NGOs and Disaster Response— Who are These Guys and What Do They Want Anyway ? Melinda Hofstetter Center for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance Tulane University, Washington D.C. www.cdmha.org
is a joint program of:
United States Southern Command
University of South Florida
in partnership with
Mission of the CDMHA
Facilitate civil-military operations and cooperation
Develop and implement education and training programs in disaster and crisis management
Facilitate collaborative education, training, research and information and communication services between disaster response and humanitarian assistance agencies (e.g. the military, NGOs, PVOs, etc.)
Make sense of the NGO universe so that you will find it easier to work with them
Standards of Conduct
Discuss NGO concerns about working with the military and why
How NGOs fit into the disaster relief equation
The civil and military relationship
NGOs and PVOs
“ An extraordinarily complex system which makes medieval Europe look centralized and ordered by comparison.”
John Paul Lederach, director of the Mennonite Central Committee and the Conflict Analysis and Transformation Program of the eastern Mennonite University
No distinction between NGOs and PVOs
Does not include professional associations, businesses, and foundations
Who Are They?
Non-profit organizations or associations of private citizens with any common interest
The c ommon interest , for our purposes, is international humanitarian assistance activities (development and relief)
May be international or local
NGOs vary greatly
Organizational structure is similar to businesses
Non-rigid hierarchy; significant flexibility and authority at the field level
International NGOs often team up with local NGOs
What do They Do?
Operational vs Advocacy
Grassroots, long-term projects, development work
Willing to work in high risk areas; not constrained by sovereignty
Emphasis on sustainability
Full integration with local population
Good positioning for disaster response
Who Pays Them?
Private Donations (citizens and foundations)
International Organizations (UN)
Importance of Media
Aid will not be used to further a particular political or religious standpoint.
Aid is given regardless of race, creed, or nationality.
Aid is based on need alone.
Aid agencies shall not act as instruments of government foreign policy.
INCREASED THREAT TO AID WORKERS
Increased Range of Conflict since Cold War
Ethnic conflicts and genocide
Identified as symbols of western values
Increased banditry and crime
Ignorance, indifference and indiscriminate violence
Should offer access and protection from attack; not always true anymore
Core values will impact NGO willingness to work with the military.
Even perception of value violation will be avoided.
PERCEPTION IS REALITY!
Who Monitors These Guys?
Little External Monitoring
Self-Control: NGO Standards
Red Cross Code of Conduct
InterAction PVO Standards
Sphere Minimum Standards in Disaster Response
Seize the High Ground! is the six inches between the other guy’s ears THE KEY TERRAIN
PERCEPTIONS THE MILITARY HAVE OF NGOs
PERCEPTIONS NGOs HAVE OF THE MILITARY
NGO and Military Cultures: Differences
Few Field Manuals
Extensive Branch Training
“ End-State” Approach
NGOs AND THE MILITARY
Clear separation of missions and operations
Single neutral agenda
Overlapping humanitarian missions
Chaotic complex environments
Humanitarian aid to soldiers and sailors Complex inconsistent “partnership” Tradition Today
NGO and Military Cultures: Similarities
Motivation: Adrenaline Junkies and Idealists
Desire to See the World
Separation from Family and Friends
Both are mission driven. Both are synergistic. They shouldn’t be antagonistic. But attitudes can cause them to be so. It’s the PERCEPTION !!! LTC M.M. Smith, USA
International assistance required
Donors rely more on NGOs, because of their access to the populations in need
And again, their access is dependent on their neutrality
Most humanitarian emergencies do NOT involve the military
The need for civ-mil cooperation may be the exception rather than the rule
Review of Emergency Response
Affected Country’s Government
National Bilateral donors: OFDA, ECHO
UN Agencies: OCHA, UNHCR, WFP, WHO, UNDP
Military Forces (on rare occasions)
The Fog of Disaster Relief UN Agencies UNICEF WFP UNDP NGO UNHCR NGO NGO USG Red Cross ICRC Affected Country/ Government NGO Donor Other Governments NGO Donor NGO NGO
Do They Coordinate?
US Embassy Country Team
Other USG Agencies (OFDA "DART")
UN Coordination Entities [UNHCR, WFP, UNDP, UNICEF, OCHA, Special Humanitarian Coordinator]