>
  90. 100. SMART Contact Information <ul><li>If you are interested in using SMART: </li></ul><ul><li>NI2CIE </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Web: </li></ul><ul><li>603-766-3390 </li></ul>
  91. 101. Action Steps <ul><li>New Pair Share </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What will you do differently in your district, given the new information and resources received today? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What professional development will your teachers, staff, and administration need? </li></ul></ul>
  92. 102. REFERENCE WEB SITES <ul><li>Vermont Department of Education: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>( School Crisis Guide 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>( School Safety Review Checklist ) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Secret Service Web Site: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> (Safe School Initiatives) </li></ul>
  93. 103. For More Information <ul><li>Winton Goodrich </li></ul><ul><li>VSBA Associate Director </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Kevin Flanders </li></ul><ul><li>PeopleGIS </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
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