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  • 1. RISK MANAGEMENT FOR SMALL TOURISM BUSINESSES Practical Resource Guide
  • 2. Risk Management fo r Small Tourism Businesses Practical Resource Guide This resource manual accompanies the Risk Management for Small Tourism Businesses Training Manual. It provides a methodical and functional guide to effective risk management. Specifically, the manual: - Provides instruction and sample templates to facilitate the implementation of effective risk management - Offers supplementary guidance and references for associated risk and crisis management documentation Developed by Scott Cunliffe Written By Yetta Gurtner and Damian Morgan
  • 3. Conditions of Use STCRC Copyright Statement and Conditions of Use here The forms contained in this publication may be copied, modified and used for risk and crisis management purposes, provided that appropriate acknowledgement is given. DISCLAIMER The STCRC endeavours to ensure the accuracy of all information contained herein and otherwise supplied. Advice or opinions given by STCRC in this publication or during the course of the relevant training provided by STCRC, represents the best judgement of STCRC but (and to the extent permitted by law) STCRC accepts no liability for any claims or damages whether caused by its negligence (or that of any of its agents or consultants) or otherwise. Advice should be obtained from qualified sources to address particular issues.
  • 4. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank all those who assisted in the production of this publication and associated workshop material. Many people and agencies have freely given their time to provide practical advice, support, and offer constructive criticism. If the following list is in any way incomplete, please be assured that it represents an oversight rather than a lack of appreciation. APEC International Centre for Sustainable Tourism - Ian Kean Centre for Disaster Studies - Dr. Scott Cunliffe, Dr David King Emergency Management Australia – Mike Tarrant Queensland Tourist Industry Council - Daniel Gschwind Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre – Prof. Leo Jago Sustainable Tourism Services - Stewart Moore Tourism Tropical North Queensland – John McIntyre Straun & Associates - David Bierman Other Partners Emergency Management Australia Queensland Tourism Industry Council Sustainable Tourism Services Centre for Disaster Studies, James Cook University Tourism Research Unit, Monash University
  • 5. Risk Management for Small Tourism Business Practical Resource Guide Contents Page A Practical Resource Guide 1 Documentation and the Risk Management Process 3 A Practical Guide to Risk Management 4 The Risk Management Process 5 Step 1. Establish the Business Context 6 Step 2. Identify the Risks 8 Step 3. Analyse the Risks 10 Step 4. Evaluate the Risks 13 Step 5. Treat the Risks 16 Supplementary Guide 19 The Risk Management Policy Statement 21 Risk Management Responsibility Statement 22 Communications Plan 23 The Crisis Management Process 24 The Crisis Management Policy Statement 25 Crisis Management Responsibility Statement 26 Key Crisis Management Tasks and Responsibilities 27 Business Continuity 28 Recovery Plan 29 Crisis and Emergency Support Documents 30 Potential Risk/Crisis Management Planning Partners 32 Generic Contact List 33 Guide to Emergency Telephone Contacts 34 Emergency Operations Centre/Media Centre 36 Guide to Training Activities/Exercise Log 37 Guide to Document Revision History 39 Additional Resources 41
  • 6. Risk Management for Small Tourism Businesses A Practical Resource Guide Risk Management for Small Tourism Businesses takes a practical and proactive approach to systematic risk management. Due to the generic nature of risk management training, formal risk and crisis management plans will include range of tailored documents designed for various purposes*. This resource guide contains a basic instructional guide to assist this process. Further content guides and references are included to assist the development of supplementary risk and crisis management documentation. An Overview to Risk Management for Small Tourism Businesses The following diagram represents a general overview of the risk and crisis management process detailed in Risk Management for Small Tourism Businesses. Being a proactive process, relevant risk management documents, plans and procedures should be developed in advance of any hazard impact and subject to regular review. Similarly, the crisis recovery phase should trigger the next risk and crisis management development cycle. * Please note that the templates and forms presented in this resource book provide guidelines only. Each template or form should be adapted to suit particular business requirements. In many cases, professional advice will be required to meet specific business, legal, statutory, regulatory and/or financial obligations. 1
  • 7. A Practical Resource Guide to Risk Management for Small Tourism Businesses (adapted from Australian/New Zealand Standards Handbook, HB 436:2004) Preparations RISK EVENT First few hours First Few Days Intermediate to Long Term Planning & Immediate Actions Management Crisis Reduction, Readiness and Response Establish the Context (Detection, Warning, Protection & Containment) Risk Identification Risk Analysis Subsequent Actions Risk Evaluation (Resumption of Business, Recovery Promotion and Marketing) Risk Treatment IMPACT OF Continuity Resolution A HAZARD (Critical Functions/Operations) Crisis Recovery and Reduction RISK AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT ACTIONS (guide to relevant documentation) Crisis Prevention & Mitigation Business Continuity Recovery  Risk Management Plan  Business Continuity Plan  Recovery Plan  Risk Communications Plan  Emergency Operations Centre/Media  Risk Management Plan (updated)  Crisis Management Plan Centre  Crisis Management Plan (updated)  Crisis Communications Plan 2
  • 8. Documentation and the Risk Management Process Documentation is an integral part of risk management. Good quality documentation promotes appropriate risk management planning and provides a clear history of processes and strategies. Documentation also facilitates regular review and assessment of decisions to improve subsequent risk management plans. Methodical documentation of each step within the risk management process establishes a clear and organised approach to continued risk identification, analysis, treatment and review. The detail or expertise necessary to develop this documentation will depend on the individual, location and business organisation. Risk managers should determine the amount of information required for relevant decision makers and stakeholders to properly understand the risk management process as unnecessary complexity can undermine the value of any risk management plan. Each document should be developed and maintained to a standard which is sufficient to satisfy an independent audit (including a notation of date completed, author, and schedule for follow-up action or review) It should be clear that although risk management documentation provides the foundation for applied risk management, effective practice within any business will remain dependant on the level of ongoing commitment, understanding, and monitoring. 3
  • 9. A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO RISK MANAGEMENT 4
  • 10. The Risk Management Process (Adapted from AS/NZS 4360) STEP 5. STEP 1. TREAT ESTABLISH THE RISKS THE CONTEXT COMMUNICATE CONSULT DOCUMENT STEP 4. MONITOR STEP 2. EVALUATE REVIEW IDENTIFY THE THE RISKS RISKS STEP 3. ANALYSE THE RISKS 5
  • 11. Step 1. Establish the Context Profiles the situation and key variables associated with a businesses internal and external operational environment. 1. Provide an accurate account of the business (e.g. size, location, culture, structure, resources) 2. Elaborate the businesses main activities* 3. Determine the major aims or objectives of these activities 4. List the key factors that influence/relate to the conduct of these activities 5. Identify primary stakeholders (internal and external) in the activities 6. Develop evaluation criteria and key elements to establish the level of acceptable risk * Depending on the range or complexity of business activities separate documentation may be required for each activity 6
  • 12.  Step 1. Establish the Context – Sample Template (adapted from Queensland Government: 2005) Description of activity (What is the activity I want to risk-manage?) Objectives (What outcomes do I expect from this activity?) Critical Factors Business (What are the critical factors related to the activity?) practice or standards Political Social/ Cultural Economic/ Financial Legal/ Regulatory Competitive Infrastructure/ Technology Environmental Other Stakeholders (Who are the stakeholders in the activity?) Internal External Risk evaluation criteria (What are the key risk criteria for identifying whether a risk is acceptable or not?) Author:__________________________ Date Created: __________________________ Scheduled Review Date: __________________________ 7
  • 13. Step 2. Identify the Risks Creates an inventory of risk events that directly or indirectly influence business profitability or viability (considering the when, where, how, and why). 1. Determine the best method to identify risk 2. Examine all sources of possible/potential risk 3. Determine elements at risk relative to each risk activity 4. Assess current vulnerabilities and capacities 5. Develop credible risk events/statements 8
  • 14.  Step 2. Risk Identification – Sample Template (adapted from Queensland Government: 2005) Source of Risk Risk Event/ Statement (How can a risk arise?) (What can happen - event that may impact on the desired objectives?) Human behaviour Health/medical Psychological/Emotional Association Technology and technical issues Economic Occupational health and safety/Regulations Legal (Liability) Product/Professional/Public Political Property and equipment Safety/Security Environmental/Physical Financial/market/competition Natural events Author:__________________________ Date Created: __________________________ Scheduled Review Date: __________________________ 9
  • 15. Step 3. Analyse the Risks Gathers information about the risk event and current risk control strategies to determine likelihood and consequences. 1. Examine all data/information related to the risk event and existing control measures 2. Estimate the likelihood (probability and frequency) of the specified risk event* 3. Determine the consequences (potential impacts) if the event occurred 4. Using the tables provided (or a suitable alternative) assign the most appropriate designation level for both likelihood and consequences 5. Calculate risk as the product (the logical intersection) of likelihood and consequence 6. Based on this risk calculation determine the recommended level of action * Each risk event identified will require careful analysis and evaluation. It is important to ensure appropriate documentation is maintained for each risk event. 10
  • 16. Analyse the Risk - Guide to Estimating Level of Risk Likelihood Designator Likelihood Low the risk event is not expected to occur Medium the risk event might occur High the risk event is more than likely (or expected) to occur Consequence Designator Consequence Minor the risk event will have little or no influence on business environment/ plant/personnel/continuity/profitability/reputation and will not threaten business viability Moderate the risk event will reduce business environment/plant/personnel, continuity/profitability/reputation and/or weaken business viability Severe The risk event will eliminate business environment/ plant/personnel/continuity/profitability/reputation and/or make the business non-viable Risk: Consequence Minor Moderate Severe Likelihood 6 5 4 Low (minor) (low) (moderate) 5 3 2 Medium (low) (considerable) (high) 4 2 1 High (moderate) (high) (extreme) Risk Levels: Level Designator Level of Action Required 1 Extreme immediate action required 2 High urgent action required 3 Considerable high priority action required 4 Moderate low priority action required 5 Low non urgent action required 6 Minor routine action required 11
  • 17.  Step 3. Risk Analysis – Sample Template (adapted from Queensland Government: 2005) Risk Event (identified risk) Information source (relevant data sources regarding the risk event) Existing control measures Likelihood of risk occurring (low, medium, high) Justification of likelihood (based on what information?) Consequences of risk event (minor, moderate, major) Justification of consequences (based on what information?) Level of risk (minor, low, moderate, considerable, high, extreme) Author:__________________________ Date Created: __________________________ Scheduled Review Date: __________________________ 12
  • 18. Step 4. Evaluate the Risks Compares analysed risk events to provide a guide to action. 1. Review risk criteria from Step 1. Establish the context. 2. List acceptable risks and justify 3. List unacceptable risks and prioritise order for treatment 4. Develop a comprehensive risk register 13
  • 19. Evaluate the Risk - Acceptable and Unacceptable Risks (Optional Document) ACCEPTABLE RISKS: UNACCEPTABLE RISKS: Risk Event Level of Reason for acceptance Risk Event Level of Priority/Action Order (identified risk) Calculated (specific rationale) (identified risk) Calculated (rank or list from highest to Risk Risk lowest) Author:__________________________ Date Created: __________________________ Scheduled Review Date: __________________________ 14
  • 20.  Step 4. Risk Register – Sample Template Risk Event Existing Control Likelihood Consequence Level of Risk Priority/ (identified risk) (control measures/mitigation strategy) Action Order Author:__________________________ Date Created: __________________________ Scheduled Review Date: __________________________ 15
  • 21. Step 5. Treat the Risks Develops effective and cost efficient risk event control measures and risk mitigation strategies. 1. Identify options to treat risk – avoid/control/ transfer/retain 2. Determine the most appropriate treatment option for the specific risk 3. Prepare a risk treatment plan (including responsibilities, resources required, performance measures and timetable) 4. Implement the risk treatment plan 16
  • 22.  Step 5. Risk Treatment Plan – Sample Template (adapted from Queensland Government 2005) Risk event/statement (what can happen) Source of Risk (how can the risk arise) Priority (priority relative to other risks) Likelihood (low, medium ,high) Consequences (minor, moderate, major) Level of Risk (minor, low, moderate, considerable, high, extreme) Risk Treatment (specific strategy or approach to avoid/control/transfer/retain risk) Responsibility (who will implement, monitor, review) Resources required (human, physical, financial/budget resources to implement) Performance measure (indicators/audit of efficacy, reliability and availability) Timetable (when treatment approach will be implemented/reviewed/revised) Author:__________________________ Date Created: __________________________ Scheduled Review Date: __________________________ 17
  • 23. COMMUNICATE CONSULT DOCUMENT MONITOR REVIEW 18
  • 24. SUPPLEMENTARY GUIDE 19
  • 25. Risk Management for Small Tourism Businesses Supplementary Document Guide The following information provides a guide to developing supplementary documents associated with formal risk and crisis management plans. Each business should determine the appropriate level and extent of documentation required to manage risk and crisis effectively. Although this publication does not represent an exhaustive list of relevant documents, it presents a useful foundation for plan development.* Each content guide and template draws on best practice recommendations and examples; nevertheless, these may require some modifications to suit the specific demands of individual businesses and circumstances. * As risk and crisis management becomes integrated within standard business operations and culture, associated documentation can overlap, leading to repetition and duplication of content. Though every document provides “stand-alone” information, the overall plan should link each element and principle. Consistent and unambiguous documentation presents a clear guide to effective management. 20
  • 26. The Risk Management Policy Statement Describes the purpose of risk management and the general process for the identification and mitigation of risks within the business context. - intention/rational of the policy - objectives (outcomes) - scope/extent of issues to be covered by the policy - resources available For example:  human resources  financial/budget - details of implementation For example:  roles/responsibilities  strategy/actions  documentation  communication  training  reporting  monitoring/review/audits - linkages with other business strategies and plans (may be listed or developed as appendices) For example:  business plan  financial plan  insurance  relevant regulations and legislation 21
  • 27.  Risk Management Responsibility Statement Defines the roles and responsibilities of all resources involved with the identification and mitigation of risks - an outline of risk management roles, responsibilities and functions  internal  external (if applicable) - authorisation/reporting procedures - review/monitoring and audit process - document revision history - training/exercise log 22
  • 28.  Communications Plan (adaptable for risk and crisis management communications) Identifies key stakeholders and communication strategies - the objective/specific purpose or goal for the communication. For example:  building awareness  understanding  learning  influencing  affecting - identifies key participant roles and responsibilities. For example:  coordination of information and updates  direct notification/consultation (contact information)  designated spokesperson for business/organisation - establishes clear communication procedures/method. Fore example:  internal information verification  communications authority/clearance/approval  securing relevant resources for communications centre  containment and rumour control measures - provides additional contacts For example:  media  potential stakeholders and partners for emergency notification  expert spokesperson (may be relevant to the source of risk and/or impacts) - channels of communication For example:  communication approach for stakeholders and/or partners  public (e.g. message templates, provisional “information website”, draft fact sheets, telephone filtering procedures, family liaison) - evaluation process For example:  management endorsement  checklists  review  update 23
  • 29. The Crisis Management Process REDUCTION READINESS COMMUNICATE CONSULT DOCUMENT MONITOR REVIEW RECOVERY RESPONSE 24
  • 30.  The Crisis Management Policy Statement Describes the purpose of crisis management and the general process for the early detection, mitigation, response and recovery of crisis events - intention/rational of the plan - objectives (outcomes) - scope/extent of issues to be covered by the policy - resources available For example:  human resources  financial/budget - details of implementation For example:  roles/responsibilities (also identifies alternative contacts)  strategy/actions (tactical/short-term and strategic/long term)  pre incident planning and training  response structures  alert and warnings  communication and reporting (before, during and after crisis)  assessment and notification (before, during and after crisis)  documentation  monitoring/review/audits - linkages with other business strategies and plans (may be listed or developed as appendices) For example:  risk management plan  business continuity plan  evacuation plan  Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) / media centre  resource inventory  recovery plan  insurance 25
  • 31.  Crisis Management Responsibility Statement Defines the roles and responsibilities of all resources involved with the early detection, mitigation, response and recovery of crisis events - an outline of crisis management roles, responsibilities and functions  internal  external - authorisation/reporting procedures - review/monitoring and audit process - document revision history - training/exercise log 26
  • 32. Key Crisis Management Tasks and Responsibilities Crisis Management Coordinator/Leader Communicates with owner/senior management Declares crisis/emergency/disaster situation Operations Co-ordinates all Contingency/Business Continuity Planning activities Handles personnel issues/human resources Planning Develops and tracks direct crisis management procedures (eg. warning, evacuation, medical, shelter, transport, resources) Gathers/records all resumption/recovery documentation Logistics Acquires/maintains physical facilities, equipment and supply Operation of the Emergency Operations Centre (EOC)/ media centre Communications Develops and maintains protocol for internal communications/media & external communications (contact details, radio frequencies etc) Finance Emergency procurement authorization Insurance assessment Claims, compensation & cost tracking Debriefing Review, adjust plans and monitor 27
  • 33.  Business Continuity Plan Describes the arrangements to ensure the continuous delivery of critical services and products essential to the business/organization’s survival - intention/rational of the plan - objectives - scope/extent of issues covered For example:  identify critical products, services and operations  identify the effects of the loss of specific business functions  determine the level of importance of a business function  estimate maximum allowable downtime and acceptable levels of event impact/loss - governance – roles and responsibilities - details of implementation For example:  notification, activation and escalation procedures  communications (internal and external)  life safety  property protection  community relations/consultation  recovery and restoration  administration and logistics  quality assurance (review, monitor, audit) - linkages with other business strategies and plans For example:  business plan  financial plan  communications plan  recovery plan 28
  • 34.  The Recovery Plan Based on identified weaknesses the recovery plan minimises disruption to business operations and facilitates effective coordination of recovery tasks - new Business Development strategy - objectives - scope/extent of issues - details of implementation For example:  incident management roles and responsibilities  assessment/notification procedures  critical functions  recovery activities (response, recovery, restoration)  key external providers of goods and services/vendors  key internal customers  key external customers  communication  critical resources  materials and data needed to perform job at alternative location  insurance  employee support  post-incident review/evaluation  resumption of normal business  quality assurance – monitoring and audit - linkages with other business plans and strategies For example:  business plan  financial plan  research, marketing and promotion 29
  • 35. Crisis and Emergency Support Documents (adapted from FEMA 1993) Emergency contact lists: Internal response External response Communications/Public relations Building and site maps that indicate: Utility shutoffs Water hydrants Water main valves Water lines Gas main valves Gas lines Electrical cut-offs Electrical substations Storm drains Sewer lines Location of each building (include name of building, street name and number) Floor plans Alarm and enunciators Fire extinguishers Fire suppression systems Evacuation meeting points Exits Stairways Designated escape routes Restricted areas Hazardous materials (including cleaning supplies and chemicals) High-value items 30
  • 36. Major resource lists/inventory: Personnel – internal an external emergency response personnel Information/plans/critical data Equipment - protection equipment, communications equipment, first aid supplies, emergency supplies, warning systems, emergency power equipment, decontamination equipment, reconstruction and recovery equipment Facilities - emergency operating centre, media briefing area, shelter areas, first-aid stations, sanitation facilities Financial allocations Legal counsel Infrastructure protection Accommodations/emergency shelter Supplies Services Mutual aid agreements (with other business, organisations and government agencies) Backup system/arrangements Payroll Communications Production Customer services Shipping and receiving Information systems support Emergency power Recovery support 31
  • 37. Potential Risk/Crisis Management Planning Partners for Small Tourism Businesses (adapted from Wilkes and Moore 2003) National/State/Regional/Local tourism administration and visitor board Police/law enforcement agencies/counter terrorism agents Judiciary/legal profession Foreign affairs/Immigration/Customs/Attorney General’s Department Transport Sector Health/Medical Utility service providers/Public works Insurance industry Professional risk consultants Civil defense/military Private security organization Emergency services Media Airlines and transportation company associations Hotel associations/accommodation providers Tour operators' associations Travel agents' associations Independent local tourism operators Industry specialists Accreditation providers Promotions/marketing boards Other travel and tourism representatives Service and product suppliers Local Chamber of Commerce Local business association Consumer groups/special interest groups Retail trade organizations Tourism research and documentation centers/publications (eg. universities, Bureau of Statistics) National weather service - Bureau of Meteorology Local council/planning committees Relevant government agencies – Commonwealth, State, Local Welfare and relief organizations 32
  • 38.  Generic Contact List – Sample Template (may be adapted for risk management, crisis management or communications) ROLE/RESPONSIBILITY NAME CONTACT DETAILS Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Email: Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Email: Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Email: Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Email: Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Email: Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Email: Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Email: Author:__________________________ Date Created: __________________________ Scheduled Review Date: __________________________ 33
  • 39. Guide to Emergency Telephone Contacts Outlines brief easy-to-read steps needed to immediately respond to in case of an emergency or disaster affecting the premises. - Copies should be posted near all staff telephones and at any public service areas in and around the building - Staff should receive instruction in its use - An Evacuation Plan should also be posted in this area if your building is big enough to require evacuation 34
  • 40. EMERGENCY TELEPHONE CONTACTS In case of emergency please notify immediately: ROLE/RESPONSIBILITY NAME CONTACT DETAILS Response Coordinator: Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Alternate Coordinator: Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Building/Facility Manager: Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Emergency Services (as appropriate): ROLE/RESPONSIBILITY NAME CONTACT DETAILS Police Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Fire Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Medical Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Utilities (as appropriate): ROLE/RESPONSIBILITY NAME CONTACT DETAILS Building/ Facilities Telephone: Maintenance Mobile: Fax: Electricity Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Water Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Sewage/Sanitation Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Telecommunications Telephone: Mobile: Fax: Author_________________ Date Created__________________ Scheduled Review Date_________________ 35
  • 41. Emergency Operations Centre/Media Centre The central command and control facility for carrying out the principles of emergency preparedness and strategic crisis/emergency/disaster management in an emergency situation - ensuring the continuity of operation of the business - Location - Alternative Location - Communications equipment - Office equipment and supplies - Copies of relevant plans For example:  crisis management plan  communications plan  business continuity plan  recovery plan - Blueprints, maps, status boards - A current list of EOC personnel and descriptions of their duties/arrangements - Technical information and data for advising responders - Separate media briefing facilities - Building security system information - Information and data management capabilities - Telephone directories - Backup power, communications and lighting - Emergency supplies – first aid and food/drink - Access to bathroom and rest/recreation area 36
  • 42. Guide to Training Activities / Exercise Log (adapted from FEMA 1993) Logs the date, type of exercise and any pertinent comments each time a plan is exercised Orientation and Education Sessions Regularly scheduled discussion sessions to provide information, answer questions and identify needs and concerns Tabletop Exercise Members of the emergency management group meet in a conference room setting to discuss their responsibilities and how they would react to emergency scenarios. This is a cost-effective and efficient way to identify areas of overlap and confusion before conducting more demanding training activities. Walk-through Drill The emergency management group and response teams actually perform their emergency response functions. This activity generally involves more people and is more thorough than a tabletop exercise Functional Drills These drills test specific functions such as medical response, emergency notifications, warning and communications procedures and equipment, though not necessarily at the same time. Personnel are asked to evaluate the systems and identify Evacuation Drill Personnel walk the evacuation route to a designated area where procedures for accounting for all personnel are tested. Participants are asked to make notes as they go along of what might become a hazard during an emergency, e.g., stairways cluttered with debris, smoke in the hallways. Plans are modified accordingly. Full-scale Exercise A real life emergency situation is simulated (as closely as possible). This exercise involves business emergency response personnel, employees, management and community response organizations. Employee Training General training for all employees should address: - Individual roles and responsibilities - Information about threats, hazards and protective actions - Notification, warning and communications procedures - Means for locating family members in an emergency - Emergency response procedures - Evacuation, shelter and accountability procedures - Location and use of common emergency equipment - Emergency shutdown procedures - Continuity plans 37
  • 43.  Generic Training/Exercise Log – Sample Template Date Type of Exercise Comments Author:________________________ Date Created: __________________________ Scheduled Review Date:_________________________ 38
  • 44. Guide to Document Revision History Records revisions made to documentation and plans. - May also include details related to each document revision For example  Authorisation  Audit/Plan Reviews  Distribution 39
  • 45.  Document Revision History – Sample Template Date Author Revision Author:________________________ Date Created: __________________________ Scheduled Review Date:_________________________ 40
  • 46. Additional Resources This list provides a range of useful documents and publications relevant to Risk Management for Small Tourism Business. It does not represent a comprehensive or exhaustive literature review. Risk and Crisis Management for Tourism Pacific Asia Travel Association (2003) Crisis: It Won’t Happen to Us. Pacific Asia Travel Association: Bangkok Morgan, D. & Dimmock, K. (2006). Risk management in outdoor adventure tourism, in J. Wilks, D. Pendergast and P. Leggat (eds.). Tourism in Turbulent Times: Towards Safe Experiences for Visitors (pp. 171-184). London: Elsevier. Morgan, D. J. & Fluker, M. (2006). Risk management for Australian commercial adventure tourism operations, in A. Pizam & Y. Mansfeld (eds.). Tourism, Security and Safety: From Theory to Practice (pp. 153-168). Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann (Elsevier). National Tour Association. NTA. (2003) A Guide to Developing Crisis Management Plans NTA Market Development Council [Online] Available: http://www.ntaonline.com/staticfiles/crisis_mgm_plan_020703.pdf Robertson, D., Kean, I. and Moore, S. (2006) Tourism Risk Management: An authoritative guide to managing crises in tourism. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation: Singapore Wilkes J. and Moore S. (2003) Tourism Risk Management for the Asia Pacific Region: an authoritative guide for managing crises and disasters. AICST: Australia World Tourism Organisation (2003). Crisis Guidelines for the Tourism Industry. [Online] Available: http://www.world- tourism.org/market_research/Crisis%20and%20Disaster%20Management%20Guidelines.pdf Disaster Management and Tourism Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre. ADPC. (2001) Asian Disaster Management News. Vol. 7, No. 2 & 3, April- September 2001. Homepage. [Online] Available: http://www.adpc.ait.ac.th/infores/newsletter/2001/2.html. Tourism Crisis Communications Tourism Victoria (2005) Crisis Communication Handbook for Regional and Local Tourism [Online] Available: http://www.tourismalliance.com.au/downloads/Crisis%20Manual.pdf Tourism Crisis Recovery Management and Marketing Bierman, D. (2003) Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis: A Strategic Marketing Approach. Allen and Unwin: Sydney. 41
  • 47. Glaesser, D. (2003) Crisis Management in the Tourism Industry, Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford. Tourism Safety and Security World Tourism Organization. WTO. (2003) Safety and security in tourism: Partnerships and practical guidelines for destinations. WTO: Spain Risk Management for Business Queensland Government (2005) Risk Management. [Online] Available: http://www.riskmanagement.qld.gov.au/ Federal Emergency Management Agency. FEMA (1993) Emergency Management for Business and Industry. [Online] Available: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/business/guide/bizindst.pdf Standards Association of Australia. Various Titles. Standards Association of Australia: NSW AS/NZS 4360: 2004 Risk Management. HB 221:2004 Business Continuity HB 90.1-2000 : The Small Business Handbook - Guide to ISO 9001:2000 HB 436 Risk Management Guidelines – Companion to AS/NZS 4360:2004 HB 254-2005 Governance, risk management and control assurance Disaster and Emergency Management Emergency Management Australia (2004) Emergency Risk Management Applications Guide. Emergency Management Australia:. Emergency Management Australia (1998) Australian Emergency Management Glossary. Emergency Management Australia: . Zamecka, A. and Buchanan, G. (1999) Disaster Risk Management. Queensland Department of Emergency Services: Queensland. 42

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