DIGITAL GEODETIC DATA, BASIS FOR SUCCESSFUL DISASTER MANAGEMENT Sonja Dimova, PhD Agency for Real Estate Cadastre May 04-06 2009, Skopje 7th international Workshop on the "Cross-border Disaster eResponse in the eRegion: Interoperability of Information Systems of the Organizations Involved "
DISASTER CLASSIFICATION 1.Natural disasters are events caused by uncontrolled acts of natural forces endangering the life and health of the people and animals and cause damage to property, cultural heritage and damage to the environment. Disasters generated from dynamic processes which occur under the surface (earthquakes, tsunami, volcano, eruptions) Disasters caused by meteorological and hydro meteorological phenomenon (floods, fires, strong winds, drought, avalanches…) 2.Technological disasters are : explosions, chemical leakage, contamination, biological disasters - epidemics..
( 1)How to define? The disaster management is a discipline in which the involved parties are preparing for the disaster before it happens, during the disaster and the reconstruction after the disaster.
( 2)Successful management of the disasters highly depends from the availability , the dissemination and the effective use of the information.
-Mechanism for providing services monitoring, warning and decrease of damages
-adequate access to information avoiding overlap
of different levels of users
( 3)Economic support adequate attention to risk from the disasters, protection as well as disaster management reducing the human and economic losses
STAGES OF THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT PARTICIPANTS: public and private sector, voluntary organizations, municipal organizations and individual citizens 2. Readiness Models and simulations 1. Protection planning Identification Zoning 3. Reaction/solution Evacuation routes 4. Reconstruction Estimates of damages and sheltering Prior disaster After disaster
The establishment of safety measures which use advanced geodetic technologies contribute to the protection of the citizen, the land and the property, as well as minimizing the losses.
- Technology for remote detection, meteorological satellites, communication systems and satellite navigation play a significant role in the support of the disaster management , provide accurate and on-time information and communication support.
- Geo-positioned information from : satellites, topographic maps, cadastre maps, combined with other relevant data into one information system have the objective to evaluate and decrease the disaster risk,
- Monitoring the movement of the earth’s surface by
(example: damns, artificial accumulations)
POSITIONING OF GEODETIC DATA IN AN INFORMATION CELL READINESS Evaluation of damages Help planning Infrastructure /logistics Population data Satellite and/or aero photo images Topographic maps/ cadastre maps with Information for potentially critical zones
Basic cartographic data Theme data MULTI-PURPOSE USE OF CARTOGRAPHIC DATA Ortho-photo DTM Geodetic points Borderlines Hydro graphics Traffic roads Use of land. /ownership Gas network Water supply network Electrical network Critical zones (earthquake) Population Critical zones (floods)
PROVIDING BASIC INFORMATION DURING PROTECTION PLANNING Disaster Protection Data collection Planning/ warning Earthquake Geological maps and Maps for land use Geodynamic surveys Identification of potential zones, Production of map for the possible disaster Eruptions Topographic maps (land use) Measuring of gas emissions Mapping of the lava and the measurements, Production of map for the possible disaster Land slide Topographic maps (land use) Measuring rains and surface stability Mapping of surveyed data and analysis Floods Topographic maps (land use) and Maps of flooding zones Measuring: rains, water surfaces and evaporation Mapping of data and supplementing with zone predictions Rains /Storms Topographic maps (land use) Measuring of rains Supplementing the map with the measurements and the predictions Droughts Topographic maps (land use) Measuring of temperature, Climate models Supplementing the map with the measurements and vegetation monitoring
EARLY DETECTION OF FIRES GNSS, satellite/aero images
Identification of the consequences caused by eruptions/ visualization of earthquakes
Anticipation and simulation of earthquakes /monitoring (performing seismic measurements, simulations and plan for prevention )
Satellite images of a volcano before and after eruption
Visualization of a flooding zone in function of successful flood management Basis for visualization - ortophoto map and DTM
Anticipation method - characteristics Anticipation of flooding zones in function of the time Safety Measures Simulated time perspective Level of watermark - per zones Safety Measures
Map for preventive protection Potentially risky zone Map of zones to be potentially flooded Map for management of the disaster- the flood Supplementing with evacuation routes, etc hill Evacuation zone Evacuation routes
Geodetic data (cadastre maps, topog.maps, ortophoto, aero/satellite images...)
Functional organization of the data into a data base and data maintenance/updating
Strengths of the GIS
Mechanism for integration
of data from various sources
analyses, planning and safety
Services to all involved subjects
Data distribution-WEB solutions
Software Geodetic data base Hardware GIS
GIS benefits Phases of the disasters GIS solutions Benefits Planning GIS maps for disasters, damage assessment by using GIS Easy maintenance, different formats, online access, tool for improving the capability, description of the risky zones and consequences Mitigation Municipal zoning and defining safety zones Preparedness for a short time and putting efforts for standard development Readiness Development of a scenario, models and simulations Anticipating and planning, development per zones and risk reduction, preparation and training Solutions Evacuation routes and safety management Fast identification of the routes, alternative routes, data related to safety Reconstruction Damage assessment and help for the population Accurate data base, geo-referenced information
Integration of a GIS on a national level NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure )
Types of spatial data in the NSDI
Survey, cadastre and cartography
Protected zones, national parks,
Scope of the NSDI
electronic spatial data from the bodies of central government, the local self-government units, the public services and legal advisors entrusted with the spatial data management
NSDI-basic model NSDI Functionality Establishment of meta data, spatial data maintenance, Networking technology*, access, sharing and use of the spatial data* and mechanism for coordination steps and procedures *link policy Standards * Network access* Spatial data users
Relation: NSDI - disaster management AREC is obliged to establish and maintain the public access to metadata via internet (accessibility of easy and a secure method, time saving and finance for data development and maintenance) Analyses planning WEB GIS users GIS applications GIS FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT AREC Internet communication REGIONAL DATA GEOPORTAL NSDI CENTRAL GIS
Institutions - defining a clear role and the connection to the successful collecting, processing, archiving, integration and sharing of spatial data
Tasks and Responsibilities
Trainings for: use of maps for disaster management, development of new maps for evacuation together with the local population and other representatives
Training and education program - workshops where the evacuation plan will be discussed
Using the media and the school centers
Capacity building at a local and a regional level
Participants in the workshop Example for a workshop LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT -Chair- Encouraging the local population to participate in drafting the evacuation plan and discussion for its use Urban planners Engineers Trainers Citizens Fire protection Medical institution Local tourists