PR Strategy and Planning-Case Study AnalysesDocument Transcript
Number: 9906 June, 1999
WORKING PAPER SERIES
Public relations strategy and
planning - case study analyses
School of Marketing
Curtin Business School
Curtin University of Technology
Perth, Western Australia
Tel: (+61-8) 9266 3882
Fax: (+61-8) 9266 3937
ISBN: 1 86342 753 8
Public Relations Strategy and
Case Study Analyses
In today's global business environment public relations impacts the strategic
decision-making process by its involvement in the strategic design and by its
central role in the dissemination across departments, borders, stakeholders
and cultures. For the public relations function to be carried out with optimum
outcomes, the public relations role must operate within the parameters of the
decision-making dominant coalition. Examples are given from government
and corporate public relations as to the structure, measurement and
outcomes of professional public relations strategic practice.
There is an urgency in the necessity for communicators to think and practice
strategically in order to be relevant in today's organisation. This is not always
as easy as it seems as communicators often aim for this goal in unfavourable,
and at times, in an unsupportive environment. This is because many
organisations do not see communication as being quantifiable or measurable
in terms of results, therefore, communication may not be perceived as being
strategic. Nevertheless, the communicator's role, as practiced through the
discipline of public relations, does play a significant role in the national and
international business world. The recent shift to strategic thinking and
planning by public relations practitioners is a paramount reason why public
relations is increasingly viewed as amongst the business professions.
In today's global business environment public relations impacts the strategic
decision-making process by the dissemination of the strategy so that a full
understanding can take place as a prerequisite for the building, consolidating
and maintenance of relationships, that underpin the quintessential function of
the public relations practitioner. Also, 'Strategic communication thinking
recognises the cause and effect relationship between our communication
activities and the achievement of the organisation's mission. It means that
communication programs support successful completion of the organisation's
strategic activity in a measurable way' (Potter, 1998)
There are many different definitions of strategy, strategic thinking and
strategic planning. There are also different types of strategies, such as long-
term or classic strategic plans, emergent strategies and strategies designed
for the implementation of business plans, public relations strategies for handle
crisis management, issues, special events and industrial relations matters to
name just a few. Strategies also exist at many different levels of an
organisation and for many different purposes. In fact, the word 'strategy'
confuses many students, as is evidenced by the submission of 'strategies' that
are often nothing more than a list of good ideas, or campaign steps in
chronological order of action.
Initially, strategy referred to the role of a military commander and his art and
skill. It later came to mean managerial skill in administration, leadership,
oration and power, for instance, and later was generalised to include all
aspects of coordinating and planning intellectual and physical skills in order to
best position oneself or organisation for the long-term purpose at hand. A
simple but apt definition of strategy is that it is a series of planned activities
designed and integrated to achieve a stated organisational goal. A more
academic definition is that 'strategy is a pattern or plan that integrates an
organisation's major goals, policies, and action sequences into a cohesive
whole. A well-formulated strategy helps to marshal and allocate an
organisation's resources into a unique and viable posture based on its relative
internal competencies and shortcomings, anticipated changes in the
environment and contingent moves by intelligent opponents' (Mintzberg and
A public relations strategy, or strategic communication, is a process by which
the leadership of an organisation deliberately manages its communications
proactively so that they are open, candid, and focused on the marketplace
and the customer as the first cause (D'Aprix, 1996:5). There are many ways in
which one can define a public relation's strategy, such as simply instructing
the involved public relations practitioner as to what to do and when to do it.
The strategy orchestrates multiple messages to assure a harmonious flow of
communication to produce optimum stakeholder/s response. The public
relations strategy usually has two parts, these are the strategy statement, that
defines primary objectives and organisational actions to be taken to achieve
the strategic goals. The second part is the communications strategy, a list of
communication efforts to be made, including a list of channels to be used for
each. They should be accompanied by timetables that specify sequences of
events and identify individuals responsible (Brody (1988).
Public Relations Strategy
Public relations strategy concentrates on the key role a public relations
practitioner plays within the strategic decision-making process. For the public
relations function to be carried out with optimum results, the public relations
role must operate within the parameters of the decision-making dominant
coalition of the organisation.
This paper examines the long-term directions of an organisation through its
strategic planning, and introduces the key concepts of goals, objectives,
policies and programs, and the concomitant public relations strategies that
should be either embedded in the organisation's major strategic plan or be
compatible to it. From a public relations perspective, strategies need to be
designed for communication with all target groups in mind, such as
employees, government, pressure groups, community, and so on. Strategic
decisions also need to be made to define an organisation's corporate image
and ethical parameters, an order to determine how the organisation will
respond to crisis and issues situations. Therefore, corporate culture, ideology,
values and beliefs, systems and business processes influence the public
relations strategic planning in social, economic and political contexts.
Before a strategy is devised, there are some basic questions that need to be
asked such as: What business are we in? What is our purpose for existence?
What are our aims? What do we stand for? How do we see ourselves? How
do others see us? What values and beliefs do we hold? How can these be
made manifest in our business? How do we view our clients? Each of these
questions, and many more that could be added, should be seriously
considered and satisfactorily answered before progressing in any business
direction. Once a pattern emerges that clearly indicates where you should be
heading, how you will proceed, why you are heading in your chosen direction
and when you need to do what, you are ready to start building the framework
of your strategic plan.
Vision and Mission
The first vital parts of this framework are your Vision Statement and your
Mission Statement. These are essential components in defining what you are
doing and where you are going. The Vision Statement describes the future
state of the organisation at a selected time. It is best kept brief, only about two
to four sentences and it should be quantifiable and agreed to by all member of
the organisation, i.e. ideally it should be developed through group
participation. The same principles apply to the Mission Statement. Once a
future envisioned scenario is forecast through the Vision Statement, a Mission
Statement is then formulated. A Mission Statement describes the broad
practical steps of reaching the Vision. The Mission Statement tells who you
are, what you do and why. The Mission Statement should be a brief, clear
statement of the reasons for the organisation's existence, its purpose/s, the
function/s it performs, its primary stakeholders, and the primary methods
through which it fulfils its purpose. A Mission Statement is:
• Consistent with and supports the organisation's Vision.
• The roadmap that describes how the organisation will move to reach its visions
• The means of telling people why the organisation is in business
• The source of strategies that collectively create a business plan
When an organisation has an agreed Vision and Mission, it knows where it is
going and how to get there. In other words, recent times have seen
organisations developing strategic planning processes where management
determines the best direction for the organisation and its ultimate destination
and succinctly formulates these determinations into a Vision Statement. Once
the Vision is developed, the organisation usually compares its present
position with its desired future and determines ways to close the gap between
the two - this process is often known as 'gap analysis'. The Mission Statement
can then be formulated, which describes the broad practical steps to close the
gap between the unsatisfactory present and its desired future - its vision. A
note of caution is required here in explanation of the term 'unsatisfactory
present'. If management sees the organisation as being currently perfect in all
its aspects, then there is the danger of complacency setting in. Nothing stands
still in the evolutionary process of life, this includes the evolution of an
organisation, it either go forwards or backwards, if it stagnates it dies.
Therefore, it is strategically sensible to acknowledge that one can always do
better and that the present is fleeting and change is evident as soon as one
tries to document a current situation. One of the great challenges for today's
public relation's practitioner to be able to keep ahead of the rapid and
dramatic changes that are taking place, particularly in relation to the strategic
development of an organisation's future needs.
Here is an example of a public affairs mission statement, and public affairs
strategies that clarify and define the mission, from Alinta Gas, a Western
Australian government utility:
Public Affairs Mission - AlintaGas
'The Public Affairs Branch has a loyal and enthusiastic commitment to provide
and facilitate effective and clear issues management, public relations
activities, environmental management, corporate advertising and
communications for AlintaGas employees, external customers and the media
through the innovative use of visual, verbal, print and electronic means'.
The AlinaGas Public Affairs Strategies are divided into seven specific strategy
sections that assist in further defining the Public Affairs Mission:
Strategy 1 - Internal communications
• To establish and maintain a communications program with employees
which promotes face to face dialogue, a well-informed, motivated and
Strategy 2 - Issues Management
• Research, identify, monitor, manage and evaluate issues to minimise
any adverse effects and to maximise positive opportunities for
AlintaGas; develop and implement a media liaison program; manage
communications in a crisis.
Strategy 3 - External Communications
• To develop a working relationship and comprehensive program of
communications with government, business and industry.
Strategy 4 - Environmental Management
• To coordinate environmental activities through the Environmental
Strategy 5 - Environmental Management
• To enhance the corporate reputation of AlintaGas through the
management and coordination of promotional activities and image
Strategy 6 - Community Relations
• To develop effective communication and education programs which
build a support base within the community and demonstrate good
Strategy 7 - Professional Development
• To pursue professional development opportunities and provide
communication skills advise to the organisation. (Sweet, 1998)
Frequently, the Vision and the Mission will be associated with a set of
corporate values summarising the expected attitudes and behaviour of
employees. This brings us to an important and practical part of strategic
planning and that is the development of key performance indicators (KPIs),
also called key result areas, that most organisations use as measurable
indicators of their progress towards achieving their mission.
Key performance indicators were developed to measure operational
performance between one period and the next, measuring the most important
performance results such as the number of product items manufactured and
revenue. When it comes to public relations strategies, KPIs are less suited
because much of public relations work can be intangible in nature and is not
repeated on a regular basis and is therefore unsuited to statistical treatment.
As a result, the public relations practitioner is often obliged to nominate KPIs
that measure less important but more quantifiable areas of public relations.
This may also mean that more inputs and outputs are measured rather than
the more important outcomes, because inputs and outputs are easier to
measure. This method of public relations evaluation is not very satisfactory,
but often little choice is available, as the public relations strategy must fit into
the prevailing management system.
There are couple of important points that a student of strategic public relations
should be aware of in the area of management. Firstly, most executive
directors, chief executive officers or their equivalents are people with a
quantitative background, people with MBAs and from the sciences, therefore
they look with their financial directors for percentages and statistics through
what is known as the positivist methodology of research and evaluation,
known also as the scientific method. On the other hand most public relations
practitioners and the type of findings that they are trying to ascertain belong
more to the qualitative methodologies where units of meaning and
understanding of the largely human factors of business are needed. This bias
towards positivism is slowly changing as the importance of the human values
of interaction and the global necessity of building international alliances are
recognised. Management's increasing reliance on global reputation
management is another reason for the acknowledgment of public relations
practitioners' qualitative skills. However, it is important that the public relations
professional understands both research methodologies, so that mutual
understanding and constructive dissertations can be conducted.
The second point on management for the public relations students is that: you
are likely to be only as good a public relations practitioner as your chief
executive officer will allow you to be. Therefore, the first strategic move that
one often needs to make is internally, i.e. educating management of the value
of strategic public relation (the role for a professional public relations
manager, not a public relations technician). The second strategic move
relates to the first and that is getting yourself to be part of the dominant
coalition in the decision-making arena, whereby you become influential in the
shaping and development of the strategic plan rather than just the
disseminator of other people's plans. It is important when devising the
organisation's strategic plan that it is designed with its communication in mind,
therefore the public relations practitioner's input into the design will influence
its ability to be understood by all of the stakeholders. It should be noted that
unless an organisation's strategy can be understood and hence accepted by
stakeholders then it remains an unworkable document.
The public relations strategic plan is similar in format to other strategic plans
such as a business or marketing plan so that management can readily relate
to the format. One such format, is that of Lester Potter's (1997) Ten Step
Strategic Communication Plan. This format, below, can cover situations
ranging from an annual plan through to a specific or single issue over a
shorter timeframe. The ten- point structure of the communication plan has
been proven to meet the needs of many types of organisations.
The Strategic Public Relations
1. Executive summary
2. The communication process
4. Situation analysis
5. Main message statement
7. Messages for key stakeholders
10. Monitoring and evaluation
1. Executive summary
Write this section last, after all other sections have been finished. Concisely
• the problem or opportunity that forms the need for the plan and its
effect on the organisation
• any research on which the plan is based
• what the plan is expected to achieve (the plan's goals and objectives)
• how it will be implemented and the time frame
• how it will be evaluated.
1. The communication process
• Often people who must approve or implement the plan are not familiar
with professional public relations techniques. The plan should therefore
include an outline of the communication assumptions and the benefits
to management ('what's in it for me') to assist their understanding and
gain support. This section should could include the following:
• an outline of communication as a management tool
• an outline of management's role in communication
• an outline of how communication can help solve organisational problems and exploit
This section seeks to establish the need for the communication plan and
• A 'bullet-point' format list of major events leading up to the plan
• Linkages between the organisational mission, objectives and key performance
indicators and the plan
1. Situation analysis
The situation analysis should focus on the heart of the real issues, to dig
deeper than superficial problems and reach key causes not effects, therefore:
• List the issues to be addressed in the plan
• For each issue, list the facts for and against it (a SWOT analysis could be used here,
i.e. strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats)
1. Main message statement
Decide the overall major message the plan needs to convey to
Information should at least include:
• Specific description and location of each stakeholder group
• Realistic breakdowns of the groups
1. Messages for key stakeholders
It is important to remember that one must tailor-make each message - one
size does not fit all in public relations communication:
• Include variations of the main message specifically targeted to each
key stakeholder group
• Allow for two-way communication
A planning worksheet can be prepared which incorporates the various
elements of the proposed plan for implementation. The four main headings of
the worksheet include:
• Research and analyse
• Identify stakeholders
• Develop the strategy with its
goals and objectives
• Adjustments to implementation
The main areas in public relations annual budgets include:
• research, publicity, corporate advertising and sponsorship, printing,
photography, videotape production, web site development, consultancy
• media monitoring
• displays, exhibitions
• staff salaries, including subcontract and temporary staff; annual leave;
long service leave; sick leave; public holidays and overtime
• motor vehicles
• entertainment, gifts and corporate hospitality
• travel expenses
• staff training
• subscriptions and memberships
• equipment, eg furniture, computer hardware and software, photocopiers, facsimile
machines including updates and upgrades, telephones, mobile telephones
• stationery, office supplies
• office sundries, eg, couriers, office maintenance, taxis, petty cash
1. Monitoring and evaluation
• The outcomes to be measured
• The measurement technique
• Cost of the measurement technique
• Timing of the measurement
• Changes to the public relations activity based on the evaluation
Value of Strategic Public Relations
The importance of strategic public relations as a highly valued function in the
typical organisation is highlighted in a major survey conducted by the
International Association of Business Communicators in the United States of
America(Grunig, 1997: 286-300). The extensive survey of 5,000 people in 300
organisations, conducted Grunig, found that chief executives believed that
corporate public relations is well worth investing in - in their view they
assessed that a typical public relations department provides an average of
185% return on investment to the organisation. In other words it provides
value worth about twice its cost. The return is even higher, about a 300%
return on investment, when the chief executive officer supported a well-
performing public relations department.
The study found that public relations tends to be valued more highly than the
typical department in an organisation. One of the main reasons for its high
standing was that it helped the organisation deal with major social issues - but
only if the head of public relations was in a strategic management role. The
study found that the single greatest determinant of communication excellence
was having the expertise required of a strategic manager.
The Grunig-led study discovered that the top executive and the 'dominant
coalition' of senior management understood the strategic role of
communication and wanted to involve the communication function in strategic
decision-making. However, it appears the greatest barrier in making this
happen is the knowledge level, or what management perceives to be, the
knowledge level of the top communicator. The study found that too many
senior public relations practitioners still perceive themselves to be technicians
or communicators concentrating on the technical, rather than the policy
aspects of the function. This greatly reduces their effectiveness, this is why it
is imperative that public relations students understand strategy, both from a
management perspective and from the communication or public relations
perspective. However, one must learn to think strategically before one can act
and plan strategically.
The Grunig study outlined 12 characteristics of excellent communication
departments (Grunig, 1992). In practical terms, the main five characteristics
are summarised in the view that the excellent communication or public
1. is run by managers who make communication policy decisions and
accept responsibility for the success or failure of the programs.
2. contributes significantly to the organisation's strategic plan and organisational
3. works with top management to solve organisational problems that involve
communication and relationships
4. facilitates two-way communication between top management and key stakeholders,
helping them understand each other and developing win-win situations.
5. uses formal and informal research techniques to understand the environment inside
and outside the organisation to identify key issues.
Chief executives set the tone for corporate communication. They spend up to
three quarters of their time on internal and external communication. The head
of public relations can only be truly effective with the backing of the chief
executive and should have a direct line to that person, if not an actual
Deciding on who should head the public relations function depends on the
size of the organisation, the nature of its business and its objectives. Each
organisation has to define its communication strategy in the way best geared
to these needs.
The public relations role within these management structures is to influence
the behaviour of people in relation to each other, through two-way
communication. It should be noted that although the strategy discussion has
been centred on organisational strategy in the sense of a corporation, there is
no difference if the public relations consultant is dealing with a client out of a
public relations consultancy. The public relations consultant still has to
understand the business strategy of the client's organisation and work within
the same or a similar framework to that of an internal public relations
department head. A survey conducted by the author some years ago (Allert,
1992) indicated that the public relations practitioner was held in fairly high
esteem by chief executives as far as the practitioners' skills of communication,
media relations and publicity were concerned but too many of them simply did
not understand business. This boils down to a lack of strategic understanding
of how a business operates, its aims, its objectives and its reason for
Grunig's definition of public relations is 'the management of communication
between an organisation and its public's' (ibid;484). The word publics is an
artificial contrivance of USA academics, does not exist in dictionaries and is
never used in the business world. A better term is 'stakeholders'. It is crucial
for the public relations function to directly support the goals of business, so
the following definition provides the extra link:
Public relations is the management of communication between an organisation
and its stakeholders to assist the organisation to achieve its mission (Harrison,
My own definition, "public relations is concerned with the building,
consolidation and maintenance of relationships" centres the function more on
the relationship and on communication as the tool that helps to achieve that
relationship. There are, of course, many definitions, cited in a range of books,
the importance is that you understand what you need to know and do
strategically to achieve your public relations goal/s. The organisation must
also be clear about its mission, direction, values and objectives and that it
must be certain that what it says is consistent with what it actually believes or
Harrison's extension of Grunig's definition of public relations implies a
significant role for the public relations function in developing a strong
corporate reputation for the organisation, which translates into a stronger
presence in the marketplace. A good reputation pays off because well-
regarded organisations generally:
• command premium prices for their products
• recruit better calibre staff
• attract greater loyalty from internal and external stakeholders
• have more stable revenues
• face fewer risks of crisis
• are given greater latitude to act by their constituents (Frombrun, C.J.(1996:72)
Today, public relations is largely a management function and its role in
building relationships, which are in essence another form of valuable
resource, should be managed in the same way as other resources are
managed (White and Mazur, 1995).
One way of pulling these practical and theoretical strategy pieces together is
to give an insight into how Australian companies are using strategic public
relations to help build better organisations through building better
relationships. The first example is from a Western Australian Government
department, the Ministry of Justice, which is a change management
communication's strategy, and the second is from the international alumina
company, Alcoa of Australia, demonstrating how the public relations function
assists the corporate strategy in a Total Quality Management (TQM)
company. These two examples have been chosen as they illustrate how
strategic public relations can be implemented across the board from
government to commercial enterprises.
Case Study No.1. Change Communication Plan for the Offender
Management Division, Ministry of Justice (Sinclair, 1998)
The Rowland Company, a corporate communications management company
was retained by the Western Australian Government's Ministry of Justice to
prepare a strategic communications plan to support substantial change in the
Offender Management Division, called the Prison Improvement Program
(PIP), which focused largely on prison operations. During the period of the
writing of this strategic communications plan, there had been substantial
pressure put on the Ministry of Justice by the media by their negative
reporting on suicide, deaths in custody, and overcrowding in Western
Internally, one of the key goals of PIP was to effect the cultural change
required to support reformed business practice. Considerable employee
resistance to reform was expected and it was considered that the existing
culture did not support sound communication practice. There were perceived
to be considerable barriers to effective communication relating to issues such
as status, power, authority; cultural and sub-cultural norms; implicit
assumptions; loss or distortion of information; training and education.
The Rowland Company's consultancy brief was to capitalise on the progress
of developing a communication plan, by incorporating overall improvements to
employee communication in the Division, for on-going application. It was clear
that separate communication plans would be required for the overall (macro)
change program, directed at a broad base of stakeholders; and to support
each individual project at the stakeholder level. Research to inform the initial
communication planning document consisted primarily of desk research and
semi-structured in depth interviews, including:
• review of all the existing documentation with regard to the reform
program; corporate and divisional strategy, structure and values
• interviews with key personnel such as the Director-General, Executive Offender
Management, PIP Project Manager and public affairs staff
• stakeholders and issues identification workshops with Ministry of Justice executives
and the PIP manager
• Confidential, semi-structured one-on-one interviews with a broad cross section of 35
key internal opinion formers, designed to test the efficacy of existing communication
practice and to identify organisational barriers to effective communication, including
employee resistance, cultural and political issues.
Key feedback from the interviews was presented in a workshop. The purpose
of the workshop was to discuss the gap between best practice in employee
communication and current practice within Offender Management; and to
obtain an insight into the business/ operational imperatives impacting on the
approach to communication - so that the communication objectives set and
the plan design, were realistic, achievable and appropriate
Two key pertinent points made by the leadership at this workshop were that:
• there is recognition in the top management team, of the role of
communication and the principle for effective organisational
communication. In addition, there is a commitment to demonstration of
open and honest communication and a willingness to participate
appropriately in the communication of PIP.
• There is a strong imperative for rapid change, to be conducted on a broad front.
These considerations then informed the establishment of the communication
objectives, below, and the design of the communications plan. These
communication objectives are:
The Principles for Effective Change Communication
• The first communication task is to ensure that the change imperative is
clearly understood and accepted. This may parallel the task of
communicating the nature of the change itself.
• Major organisational communication barriers … political, cultural/subcultural,
structural, historical, communication overload, status/power differences must be
• There must be strong leadership, 'walking the talk; by demonstrating synergy,
consensus of vision and commitment to honest and open communication.
• The rhetoric - the key change messages - must match the reality … formally and
• There must be a strong consultative component to communication - an emphasis on
two-way, symmetrical processes/tools involving and empowering those effected by
the change or whose active support for change is required.
• Communication must be research-based and responsive.
• Communication must be integral to change planning and management.
• There must be strong positive reinforcement for progress - communication of quick
hits sustains change momentum and reduces fatigue.
• Communication must be adequately resourced and vigorously managed.
• It must have both 'macro' and 'micro' components, to be tailored and target audience
The degree of impact of the change is different across stakeholder groups
and the desirable level of involvement among stakeholders varies, with
different communication approaches achieving different outcomes. It was
important that at all times the communication approach matched the business
objectives and outcomes as laid down in the business strategy through the
corporate plan. The corporate plan, of course, being the expansion of the
vision and mission statements.
The stakeholders, and their concomitant levels of involvement can be divided
broadly into four groups:
1. Those from whom commitment and active support is sought to make
the change happen quickly and effectively, eg: project leaders and
participants, prison superintendents, prison officers.
2. Those whose tactic support or cooperation is required, eg: union representatives, the
prison population, prison support services, key personnel in other directories within
3. Those from whom awareness, understanding and acceptance of the improvements is
required, eg: employees at large, key external opinion formers and special interest
4. Those who need to be kept informed, eg: Project Officer, Public Affairs, some
Supporting the Organisational Objectives
To improve the effectiveness of communication (downward, upward, lateral)
within the Division, between the Division and the Ministry and between the
Division and key stakeholders, a communications strategy was designed to
support the Division's strategic objectives by:
• Promoting understanding of the need for reform and the value of the
change initiatives among all stakeholders - internal and external.
• Establishing the level of commitment and active support of internal stakeholders, that
will facilitate the timely and successful completion of change initiatives.
• Achieving incremental progress towards the internal cultural and behavioural change
required to support new business practices.
• Improving the reputation of the Division among key external stakeholders.
This strategy was designed to be implemented by the Ministry's Public Affairs
branch and that the responsible person would assume overall responsibility
for management and coordination of the communication aspects of PIP and
Offender Management employee communication in general. This person
• Maintain the stakeholder database.
• Develop and maintain current core information on the improvement program.
• Be responsible for the development, distribution and monitoring of all communication
• Be the central repository for feedback from the internal and external stakeholders.
• Assume responsibility for continuous improvement of employee communication within
The Communication Process
The communication strategic process is based on a continuous and ever-
improving cycle of activity phases:
• Starting with research/ evaluation to determine current stakeholder
attitude relative to the Division's strategic direction and the efficacy of
• Progressing to determination of key messages and communication content, through
• Choice of communication tools, implementation, and so on again to research,
repeating the cycle.
An integral part of the communication process is that of Key Communication
Messages. The following core messages were suggested as being potentially
powerful and universally appealing:
• We are working towards re-establishing ours as a first-rate prison
service; that is comparable to Australia's best; in we can all be proud to
work; and to which has the full support of Government and the
• Our ongoing improvement program is operationally based. It relies on the input,
knowledge and efforts of our people, throughout the Division.
• The improvement program is being facilitated and supported by an independent
Project Office, housed in the Ministry.
For the key message statements to be effective, it is crucial that there is
demonstrated commitment to these messages - that the rhetoric matches the
reality - especially in the actions of the 'top team'.
Note: The entire communication strategy in this case study far exceeds the
space available, therefore it should be noted that others aspects taken into
the strategy, but listed here only be headings are: Core Communication
Materials, Branding (of the project), Methodology, Employee
Communications, Media Relations, Communications with other Stakeholders,
Issues Management, Feedback, Monitoring and Evaluation, and
The final two points when devising a communications strategy is to be
conscious of the
Principles of Effective Communication by:
• Being open and honest - there needs to be a willingness on behalf of
the communicator to share information freely, unless it is legitimately
sensitive/confidential, in which case I this should be made clear to the
• Being two-way and responsive - communication works best if it is two-way, because
people are more likely to listen to us if we listen to them.
• Being receiver-oriented - It is not what our message does to the listener but what
the listener does with our message that determines our success as communicators.
• Being timely - people are more likely to support a change which affects them if they
are consulted before the change is made.
• Being clear and consistent - your communication should be based on clear
consistent messages that are keyed to the success intent of your strategy.
• Being comprehensive - make sure that everyone who has an interest in the project
is included in your communication, and ensure that communication flows upwards,
downwards and laterally.
The second point is to incorporate some basic steps into your
• Step One - Establishment of Objectives - these objectives must align
with the objectives of the project. Objectives should be outcome based
• Step Two - Stakeholder Identification and Analysis - define and list your
stakeholders. Ideally you would establish a modest data base of stakeholders with
correct titles and current contact details, then it will be necessary to define their
communication needs, preferences and /or concerns in relation to the project.
• Step Three - Development of Key Messages and Core Material - as a resource
you need a current body of information that is continually updated and kept on disc
for ready application to the range of communication tools that you will use during the
life of the project. You can draw on this material readily to 'cut and past' a memo,
newsletter, answer a question or presentation notes , for example. Core information
will generally include:
• A set of key messages, generally highlighting the benefits o and
reflecting the objectives of the project, for consistent application in all
• A basic fact sheet describing the project and explaining key aspects of it (what it is,
where it fits in the overall strategy, how it will be run, who will be involved).
• A question and answer document, which is a list of all the questions you anticipate or
have received in relation to the project, and the answers.
Now to examine a different approach to strategic communication through
Alcoa of Australia.
Case 2: Strategic Planning in Public Relations
Alcoa of Australia
Alcoa of Australia Ltd is a part of Alcoa World Alumina, a global alliance
between Alcoa Inc and WMC Limited. It operates two bauxite mines and three
alumina refineries in Western Australia and two aluminium smelters in
Victoria. It is the world’s biggest bauxite miner and alumina refiner, and sells
its alumina and aluminium commodity products worldwide. Alcoa employs
more than 5000 people in Australia, its balance sheet exceeds $3 billion, and
it is one of Australia’s top 10 exporters.
The Public Relations Group comprises 19 FTEs (full-time equivalents)
including dedicated administrative support, operating from six locations. The
senior PR professional at five locations reports directly to the most senior line
manager, and the Corporate Relations Manager reports direct to the
Alcoa’s strategic public relations planning is linked directly to the company’s
business plan, and this case study describes through examples how the
former is tailored to support the latter.
The PR plan is a navigable document relying heavily on internal hyperlinks
(MS-Word 7 or above) and is maintained as an electronic document
accessible across Australia on Alcoa’s wide area network. As such, there are
some practical problems in representing it in a printed format. Word
underlining has been maintained to indicate where hyperlinks are being used,
and are explained in the text.
Who is the Customer?
As the question implies, Alcoa Public Relations has built its planning
architecture on Total Quality Management (TQM) principles. As such it must
be capable of answering the key Quality questions:
Who is the customer
What does the customer want?
How can I meet or exceed the customer’s expectations?
The customer is Alcoa’s line management. Line management are those who
are involved in a sequential production chain from accessing the bauxite lease
through mining bauxite, refining alumina, smelting aluminium, and selling
product, with a super-ordinate objective of creating value for our shareholders.
Shareholder value can be defined as paying dividends, increasing the return
on assets, and creating an expectation of rising share values.
What Does the Customer Want?
The customers have their own customers: shareholders, government,
employees, public groups – anyone who is a stakeholder in Alcoa’s present
and future. In most cases, PR planning looks past the primary customer to
those stakeholders, and works to assist line management in satisfying
legitimate stakeholder needs.
However, it is important in strategic planning that stakeholders are not
confused with customers. By avoiding any confusion, Alcoa Public Relations
(APR) maintains a consultancy attitude towards Alcoa line management,
despite being almost totally an in-house function.
The customer wants an assured business horizon built on its vision:
Alcoa of Australia is a growing company, dedicated to excellence and to
creating value for customers, employees, shareholders and the community
through innovation, technology and operational expertise.
As an integral part of Alcoa World Alumina, we contribute to its aim to be the
supplier of choice in the world alumina industry and a superior performer in its
other business activities, generating stable and growing economic returns for
We pursue this vision in a manner consistent with our corporate values.
Our customers look to APR, along with other service functions in the company
(legal, human resources, accounting etc), to support the company’s vision and
How Can We Meet or Exceed our Customer’s Expectations?
Alcoa management has accepted and endorsed advice from APR that to
assure long-term business success, it requires six business enablers that are
outcomes of PR processes. These are:
1. An Informed Public
Defined audiences and the general public have delivered to them the
information they need to understand Alcoa’s operations and objectives.
2. A Supportive Public
Alcoa’s publics support the Enterprise’s operations and objectives, with
measured positive attitudes substantially exceeding negative views.
3. An Informed Workforce
Alcoa’s employees are provided with efficient and comprehensive
communications processes and content to ensure that they have
delivered to them the information they need to understand and respond
to Alcoa’s operations and objectives, and their role in the enterprise.
4. A Supportive Workforce
Alcoa’s employees support the Company’s operations and objectives,
with measured positive attitudes substantially exceeding negative
5. A Responsive Management
Alcoa’s management have delivered to them the information and
analysis they need to understand, predict and respond appropriately to
changing standards and expectations amongst all the Company’s
6. A Facilitative Government
Government and Government Departments at Federal, State and Local
levels understand Alcoa’s operations and objectives, and work with
Alcoa to create an environment in which mutual goals can be attained.
APR works to build these business enablers, using a variety of planning,
process and assessment tools, which collectively are characterised by:
Processes are standardised across all operating locations and managed
within upper and lower control limits. APR will maintain these control limits at
Current Best Method levels.
In-control processes are managed to ensure continuous improvement in both
the appropriate outcomes, and the cost-efficiency of operations within the
control limits. Improvements in outcomes will be measurable and defined in
consultation with our customers.
Standardised processes are developed by APR working as a team, ensuring
ownership and level knowledge of all processes by its members.
There are no barriers between members of the APR Group. Best Method
transfer will be encouraged and recognised, both between Alcoa’s world-wide
operating locations and by import from external sources.
The APR Toolbox
Alcoa Public Relations bases its strategic architecture on a series of planning
and process tools, many of them sourced from those elements of TQM that
have become embedded in a worldwide corporate template, known as the
Alcoa Business System. The key tools comprise:
o A balanced scorecard.
o SIPOC charts.
o Process flow charts.
o Current best method work instructions.
o Outcomes measurement.
Each of these is examined in turn, with examples given. The linkages
between each tool are explained, and some outcomes described.
The balanced scorecard is the top of the planning heirarchy, giving a single-
document summary of the APR plan for the year ahead. The concept of a
balanced scorecard is simple: it is not sufficient to do some things extremely
well and others poorly, to give a "good average." Everything required of the
function must be undertaken with the same level of success. A metaphor is
the golfer’s scorecard, which shows equal success in driving, approach,
putting etc. The following layout shows the elements of a balanced scorecard.
GOAL STRATEGIC LAGGING LEADING INITIATIVES
MILESTONES INDICATORS INDICATORS
A simple statement of the objective. It answers the question: "When you have
undertaken all the of actions you intend, where will you have got to?" In the
case of APR there are six goals – to achieve the six business enablers
described above. Thus a goal of APR is:
ALCOA WORLD ALUMINA – AUSTRALIA
BALANCED SCORECARD: PUBLIC RELATIONS
GOAL STRATEGIC LAGGING LEADING INITIATIVES
MILESTONES INDICATORS INDICATORS
Alcoa’s publics will be
supportive of our
Note there is a slight difference between the goal statement and the business
enabler statement. This is because the latter incorporates measurement,
whereas in the balanced scorecard format the concept of measurement
requires greater detail. The goal statement is clear and unambiguous – we
know we will have achieved our destination when the various publics
important to us are supportive of our operations and objectives.
Quite clearly, these major goals are unlikely to be achieved overnight. Some
of them are set on horizons a number of years away, and in that sense are
the equivalent of vision statements. We know what it will be like when we get
there, but there will be a number of stages to the journey. In some cases,
different stages will require different tactics. Strategic milestones are designed
to establish the completion of each stage, to provide a time-based monitor of
planned progress. One such milestone might be:
GOAL STRATEGIC LAGGING LEADING INITIATIVES
MILESTONES INDICATORS INDICATORS
Supportive • Measured positive
negative views by
The hyperlink measured in the chart takes the user direct to a definition of the
parameters of the measurement – which audiences are being measured,
sample size, frequency, questions asked etc. Depending on the intensity of
forward planning to reach the stated goal, there might be four or five such
strategic milestones. If the balanced scorecard is being used as an annual
plan, or if the goal is a near objective, there might be only one or two
All measures should have upper as well as lower control limits. For example,
if it is agreed that the ratio of positive public attitudes to negative attitudes
should be no less than 65:35, an upper limit should also be set. It might be
argued that in a typical population success is assured if four people support
your operations and objectives for every one that is opposed – thus the
results should always fall between 65:35 and 80:20. A process is "in control" if
it always delivers a result between the upper and lower limits. It is just as
much out of control if it delivers too many favourables as if it produces too few
– too many means that shareholder funds, for example, have been wasted on
programs that expensively win over those most resistant to the organisation’s
A program, plan or process is "capable" if the outcome is that which is
necessary for the goal. McDonald’s is famous for its processes being both in
control (each hamburger is produced precisely within tight upper and lower
component and time limits) and capable (the products meet or exceed
customer expectations, evidenced by McDonald’s producing more than 35
million services worldwide per day). Quality management demands that all
critical process be both "in control" and "capable." The unrivalled record of
Qantas as an airline demonstrates that the critical process of delivering
passengers safely to their destination is in control and capable. (The less
successful record of on-time departures indicates higher variability for some
The need for all strategic plans to incorporate measurable outcomes is well
established. The balanced scorecard refines measurement into leading and
lagging indicators, of which the latter is more familiar. Simply stated, a lagging
indicator measures progress during our journey through time past successive
milestones towards the final goal. In this context, the public survey gauge is
GOAL STRATEGIC LAGGING LEADING INITIATIVES
MILESTONES INDICATORS INDICATORS
Supportive Positive • Results of public
Publics attitudes attitude surveys.
The hyperlink leads directly to the results of the latest public survey, either
within the same document or in a folder accessible to the link. The
establishment of the balanced scorecard as a "one stop shop" for the APR
strategic plan is an important feature of this tool, providing an access point to
a wide range of supporting documents and records. The navigable facility of
current word processing software allows users to easily jump to a related
point, and then use a "back button" to return to the prior path. As will be
shown, the linkages can extend as far as individual progress, performance
review and career path planning – all based on actions to support business
New users of the balanced scorecard tool often find this column the most
difficult to understand and complete. A lagging indicator measures something
that has happened – thus the measured event is past, and though action can
be taken to offset any undesired outcome, the event will always exist as
something that has occurred.
It is preferable to be able to measure ahead of undesired events, so as to
facilitate action that might prevent those outcomes. The predictive measure is
a subtle tool, but without it a strategic plan amounts to not much more than a
series of "if – then" scenarios. For example, using only lagging indicators, one
would be forced to wait until it started to rain before bringing in the washing.
Using the (tautologically labelled) leading indicator of weather forecasts, one
would tend to not hang out the washing until a dry period was predicted.
Simply expressed, leading indicators are warning signs of undesired
outcomes or, in their positive form, harbingers of success.
GOAL STRATEGIC LAGGING LEADING INITIATIVES
MILESTONES INDICATORS INDICATORS
Supportive Positive Survey • Balance of good
Publics attitudes results news / bad news
articles in local
Once again, the hyperlink will lead to an updated record of that balance and
can be integrated with the newsclip file system to allow rapid reference to past
stories or tapes. Other leading indicators might be the range of publics helped
through sponsorship programs, the number of awards won for critical items
such as environmental performance, and the number of people from given
stakeholder groups who ask to remain on a mailing list. In each case, these
inputs must be just as measurable as outcomes.
This is familiar territory. It is a list of activities that will be undertaken over the
period of the plan, through which it is expected that the leading indicators will
all be green lights predicting that the lagging indicators will measure
successful progress through the planned milestones to the stated goal. A list
of initiatives is sometimes presented as a strategic plan, or is sometimes
developed as the initial document leading to measurable outcomes. As has
been shown, preferred strategic planning has the list of activities four steps
downstream from the goals.
GOAL STRATEGIC LAGGING LEADING INITIATIVES
MILESTONES INDICATORS INDICATORS
Supportive Positive Survey Media • Assess portfolio of
Publics attitudes results balance sponsorships for gaps and
• Assess congruence of
sponsorships with business
• Ensure that national
pollutant inventory data is
information at source and
at time of publication.
The hyperlinks in the initiatives column all lead to a particular person. That
person will have a variety of initiatives to support different goals in the plan –
some to build the informed employee enabler, some to build the facilitative
government enabler etc. Those who specialise in a particular area such as
government relations can expect more of their initiatives to be directed
towards this enabler, but there is no reason why that specialist should not also
have initiatives in other areas.
It is important that a person be responsible for completion of each initiative.
Many initiatives will require teams to achieve the outcomes, and some of
those teams will include other members of APR, other employees and
external stakeholders and consultants. In those cases, the APR member will
often be the team leader. But for the balanced scorecard to be effective as a
strategic plan, an individual person must be accountable for each initiative.
This supports Alcoa’s accountability value:
We are accountable - individually and in teams - for our actions and results.
Each individual’s set of initiatives becomes part of that person’s performance
review, and the progress against plan is assessed at year-end through the
Alcoa Performance Management process. While for obvious reasons the
individual assessments are not part of the strategic document, the collated
objectives of each APR member are part of the strategic plan. This allows all
other APR members to develop a total view of the plan for the year, to learn
from the progress of others, to see initiatives that they might not otherwise
have thought of, and to transfer best method.
Once an individual and an initiative have been linked, and an assessment
made of an individual’s workload for the year (checking for under/over
utilisation, or duplication of initiatives), each initiative is planned through the
SIPOC process. A SIPOC is simply a chart used to determine for any given
The following example involves the process of employee communication. The
relevant elements of the balanced scorecard will have been:
Employees will understand and respond to Alcoa’s operations and objectives,
and their role in the enterprise.
Measured awareness of key initiatives will exceed 60%
Results of awareness survey
• Number of internal media stories which focus on business goals and
• Percentage of Employee Communication Officer’s time spent in
measuring and raising levels of awareness of key initiatives.
• Review all internal communication processes and content to ensure
that they deliver to employees the information they need.
• Deploy agreed process for measuring and raising levels of awareness.
• Publish plant newsletters to include stories which focus on business goals and
Publication of plant newsletters is an established process designed to
facilitate communication objectives. The hyperlink publish leads to a SIPOC
which details the elements involved in this process.
PROCESS: Newsletter production and distribution.
SUPPLIERS INPUTS PROCESSES OUTCOMES CUSTOMERS
MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL RESEARCH Every employee PRIMARY:
provided with a
EQUIPMENT WRITING newsletter every Location
APPROVALS CLEARANCES conforming to style &
content guidelines. WA Ops Mg’t
EMPLOYEES INFORMATION SURVEYS >85% of employees AUDIENCES
CONSULTANTS CLEARANCES newsletters. PRIMARY:
LOCATIONS Primary customer Employees
newsletters support Emp. Families
Location objectives. SECONDARY:
SECRETARIAL TYPING Local Gov’t
PR GROUP STANDARDS
A SIPOC causes the process manager to think about more than just the
central element of the process itself. Customers are downstream of all
processes, and suppliers are upstream. The process manager is part of the
chain – he or she is a customer of the suppliers, as well as the supplier of the
customers. Where goods or services are involved, there is a wider context of
the Alcoa Production System, with the over-arching principles:
Customer pull – make to use.
Eliminate waste – inventory management
People linchpin the system.
Process Flow Chart
The central column of a SIPOC briefly describes the process itself. This is
taken to two further levels, designed to ensure:
o The process is in control and capable.
o The process is amenable to continuous improvement (Kaizen).
o All the knowledge in the process is retained in the business.
The standard format is a process flow chart, with newsletter production being
again used as the example. Flow charts can have any level of complexity, and
a judgement needs to be made about how exhaustively a given process
should be described. The Alcoa standard is that a flow chart should be
sufficiently simple that it can be understood and followed by a new PR
professional without hesitation (this it has gaps that will rely on experience
and professional knowledge to bridge); and that it should be sufficiently
complex to ensure that the outcome is assured. All processes are deliberately
described as CBMs (current best methods) to stimulate the view that they are
open to continuous improvement, not set in stone.
NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION CBM
Newsletter Production and Distribution Work Instructions
Public Relations will research, write, edit, publish and distribute regular
location newsletters. The content will vary to answer the needs of location
managements, whilst the style will conform to agreed overall guidelines.
Newsletters will be aimed to provide the general information needs of all
Alcoa employees, while specialist newsletters may be published to meet the
needs of specific employee groups.
The objectives in publishing internal newsletters are:
• To provide a reliable and authoritative medium that has the acceptance
of employees and the confidence of management.
• To establish common goals and identity within each location.
• To assist in communication and focus attention on location changes
and events, workforce changes, safety, productivity and efficiency, and
CBM FLOWCHART STEPS
1. Develop Round
Identify a person within each major location area or workgroup who can be
relied on the provide news of events, activities, achievements etc that could
be of interest to the newsletter’s audience.
2. Program Time
Allocate and diarise time on a regular basis to research, interview, write and
produce stories and photographs for the newsletter. Give this programmed
time a high priority. Do not accept other appointments or tasks in its place
unless the time is rescheduled. Strong stories and good production are
impossible to achieve if attempted at the last minute. As a general guide, it will
take at least a full day of elapsed time to produce a four-page newsletter.
3. Contact Correspondents
Check each person in the "round" for each edition. Most correspondents will
not volunteer stories on a regular basis, but can discuss what is happening in
their departments, from which will come the news lead. The more often they
are contacted, the more likely they are to start volunteering story ideas, and
perhaps undertaking some research and writing. Use the contact process to
comment on (recognise) the publication of that correspondent’s latest story.
4. Obtain Story Leads
Apart from correspondents, there are many potential sources for stories.
Personnel appointments, management meetings, authorised projects, news
items from other locations etc will all provide leads for stories. Surveys show
employees are particularly interested in personal and corporate
achievements, in health and safety issues, and in information about new
starters. People stories are always more widely read and remembered than
impersonal accounts. Newsletter content should include material from the
location’s Social Club and provide space for employee classifieds.
5. Research or Interview
Research may involve contacting external sources, using the company library,
developing an understanding of complex processes, or simply verifying
material from established data. Good research avoids the need for
subsequent corrections to stories. Journalists use five standard questions to
cover each story, and they are particularly important for interviews.
Who did it?
What did they do?
How did they do it?
Where did it happen?
When did it happen?
Why did they do it?
Always check spellings, and specifically the correct spelling of a person’s
name and their job title. Ask the person themself - do not rely on secondary
sources. During the interview, ask questions that require more than a "yes" or
"no" answer. Give the interviewee time to relax and feel comfortable about
discussing the topic. Many people need to talk about an issue for some time
before they get to the bottom line. Some people are nervous about talking "on
the record." Always offer to check the story back with the interviewee, so that
they will feel they retain control over the information. Interview in their office or
workplace, so they feel "at home" and because often they will need to access
6. Commission Stories
At times someone else might want to or need to write a newsletter story,
because they have an important personal message, for example, or because
they have technical expertise in the area. The newsletter editor needs to give
correspondents help and guidelines around content, style and expression,
and should always edit these contributions to ensure their readability. In many
cases the stories will need to be subbed back to a suitable length, which will
require some diplomacy with the contributor.
7. Write Stories
The beginning of an article - the "lead" - is as important as the whole story.
The lead acts as a hook, enticing readers to read the rest of the piece. The
lead must tell the reader what the story is about. Many people skim
publications, and only read the first one or two sentences unless they are
involved in the topic.
Newsletter articles follow the same rules as a news story. Follow the pyramid
rule, where information in the story is told in order of importance - the most
important first and the least important last. The bottom line must be the top
Quotations are always important. They keep the reader interested and bring a
human aspect into the story. Good quotes add credibility and immediacy to
Short sentences are important. Each paragraph should contain a maximum of
two sentences. Try setting an upper limit of 20 words per sentence, and
ruthlessly break up longer sentences. As in the preceding sentence, learn to
spot connective words such as "and".
The writing style should be friendly and informal, without being folksy, using
easily comprehensible language. Avoid technical words and jargon. Spell out
acronyms in first reference.
8. Edit Copy
Editing should produce a newsletter within the standard style. This style has
been approved by senior management and the PR Group has agreed that
proposed style changes will be referred to that group for endorsement.
Elements of this style are:
Masthead "Location" Newsletter (e.g. Pinjarra Newsletter).
Frequency: Once a month.
Content: News items will target one or more of the PR enablers.
News items will have a specific communication objective.
Emphasise safety, quality improvement, environment.
Advertising can be included for Alcoa-supported events, non- commercial
community groups and non-commercial employee classifieds (except "work
Social Club notes as provided by the clubs. Discounts or services to members
should be news references only - not advertisements - and no commercial
A standard box on the back page will include the address, Editor’s name and
Australian Company Number (ACN).
Content must not include production costs, raw production data (some
indexed data is OK), political comment, items protected by copyright.
Typeface: Body copy: 12pt Times New Roman.
Pic Captions: 12pt Times News Roman italic.
Headings: Times New Roman, covering the copy.
Paragraphs: No indent, flush left, ragged right.
Colour: One plus black.
Size:A4 portrait, minimum 4 pages (numbered), no maximum.
Strategic planning in Alcoa Public Relations is supported by a structure
designed to cover the entire field, from the broad vision of half a dozen critical
goals, through to the detail of the colours used in plant newsletters. The
structure is built around Total Quality Management tools and is intended to be
a framework for all planning. The content is dynamic, changing from year to
year in terms of necessary initiatives, and evolving year after year as
processes are steadily improved. Some areas of content have yet to be
planned in detail, while others are already highly evolved. Alcoa Public
Relations works as a team on standardising and improving processes, and
works as an in-house consultancy in servicing the needs of its customers. The
APR team is constantly looking for new initiatives and process enhancement,
and welcomes all comment, advice and criticism.
a Alcoa of Australia Limited.
Having developed some of the issues and concepts pertinent to
organisational and public relations strategic planning, through theory, practice
and case studies it may be helpful to recap on what has been discussed. On a
thorough reading of this chapter, you should have a reasonable
understanding on how one would be able to:
1. Define, understand and apply strategies in terms of public relations
2. Identify the various ways public relations strategies fit into organisations, and the
effect of corporate culture and ideology in the relationship;
3. Develop effective strategic vision and mission statements;
4. Understand the various strategic principles relevant to corporate reputation building
and an ethical ethos;
5. Apply the knowledge of public relations strategies to projects, plans; for example,
those relevant to corporate and government affairs.
6. Recognise the need for strategic evaluation and be capable of conducting audits and
budget evaluation, and finally,
7. Think strategically in all aspects of public relations applications.
Many books have been written devoted solely to the discussion of strategy,
therefore this chapter does not claim to be totally inclusive of all that you need
to know on the subject of strategy, so in conclusion, here is a short list of
books that will add to this introductory knowledge:
Caywood, C.L.ed. (1997) The Handbook of Strategic Public
Relations & Integrated Communications, McGraw Hill, New
Kendall, R. (1996) Public Relations Campaign Strategies -
Planning for Implementation, 2 ed. Harper Collins, New York.
Heath, R. L.(1997) Strategic issues Management -
Organisations and Public Policy
Challenges, Sage, California.
McElreath, M. (1993) Managing Systematic and Ethical Public
Relations, WCB Brown & Benchmark, Dubuque, Iowa.
Potter, L. (1997) The Communication Plan - The Heart of
Strategic Communication, IABC Strategic Communicator Series,
IABC, San Francisco.
Spicer, C.(1997) Organizational Public Relations - A Political
Perspective, LEA, New Jersey.
White, J. and Mazur, L. (1995) Strategic Communications
Management - Making Public Relations Work, E.I.U. Addison
See reference page for additional titles.
Allert, J. (1992) A Delphi Study on Chief Executive's Attitudes to
Public Relations' Practitioners' Competencies, non-published
Brody, E.W. (1988) Public Relations Programming and
Production, Praeger, New York.
D'Aprix, R. (1996) Communicating for Change - connecting the
Workplace with the Marketplace, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Frombrun, C.J (1996) Reputation. Realizing Value from the
Corporate Image, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
Grunig, J.ed.(1992) Excellence in Public Relations and
Communication Management, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
Grunig, L. 'Excellence in Public Relations' in The Handbook of
Strategic Public Relations and Integrated Communications, ed.
Catywood, C. L. , McGraw-Hill, New York
Harrison, K.(1996) Developing a Public Relations Strategy, cited
in Public Relations 300 lecture, Curtin University of Technology,
Heath, R. L. (1997) Strategic Issues Management -
Organisations and Public Policy Challenges, Sage, Thousand
Mintzberg, H. and Quinn, J.B. (1991) The Strategy Process -
Concepts, Contexts, Cases, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey
Potter, L. (1997:39) The Communication Plan - The Heart of
Strategic Communication, IABC Strategic Communicator Series,
IABC, San Francisco.
Potter, L. Strategic Communication: Dead or in Demand as
Never Before? Communication World, Special Edition,
Sinclair, M. (1998) Change Communication Plan for the Public
Affairs Branch of The Ministry of Justice, Rowland Company,
Sweet, D. Public Affairs Manger, AlintaGas, Public Affairs
Management, presented at a Curtin University, Public Relations
300 lecture, August 1998, Perth.
White, J. and Mazur, L. (1995) Strategic Communications
Management - Making Public Relations Work, E.I.U. Addison