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Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan
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Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan

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  • 1. Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan Effective date: September 20, 2008 All previous versions are obsolete
  • 2. Table of Contents Introductions Intent and Definition of Crisis Management 4 Executive Director’s Office Planning Response 4 Campus-Based Crisis Planning and Response 6 Emergency Response Plan 6 Purpose and Scope 6 Emergency Response Team 6 Incident Management System 6 Support Services and Disaster Recovery Teams 7 Emergency Response Plan Components 7 Emergency Response Team Notification Sheet 8 Mitigation/Prevention 9 Exterior of School – access, lighting, grounds 9 Interior of School – doors, windows, signage 10 Emergency Phone Numbers 11 Main Office, Hallways, Classroom, Computer 12 Physical Operations/Custodians 13 Policy and Procedures 13 Emergency Procedure – Evacuation and Drills 14 Emergency Response Plan Review, Maintenance and Drills 14 Preparedness 15 Planning, Training, Exercising 15 Community Partners 16 Roles and Responsibilities – Incident Command 16 Incident Command Preparedness 16 Incident Command Response 17 Incident Command Recovery 17 Evacuation Coordinator 18 Reunification Coordinator 18 School Resource Officer 19 School Security Officer 20 School Nurse 20 Head Custodian 21 Recorder 21 National Incident Management Systems 22 Emergency Response Teams 23 Algorithm 24 Crisis Management Team 26 Annual Crisis Management In-service 27 Interventions 27 Communication During and After Incidents 28 Intercom, Bullhorns, Radio, Email 28 Fax Machine, Cell Phones, Alarm Systems 29 Code Words 29 Communication with Parents 29 School Threat Assessment Response Protocol 30 Identification and Response to Warning Signs – Student Violence 32 Early Warning Signs 32 Imminent Warning Signs 35 Response to Suicide Attempt – Off Campus 36 School Re-entry for Students Who Attempted Suicide 36 1
  • 3. Mitigation – Intelligence and Analysis 37 Crime Analysis 37 Registered Sex Offender Locations 38 Physical Security Assessments 38 Crisis Response Procedures Overview 40 Internal Communication 41 Telephone Tree 41 Morning and End of day Faculty Meeting 41 External Communications 41 Dealing with Rumors 42 Communication with Media 42 Specific Crisis Death of Student or Staff Member 46 Suicide – Warnings, Threats 46 Team Consult, Crisis Interviews 47 Minor Accidents at School 48 Fights in School Setting 48 Medical Emergencies 49 Cardiac Arrest 49 Other Life Threatening Medical Emergencies 50 Angry Parent 50 School related Bus Wrecks 50 Power Failure/Lines Down 50 Loss or Disruption of Water 51 Loss or Disruption of Communications 51 Loss or Disruption of Shelter 52 Perceived Crises 52 Critical Incident Procedure 53 Explosions 54 Unexpected Alarm Activation 54 Flooding 55 Tornados 56 Watch 56 Warning 57 Other Severe Weather 58 Community Sheltering Operations 58 Transportation Disasters 59 Bomb Threats/Telephone Threats 60 Bomb and Disease Threat Checklist 64 Chemical or Hazardous Materials Exposure 65 Radiological Emergencies 66 Surry Nuclear Power Station 67 Loss, Disappearance or Kidnapping of Student 68 Lockdown Events 69 Secured Building 71 Hostage Situations/Barricaded Subject 73 Employee Victim Hostage 75 Mass Casualty Caused by Criminal Actions 75 Appendix A: Sample Statements and Communication with Parents 76 Pre-event Sample Letter to Parents 77 Post-event Sample Letter to Parents 78 Tips for Parents to Help Create Safe Schools 79 Student Tactics for Safe Schools 80 2
  • 4. Appendix B: Planning Surveys and Checklists 82 Staff Skills and Information Inventory 83 Butler Farm Inventory 84 NHREC Incident Report 85 Post Event Report/Response Critique 86 Designation of Assignment/Activity Locations 87 Bomb and Disease Threat Checklists 63 Appendix C: Suggested School-based Training and Drills to Maintain Preparedness 88 Sample Agenda for In-service Training 89 Samples Scenarios 89 Planning Tips for Table Top Drills 90 Appendix D: Informational Handouts Suggested Classroom Activities after a Loss 92 Helping Your Child after a Disaster 94 Appendix E: Resources 95 Appendix F: Transportation Information 99 School Related Bus Wreck Procedure 100 School Safety Audits 101 Campus Crisis Plan Table of Conducts 102 Appendix G: Homeland Security 105 3
  • 5. Introduction Intent and Definition of Crisis Management Intent This Crisis and Emergency Management Plan (CEMP) is issued pursuant to the directions in School Board Policy. New Horizons Regional Education Center’s Crisis and Emergency Management Plan exists to ensure timely interventions to save lives and minimize injuries through information preplanning and interagency agreements that ensure a quick and effective response to crisis. Crisis management is a central component of comprehensive school safety. The most important considerations in both crisis management and safe school efforts are the health, safety, and welfare of the students and staff. A comprehensive safe schools plan places a strong emphasis on prevention using strategies that range from building design to discipline policies and programs that improve school climate and have preplanned actions to deal with a wide range of emergencies. This Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan includes intervention, crisis response, critical incident procedures and monitors for total quality management Crisis management may be defined as the school division’s approach to school safety which focuses more narrowly on a time-limited, problem-focused intervention to identify, confront and resolve the crisis, restore equilibrium, and support appropriate adaptive responses. Executive Director’s Office Crisis Planning and Response Assigned Roles for School Administrative office Staff during a Major School Emergency Executive Director  Activate the appropriate part of the CEMP.  Provide resources needed based on the type of emergency.  Direct administrative staff actions during the emergency.  Communicate with emergency services and law enforcement agencies.  Authorize the release of information to the public.  Keep NHREC Board of Trustees and superintendents informed.  Designate person in charge when on leave. In event Executive Director, or designee, is unavailable the following chain of command will become effective: o Mrs. Vikki Wismer, Director of GSST and GAITE o Principal or Director at campus not effected by emergency o Mr. Don Ragland, Finance Director  Ensure that each campus is in compliance with and maintains their CEMP.   Ensure appropriate activities are scheduled for the first day of school following  the crisis.  Visit local hospital or send designee to personally communicate with those  4
  • 6. affected by the incident  Communicate with other campuses in the school during the emergency period. Directors of Network Administration and Human Resources  Develop and plan scenarios in which administrative technological resources can  be dispersed effectively to emergency sites.  Establish and maintain lines of communication between the Executive Director  and the emergency site; for off campus emergency, lines of communication must also be established with the involved school. Such lines of communication may include land-line phones, cell phones, radios and messengers.  Supervise the use of technology resources and when necessary initiate technology  disaster recovery operations.  Initiate central call center with a prepared statement.  Arrange for assistance as needed from additional school psychologists, school social workers, divisional Directors of Guidance, Mental Health Crisis Services, and other community resources. School arrangements should include the designation of meeting spaces, provisions to request on-call services to meet unexpected demand, and provision of long term follow-up.  Setup communications between the emergency site and public agencies.   Coordinate with search-and-rescue operations if needed.   Coordinate with Divisional Directors of Transportation.  Director, Business and Finance  Initiate accountability procedures to track expenses associated with the  emergency event.  Notify insurance agencies as required.   Arrange for the payment of monies needed to respond to crises; authorize  purchases and payments for such resources.  Arrange for the delivery of outside services and materials needed for the  management of the emergency.  Supply food, generators, water, sewer, and other facility support services as  needed. Executive Secretary/Community Relations Specialist (Emergency Communications, Media Relations, Public Announcements)  Executive Secretary/ Community Relations Specialist serves as the Executive  Director’s designee for disseminating information and maintains contact with fire, police, and public information officer.  Collect and disseminate information to the media.   Plan and coordinate press interviews to help the news media meet deadlines.   Respond to rumors through the dissemination of accurate information.   Act as a liaison between the media and division personnel whose attention must  be focused on the immediate problems of managing the crisis without constant 5
  • 7. interruption.  Arrange interviews for the media with key school and division staff who are  involved in the emergency or who act as spokespersons for the division.  Manage a call center for disseminating information to schools, the community,  parents, and the media. Campus-Based Crisis Planning and Response Principal’s School Crisis  Serve as the incident commander until properly relieved.   Be familiar with administrative office support available to principals.   Make school CEMP plan, crisis management handbook, and emergency  management kit readily available to appropriate staff.  Train staff in CEMP.   Remain at respective schools until released.   Report to the Executive Director after all students and staff members have left  campus for the day  Perform tasks assigned by the Executive Director.   Prepare school for sheltering if required.  EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN Purpose and Scope: The New Horizons Regional Education Centers (NHREC) Emergency Response Plan (ERP) provides guidance and direction to principals, faculty, and staff who have emergency management responsibilities. The ERP should be used during an emergency incident. This information is not a complete list of all factors to be considered. Key Emergency Contact: The key emergency phone number is 911. It is imperative during an emergency to utilize the NHREC Crisis Notification Procedures as quickly as possible after calling 911. Emergency Response Team (ERT): Each school facility will have an Emergency Response Team (ERT) to take charge of the emergency, respond effectively, protect the occupants of the facility, and reduce the risk of physical injury, property damage, and business interruption. Incident Management System (IMS): The Emergency Response Team will follow the basic principles of IMS where one team member (Incident Commander or IC) is in charge of the emergency until emergency responders arrive on the scene. At that point the Incident Commander, will update the emergency response IC on the incident and form a unified command with the external emergency response IC. The NHREC IC should remain in close contact with the external emergency response IC until the incident is terminated. The IC is responsible for command, control, communications and coordination of resources during an emergency event. 6
  • 8. NHREC Crisis Notification Procedures: 1) Principal/Designee will call Security (if unavailable, Asst. Principal). 2) Security will contact the NHREC Director and Media Relations. *Should Security Officer be unavailable, Principal/Designee should contact the Director directly. NHREC SAC Support Services Team (SST) and Disaster Recovery Team (DRT): (see Recovery tab for a description of these teams) The NHREC Support Services Team (Partial SAC Team) will be mobilized to provide support, based on the assessed need, within their area of expertise. If support cannot be provided by the SST alone, then the schools entire Disaster Recovery Team (Complete SAC Team) may be called out to assist. Emergency Response Plan Components  Flow Charts – Each incident has a flow chart for the IC and the ERT to follow in order to effectively stabilize and terminate the incident.  Event Aids – The event aids provide valuable information to assist the IC and the ERT in responding to an incident.  Emergency Phone Lists – Lists are provided to ensure that emergency responders are quickly notified of an incident.  Evacuation Drawings – These should be placed in the back of the plan to provide emergency responders with vital evacuation, sheltering, and lockdown information.  Roles & Responsibilities – Key responsibilities of the ERT are listed to give team members a general idea of their roles during an emergency incident.  Crisis Communications – This section will provide proactive communication measures, which are key to an effective incident response program. *Roles & responsibilities of the School Resource Officer may be assigned to School Security Officer(s) at the direction of the Incident Commander and/or NHREC official. 7
  • 9. ERT Notification Sheet TITLE NAME OFFICE HOME CELLULAR NEXTEL Principal/Incident Commander Assistant Principal/ Designee Head Custodian/ Supervisor School Nurse/Designee Evacuation Coordinator Reunification Coordinator School Resource Officer (SRO) Security Officer (SSO)* Recorder 8
  • 10. MITIGATION/PREVENTION This Mitigation/Prevention Checklist will reduce exposures to the school/facility and should be referred to often, to ensure a safe and secure environment. EXTERIOR OF SCHOOL Access Control  All exterior cameras should be in good working order (if applicable).  Ensure all external utilities are secured and protected.  Ensure all roof hatches are locked and secured. (if applicable)  Doors and windows should be in good working order and locked at all times.  Entrance doors should not be propped open with wooden blocks or other objects.  Building ventilation intakes should be properly protected and cleaned.  Be aware of the surrounding neighborhood. If anything looks suspicious, report it to police.  Athletic facilities and external buildings should be secured and illuminated at night.  Dumpsters/garbage cans should remain away from the building. Garbage cans should be secured so they cannot be used to damage or enter school property. Exterior Lighting  All sides of the school should be illuminated. Outdoor lighting should be effective to illuminate areas of use during night hours. PA System  The PA system should be in good working order. School Grounds  Keep school grounds well-manicured. Reduce blind spots or hiding areas by cutting down shrubs to 3 ft. or less and trimming trees up to 7 ft.  Playground equipment should be in good working condition and a fall protection material should be placed on the ground below equipment.  Sidewalks should be in good condition, free from cracks and tripping hazards.  Bike racks should be secured to reduce chance of theft. 9
  • 11. Parking Lot(s) and Student Drop-Off/Pick-up  Parking lots should be free and debris and well-lit. Adequate parking spaces should be provided with signs for handicapped, visitor, teachers and students, if applicable.  Student drop-off/pick-up should be monitored by an appropriate number of staff members before and after school. Off-Premises Procedures  The school should adopt proactive off-premises procedures for field trips, sporting events and other events that occur off school grounds.  Transportation staff, teachers and chaperones should be trained on emergency procedures. INTERIOR OF SCHOOL Interior Doors/Windows/Walls/Ceilings/Floors  All doors and windows should be in good working order and secure at all times.  The only door that should remain unlocked is the main entrance. The main entrance should only be unlocked if it leads to the main office and does not allow access to any other area. Doors between buildings need to be secured or monitored.  All doorways and exit ways should be free from obstructions that would hamper or delay an effective evacuation.  Missing ceiling tiles should be replaced. Evacuation Signage  All exit lights should be in good working order. Replace burnt-out bulbs.  Universal evacuation and sheltering procedures should be placed in all classrooms (near exit doors) and hallways. 10
  • 12. New Horizons Regional Education Centers EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS FOR ALL EMERGENCIES, DIAL 911 NHREC Key Contacts: Director 757-766-0000 (office) 757-810-0883 (cell) Principal (Butler Farm) 757-766-1100 x 305 Assistant Principal (Butler Farm) 757-766-1100 x 306 Principal (Woodside Lane) 757-874-4444 x 505 Assistant Principal (Woodside Lane) 757-874-4444 x 552 Director (Governors School) 757-766-1100 x 313 Director (Center for Autism) 757-369-2581 x 202 Coordinator Adult Education 757-766-1100 x 315 Facilities Maintenance 757-766-1100 x 310 City of Hampton Key Contacts: Fire Administration 757-727-6580 Hampton Emergency Manager 757-727-1208 Hampton Police main dispatch 757-727-6111 City of Newport News Contacts Newport News Emergency Manager 757-269-2904 Other Key Contacts: Newport News Waterworks (8am-5pm) 757-926-1000 After hours (nights, weekends, holidays) 757-236-4800 Hampton Waterworks (8am – 5pm) After hours (nights, weekends, holidays) Virginia Natural Gas 24 hr. Emergency Line 877-572-3342 Customer Care Center 866-229-3578 Miss Utility (digging/electrical and gas line) 800-552-7001 Dominion Virginia Power 888-667-3000 Child Abuse Hotline 800-552-7096 Virginia Poison Control Center 800-552-6337 Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) Citizen Info Line 757-222-6100 For specific middle & high school issues: 757-222-6043 11
  • 13. MITIGATION/PREVENTION Main Office  The Main Office should be near the front entrance and proper signage should indicate the office location.  The PA system should be in good working order and tested regularly.  Signage in the school should be prominently displayed and easy-to-read. Hallways  Restrooms should be clean and organized. School staff should make periodic checks to reduce the opportunity for property damage and criminal activity.  Use of elevators (if applicable) should be restricted to school staff and special-needs students.  Hallways should be free from obstructions, such as furniture, music instruments, large art displays and any other item that could impair an effective evacuation or act as a hiding place for intruders.  Minimize the amount of paper and combustible materials on doors and walls, especially in evacuation egress areas. Classrooms  All classrooms should be secured when not in use.  Classrooms should be organized and clear of obstructions that could hamper or delay an effective evacuation.  All bookshelves in classrooms and all other rooms should be secured to the wall.  All outlets within 6 ft. of sinks and water should be GFCI (ground fault circuit interrupter) outlets to reduce the risk of accidental electrocution.  Material safety data sheets should be accessible in an emergency copies of sheets should be provided to the front office. All hazardous materials should be labeled and kept secure. Hazardous materials cabinets for storage are provided for flammable liquid storage. Computer/Server Rooms  Computer/server rooms should be secured at all times and access should be limited.  Appropriate ventilation and climate control systems should be installed in the server rooms. Auditorium/Gym/Library  The auditorium should have universal evacuation signage and properly illuminated exit lights. 12
  • 14.  The gym should have universal evacuation signage and properly illuminated exit lights. The overhead lights should be secured with a chain to provide a secondary means to hold them in place.  The library should include security systems to monitor students and reduce risk of theft. Kitchen  Only authorized personnel should have access to the kitchen.  All cafeteria staff should be trained yearly on basic emergency procedures and proper food preparation safety procedures.  All knives, box cutters and other sharp instruments should be secured when not in use.  A sign should be installed to indicate the location of the activation button for the fire suppression system and instruction for how to activate it.  Food and chemical should never be stored together. Physical Operations/Custodian  Physical operations/boiler room should be clean and organized.  The school’s Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) should be stored in the physical operations/custodial room and the Front Office.  All chemicals should be properly stored in their original containers.  Chemicals should be secured when not in use.  Implement a maintenance logging system for preventive maintenance, including fire/life safety systems, HVAC, fire suppression, fire extinguishers, smoke detectors, and the security alarm. They should be checked on a regular basis. POLICIES & PROCEDURES  ID cards must be worn by all staff at all times.  Visitors and vendors must report to the Main Office/Security Desk and sign in. The will be issued a pass and required to sign out upon leaving the campus.  The school principal or their designee will maintain organized key control policies and keep accurate records for the issuance of keys.  The key cabinet will be locked at all times.  Per principal discretion, it is strongly recommended that teachers return their keys at the end of each academic year.  All employees that handle mail should be aware of how to identify suspicious packages and envelopes.  Policies for handling money, including student body funds, will be adhered to.  The school should keep a list of special-needs occupants. Emergency response procedures, including evacuation, sheltering, and lockdown, should be established for 13
  • 15. the special-needs occupants. The school should also keep up-to-date medical needs lists and medical procedures for special-needs occupants. Emergency Procedures  Primary and secondary evacuation assembly areas must be designated and every student faculty and staff member will know those locations.  Evacuation drills, procedures and protocols will be implemented and conducted per school policy. Faculty, staff and students will participate in state and local-mandated drills.  Sheltering areas will be identified. Sheltering areas should be in locations that protect building occupants from glass and flying debris.  Lockdown procedures should be developed in conjunction with and be reviewed by the local police department. ERP Review, Maintenance, and Practice Drills  The school should conduct, on an annual basis, a Security and Vulnerability Assessment of the school site to be included in the Emergency Response Plan (ERP).  ERP must be updated on a yearly basis.  The ERP should be updated to include an ―all hazards‖ approach.  The school ERT should work with local public safety agencies to find ways to reduce risks.  Local public safety agencies should be part of the ERP development and review process.  One announced lockdown drill should be completed at the beginning of the first semester.  One unannounced drill should be completed at the beginning of the second semester.  On all lockdown/safety drills and random/K9 searches, proper documentation should be completed and a copy sent to the Security Supervisor.?(Safety Committee for review and recommendations. 14
  • 16. PREPAREDNESS Planning 1. At the beginning of the school year, staff should receive a security briefing and tour of the facility if necessary. 2. Prepare an agenda of events and schedule of events to test emergency operations throughout the school year. 3. Identify Emergency Response Team members and alternates. 4. Meet with community leaders regarding evacuation points. Training 1. The Principal/Designee (Incident Commander) will ensure that each faculty and staff member is familiar with the school’s Emergency Response Plan. 2. All school faculty, staff and students should participate in a basic safety and emergency preparedness training session at the beginning of the school year. 3. All cafeteria employees will be trained in basic safety, emergency preparedness, and proper food preparation. 4. Kitchen personnel should be fully knowledgeable of the operation of the kitchen hooded fire suppression control system. 5. Faculty and staff should receive fire extinguisher training. 6. A minimum of two (2) employees per school site are required to be CPR/AED certified. 7. A minimum of two (2) employees per school site shall be trained to administer insulin and glucagon, if there are students diagnosed with diabetes at that site. Exercising 1. Each school shall participate in state- and local-required fire drills. 2. After each fire drill, a report must be filed by the school per policy. 3. Each school shall participate in two lockdown drills per year. The first drill should be an announced drill to familiarize staff with proper procedures; the second drill should include an ―active intruder‖ simulation, utilizing the assistance of the School Resource Officer/Security Officer (if available). 4. A lockdown drill critique sheet should be filed by the ERT and copy should be sent to the HCS Security Supervisor. 5. Each school shall conduct one shelter-in-place drill per the school year. 6. A shelter-in-place drill critique sheet should be filed by the ERT and a copy should be sent to the HCS Security Supervisor. 7. Each school should conduct one tabletop exercise with their ERT per school year. 15
  • 17. Teaming with Community Partners 1. Have the Emergency Response Plan reviewed by police, fire and emergency management personnel. 2. Establish mutual aid agreements with local community organizations, churches and other schools. 3. The ERP should be presented at parent meetings. 4. Schools may secure donations for emergency supplies, as long as NHREC policies and appropriate guidelines are followed. Staff should seek approval from the Principal/Designee before receiving any donations. ROLES AND RSEPONSIBILITIES – INCIDENT COMMAND INCIDENT COMMANDER The Principal/Designee should normally be assigned as the Incident Commander. The Incident Commander (IC) is the overall leader during an emergency incident. The IC makes decisions based on the information and suggestions being provided from other members of the Emergency Response Team (ERT). This role may be combined with any other active role during a critical incident. The Incident Commander has the final say on all school operations before, during, and after a critical event. If the school emergency incident escalates to include any public emergency response agency, the school IC will form a unified (joint) command system. Preparedness  Do we have the proper Emergency Response Team in place and are they adequately trained?  Does our entire faculty and staff have a copy of the school’s emergency procedures guide (flipcharts) and have they received orientation on the guide?  Have we met the requirements for evacuation, sheltering, and lockdown drills and do we evaluate each drill and critique our processes?  Have we received adequate training and performed sufficient exercises?  Is our ERP updated yearly?  Are our first aid kits and emergency go kits updated and in a place that is easily accessible?  Are our internal and external phone lists updated? 16
  • 18.  Have we identified, assigned, and provided to staff appropriate shelter-in-place locations, evacuation routes (both primary and alternate), and designated safety areas (on school grounds and at off-site locations)? Response  Notify All ERT members, public emergency responders, and HCS officials, as necessary (see Crisis Notification Procedures located in the beginning of plan).  Gather facts on the incident and assess the situation.  Ensure that 911 and school security is called if needed.  Make decision to remain at current status or prepare to evacuate, lockdown, or shelter-in- place.  Develop and implement a plan of action. Have a back up plan ready.  Make internal notification to teachers and staff to carry out the plan.  Ensure that a member of the ERT meets external emergency responders at the emergency access point (e.g. main doors of school).  Meet with external emergency responders’ IC and form unified command.  Constantly monitor the situation and get updates form all resources.  Ensure that all faculty, staff and students reach the designated assembly area or sheltering area.  Ensure that parents/legal guardians are contacted in a timely manner. Recovery  Ensure reunification process is working.  Call NHREC SAC to initiate call to insurance provider.  Assess damage to facility.  Complete incident report.  Implement critical incident stress management if needed.  Debrief school board, faculty, staff, and students if necessary.  Conduct a post-incident critique with ERT, school security, external emergency responders, and other key stakeholders.  Ensure the district’s Director of Media Relations is handling all internal and external communications.  Implement or ensure that the district’s Support Services Team is notified; the entire SAC Disaster Recovery Team may also need to be contacted.  Ensure that proper clean up/decontamination is taking place.  Ensure that the School Nurse has contacted all external providers, especially public and mental health agencies.  Prepare the school for reopening. 17
  • 19.  Ensure all critical systems are back up and running (fire/life safety, HVAC, IT). EVACUATION COORDINATOR The duties of this position focus on organizing the off-site evacuation location during an emergency situation. This includes planning the movement of the students to the to the location and assisting with accounting of the students once they are moved. Key aspects of this assignment involve planning for the use of a location and planning the evacuation route to safely move the students. Then organizing an evacuation, consider special-needs occupants and plan for how those occupants will be moved and what assistance will be required. Preparedness  Have on-site and off-site evacuation assembly areas been identified?  Are all evacuation assembly areas noted in the school’s ERP?  Have all routes to off-site evacuation assembly areas been identified?  Have contingency plans been developed to evacuate special-needs students/staff to the off-site emergency evacuation assembly area? Response  Assist teachers with the evacuation of the school.  Ensure that student emergency cards are taken to the evacuation location to assist with parent/student reunification.  Assist teachers with the accounting process at the evacuation assembly area.  Assist with the needs of the students at the evacuation assembly area.  Check in with the owner/facility manager of the secondary evacuation assembly area. Recovery  Assist teachers with the reunification process.  Participate in the post-incident critique. REUNIFICATION COORDINATOR When a critical incident occurs at a school, parental response must be anticipated. Many parents likely will come to school to pick up their children. A plan must be in place to provide specific directions for parents that arrive at school. A central location must be established where the parents can wait to be reunited with their child and obtain information about the incident. The Reunification Coordinator should be at the location and coordinate the activities at this site. This coordinator should communicate with the Director of Media Relations to obtain information that can be released to the parents. The Reunification Coordinator should also communicate with the Evacuation Coordinator to facilitate children coming to the reunion location to join their parents. At least one staff member will be needed to assist in escorting students to reunite with their 18
  • 20. parents. The reunification location has the potential to become very chaotic during an incident, but with proper planning the activities can be established quickly and remain organized. Keep in mind, how efficiently students are reunited with parents will be a key factor when assessing the school’s preparedness and response. Preparedness  Have predetermined reunification areas been identified?  Does the school’s ERP list the updated reunification areas?  Does the school’s ERP have an easy-to-understand reunification process that is consistent with school district standards? Response  Respond to reunification area and manage the operations from start to finish.  Assist teachers and staff with student accountability.  Advise staff of the reunification process and what time the process will take place.  Ensure that accountability of each student is the primary goal.  Update the Incident Commander on the operations of the reunification process. Recovery  Assist custodians with the clean up of the reunification area.  Participate in the post-incident critique.  Assist Incident Commander with incident report. SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICER (SRO) This role has been developed for incidents that occur around the school but may not directly involve school personnel. A violent crime of other situation near a school may require school staff to quickly secure the school from outside intruders. This will involve developing specific assignments for school personnel during such an emergency and creating a system to make sure the school is secure. The SRO would then act as liaison with the agency handling the local event. Preparedness  Does the ERT know how to secure the entire school from top to bottom?  Do all local police, sheriff, and fire departments and other key external responders have a copy of the school’s ERP?  Has this team member participated in drills and tabletop exercises? Response  Under the order of the IC, secure the entire school and make contact with the IC. 19
  • 21.  Assist with searching the school.  Assist with evacuation, sheltering-in-place, and lockdown. Recovery  Assist custodian(s) with unlocking school and prepare to return the school back to normal.  Participate in the post-incident critique.  File a report with the local law enforcement agency. SCHOOL SECURITY OFFICER (SSO)  Roles and responsibilities of the School Resource (SRO) may be assigned to the School Security Officer (SSO) at the direction of the Incident Commander and/or NHREC official.  The SSO should maintain control and operation of the school camera room and maintain contact with the IC and SRO, if safe to do so. SCHOOL NURSE The School Nurse is responsible for the medical care of students, faculty, and staff. They play a vital role during an emergency by taking control of medical operations, setting up triage, and treating those who are injured or who become ill. Preparedness  Does this team member have an excellent understanding of the school’s ERP and the roles and responsibilities of each ERT member?  Is an adequate amount of first-aid supplies stored?  Has an emergency medical kit been developed that contains the medications and first-aid supplies that can be grabbed with in a moment’s notice and taken to the site of an emergency or the evacuation assembly area?  Are all medical records updated?  Has this team member participated in drills and tabletop exercises? Response  Make contact with Incident Commander for task assignment.  Provide medical treatment to those who are injured or have become ill.  The School Nurse shall remain at the school if the student(s) have to be transported by ambulance to the hospital. The Nurse shall make contact with the IC to ensure that a school staff member responds to the hospital to stand by with the student(s) until a parent/guardian arrives. 20
  • 22. Recovery  Work with local hospitals and healthcare facilities/professional to provide vital medical information.  Participate in the post-incident critique. HEAD CUSTODIAN Beyond the maintenance of the school and grounds, the Head Custodian’s role will expand in a crisis situation to include ensuring that the protocols of the crisis work smoothly. The Head Custodian becomes a significant part of the crisis equation by helping to maintain infrastructure integrity, order and compliance with school policy and local laws. Additionally, s/he becomes a general resource to respond to unforeseen impromptu situations inherent in a crisis. Preparedness  Keep utility supply points locked and free of debris.  Keep chemicals and combustibles secured and in appropriate storage areas.  Maintain MSDS information.  Monitor and maintain lighting.  Be familiar with where HVAC and utility systems are located.  Maintain signage and perimeter fencing.  All Custodians should read and have an excellent understanding of the Emergency Response Plan and the roles and responsibilities of each Emergency Response Team member. Response  Report all occurrences of system failures and abnormal conditions.  Make contact with the Incident Commander for task assignment.  If the HVAC system must be shut down, the custodian shall work with the IC to ensure the school’s power supply is immediately deactivated. Recovery  Participate in the post-incident critique.  Work with utility providers to restore and maintain order. RECORDER The role of the position is to make sure that the IC and the appropriate NHREC personnel receive notification and updates regarding the incident. During the incident, this individual should keep a detailed record of the events, decisions, and actions including annotation of time. 21
  • 23. This record will ensure that all critical tasks have been completed and allow the IC to track all activities. Any teacher or staff not assigned students during an incident and any school personnel arriving at the incident should report directly to the Incident Commander for further instructions. Preparedness  Ensure that the school emergency response plan has an adequate amount of incident log sheets Response  Make contact with the IC for task assignment.  Start a complete log of actions taken, including processes, decisions, problems/remedies, and suggested changes.  Update the IC throughout the incident. Recovery  Turn in all logs to the IC and assist him/her in preparing the incident report.  Participate in the post-incident critique. NATIONAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (NIMS) Incident Command System The National Incident Management System (NIMS) or the Incident Command System (ICS) is a nationally-recognized emergency management methodology used by proactive public safety agencies, schools and businesses. The ICS provides and organized approach to managing emergencies from time of discovery to stabilization and termination, all the way through to recovery and resuming full school operations. The ICS incorporates an organizational structure that provides for role assignment and decision-making while planning for and responding to critical incidents of all types and sizes. The ICS will allow for all school personnel to know their area of responsibility during a crisis. The ICS also establishes a ―Unified Command Structure‖ that partners the school’s Incident Commander(IC) with the Public Safety Incident Commander to provide an effective team that will work together to manage the emergency and recover as quickly as possible. Under the ICS, tasks are delegated to members of the ERT to successfully handle critical incidents. The ERT member is then responsible for the task assigned and serves as the manager of the task. This type of delegation allows each team member to focus on just one or two aspects of the incident. These team members than provide information to the Incident Commander (Principal/Designee) and assist them in making informed decisions. Using this organizational system during a critical incident creates clear communication channels that will reduce the 22
  • 24. amount of confusion and chaos. Permanently assigning specific areas of responsibility to members of the emergency response team provides each member with the opportunity to specialize in the management of his/her own area. The Incident Command System serves as the nucleus of crisis and emergency management contingency planning and should be incorporated into the school’s emergency response plan. The ICS can also address the uncertainty of exactly who will be in the building during an emergency. When assigning the management of critical roles in the ICS, assign an alternate for each roll to assure coverage at all times. This may require some individuals to be responsible for more that one task if the primary team member is out of the building. While the ICS identifies roles for the members of the emergency response team, all school faculty members should know their specific functions during an emergency. Teachers with students in class will have specific functions as will teachers not assigned a class when an emergency occurs. It is imperative to emergency operations to develop an ICS roles and responsibilities checklist like the one printed in this plan. This will better prepare the school to understand all the ERT roles and responsibilities. The checklist will also assist the Incident Commander if one or more team members/alternates are not available. Local emergency responders use the ICS to manage emergency events. Because of this, a school with assigned roles for administrators and teachers will be able to work more efficiently with local agencies. Emergency Response Team (ERT) Incident Commander: Principal/Designee School Nurse Custodian Security Evacuation Reunification Recorder Supervisor officer Coord. Coord. 23
  • 25. Discoverer determines type of incident, including:  Fire  Severe Weather ACT  Hazardous Materials Principal/Designee obtains:  Workplace Violence  Medical Emergency 1 Description of incident,  Other what happened, location and time of incident 2 Number and type of NOTIFY injuries (if any, see Medical Discoverer notifies tab) Principal/Designee or 3 Number of people involved Main Office 4 Action taken OR 5 Does the threat still exist? Calls 911  Incident Command OR in effect Uses emergency pull station ASSESS Incident Commander assesses the situation:  Does the incident require additional outside resources? 24
  • 26. ACT ACT ACT YES IC will: When outside Incident responders arrive: Commander 1 Call 911 will: 2 Alert affected occupants 1 Unified command 3 Activate the ERT and call will be established Follow the IMS NHREC SAC to stabilize and 4 Take protective actions; 2 Staging areas may finally e.g. evacuation, lockdown, be implemented terminate the shelter-in-place 3 IC may initiate incident. 5 Dispatch additional additional personnel to the scene if functions. safe to do so 6 Secure the scene and establish an Incident Command Post 7 Meet outside responders at the emergency access point ACT NOTIFY CLOSURE NO ERT will notify: IC,ERT and/or IC will: 1 Request additional NHREC SAC will: 1 NHREC SAC personnel to the scene 1 Complete Incident if needed 2 Affected faculty Report 2 Follow the IMS to and staff 2 Debrief district Abbreviations: stabilize and terminate and school staff the incident ERT: Emergency Response 3 Implement critical Team stress debriefing program if needed NHREC SAC: NHREC School 4 Conduct Post- Administration Center Incident Critique IC: Incident Commander and take corrective 25 action. IMS: Incident Management System
  • 27. Crisis Management Team: An individual school Crisis Management Team (CMT) shall be established at each school to meet the demands of crisis incidents. Membership: The crisis team shall consist of an immediately accessible core group who have the knowledge and skills to act in any emergency and shall include (as employed) the principal, assistant principal, attendance clerk, nurse, school psychologist, , one or more selected teachers, school security officer, custodian, and a person to record events/minutes of meetings. Additionally, the Police Department (school resource officer, if assigned to the school – precinct officer if no SRO), Mental Health Services, and Fire Department should be asked to consult with the school team. A roster of team members and contact information will be maintained as a part of the school’s CEMP. Purposes: The Crisis Team shall implement and adapt appropriate action from the Crisis and Emergency Management Plan to address the specific events of a crisis. Roles and responsibilities of team members and consultants will be established in the school’s written CEMP. Assignment Form: The form in the appendix is a sample that can be used or altered to fit the needs of a particular school or a particular crisis. Appendix B, page 74 Each school CEMP will include school-specific provisions for the four phases of crisis management (Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery) and establish or designate the following:  Response procedures for each crisis incident.   Multiple command posts inside and outside the school facility in the event  evacuation is necessary.  Chain of command with alternates.   Network of key communicators. It is the responsibility of these key individuals to  convey approved information to others. This network may include phone trees to notify staff of emergency incidents and special meetings which may occur before or after school hours and various counselors designated to support groups such as students, faculty, and parents.  Communication plan within the school and to the community. The best means of  communication may vary with the crisis. However, the plan must provide for communicating with teachers as soon as possible. When appropriate, well- informed representatives should be ready to go into classrooms. Avoid giving news via assembly or public address intercom systems as results can be unpredictable when giving shocking news to large groups of students. To ensure accuracy and avoid rumor, information to students must come directly from internal memoranda or statements written specifically for that purpose and approved by the principal. News is best given to students in class so they can ask questions of a person they know. Questions from parents should be addressed from pre-approved fact sheet. 26
  • 28.  Arrangement for support services. One individual from the Crisis Management  Team will be designated to contact Human Resources in terms of community services. The Human Resources department will arrange for assistance as needed from additional school psychologists, school social workers, divisional Directors of Guidance, Mental Health Crisis Services, and other community resources. School arrangements should include the designation of meeting spaces, provisions to request on-call services to meet unexpected demand, and provision of long term follow-up. Bring closure to the crisis. This activity will vary depending on the crisis. But it is imperative to recognize officially the end of the crisis and the beginning of the healing process. Evaluation of the crisis plan. Response to each crisis incident will be reviewed and evaluated at the conclusion of each crisis. Crisis Management Team annually will evaluate the plan and its effectiveness and make modifications as needed. Annual Crisis Management In-service: The Crisis and Emergency Management Plan shall be reviewed annually with the full school staff and shared with all transient staff, nurses, secretaries, child nutrition services staff, custodians, and bus drivers. Each principal must document this review and keep a record of attendance. Interventions Annual Start-up Procedures for All Schools  Confirm membership of the crisis team.   Send a list of team members to the Community Relations Office.   Decide on a coordinator and substitute for synchronizing suicide intervention,  critical incident, and post incident procedures.  Plan at least two crisis team meetings. It is mandatory that crisis teams meet prior  to the beginning of the school year and one other time during the school year to review procedures, especially for critical incidents, and check equipment such as crisis boxes.  Inform faculty of crisis members. Print intervention, crisis response and critical  incident procedures in the faculty handbook.  Review critical incident communication codes with faculty and staff.   Confirm updated faculty phone tree.   The team needs not only to review procedures annually, but also to go through at  least two scenarios using the Post Incident Steps form. The key to successfully handling an incident is the preparation before the event.  Meet with new staff members annually to inform them of intervention, crisis  response, and critical incident procedures, emphasizing the referral process for crisis intervention.  Conduct a general faculty/staff in-service on intervention, crisis response and  critical incident procedures every year. 27
  • 29. Communications During and After a Critical Incident Technology can be a very effective tool for communication during a crisis. Some common tools that may be used include the following: Telephone - Although the telephone is the most commonly used communications tool in schools, most schools do not have enough lines and, worse, service is typically lost when electricity is lost. In preparing for a crisis or emergency management situation it is recommended that:  One person takes incoming calls with a standard message or response. Calls  should be as brief as possible to keep lines free. In certain circumstances, it may be appropriate for no incoming calls to be answered.  One phone line should be dedicated to communicating with 911 and should  remain connected to 911 until the dispatcher ends the call.  One phone line should stay connected to the Executive Director’s Office and not  disconnected until the incident is completed. This is to ensure that the leaders gathered in that office have ongoing updates. If the line is closed, then it may be difficult to reestablish contact.  As 21 century telephone technology enters the schools; there will be three  ―traditional‖ phone lines in each school. These lines will have unlisted phone numbers and should not receive incoming calls. These lines can be dedicated to the above needs during a crisis or emergency.  All phone jacks should be clearly marked and designated on the school’s floor  plan so emergency service personnel can use them if necessary. Intercom systems - Most schools have such a system; systems, which include teacher-initiated communications with the office and use a handset rather than a wall-mounted speaker, are most useful in an emergency. Instructions for use of the intercom system should be posted near the controls in the office area. Additionally, students should be taught to use the intercom system –the teacher may have a medical emergency or be otherwise unable to operate the system. Bullhorns and megaphones - Often used at pep rallies and field days, battery-powered bullhorns or megaphones can also be very effective tools for communication in an emergency and should be a part of the school’s ―crisis kit.‖ If one is maintained for emergencies, it should be checked periodically to ensure the batteries are good. 2-Way Radios – Each school is issued a complement of 2-way radios. It is important that all staff members (even those who do not normally carry one) know how to use the radios and on which channel the school operates. In an emergency, do not use Unit numbers or codes. Use plain talk to ensure that everyone understands the information being passed. That is a national standard under the National Incident Management System (NIMS). To ensure that radios are functioning for an emergency, they should be carried and used each day. A radio should never be left turned ―on‖ while in the charger. Email – Information can be relayed within a school or to the central office via email. It can also be useful for sending photographs or attached lists of affected students, staff or facilities. 28
  • 30. Fax machines - The fax machine is a potentially valuable tool for both sending and receiving information in an emergency. In the case of off-campus accidents, for example, lists of students and staff members involved, their locations, and needed telephone numbers can be quickly and accurately communicated. Medical information, release forms, and medical authorizations can be faxed, signed, and returned in emergencies. Cellular telephones – Staff and students must be strongly discouraged from unauthorized or personal use of a cell phone during an emergency. Below are some problems seen at various school emergencies in the past:  Tying up or overloading the cell could prevent necessary communications  between administrators and responders.  Parents coming to the school to ―rescue‖ their children can block streets and delay  or prevent responders from reaching the school.  Parents attempting to enter or entering a school that is on lockdown can be  mistaken for the intruder with disastrous results.  Parents interfering with responders or an incident face arrest.  Alarm Systems - Bells or buzzers may be sounded in different ways to signal different types of emergencies – for example, fire, tornado, or special alert (with instructions to follow). Code Words – Conventional wisdom in the area of school security is not to use code words or phrases to announce emergency responses such as lockdowns, tornados or other critical incidents. Plain talk on the announcement will ensure that everyone knows what is happening and what is expected of them. The exception to this is the previously outlined procedure for a teacher who is with the intruder to use his/her first name when giving an update to the office. Communications with Parents and the Community If an emergency happens at the school that threatens life and safety, parents should know the following ahead of time:  Do not call the school – phone lines need to stay clear for emergency  communications.  Instruct their children to not use cell phones inside the school during a crisis or  critical incident.  Do not come to the school – to do so could  o Interfere with emergency responders getting to the school and could cause further danger, o Cause the parent to be mistaken for the suspect, o Cause the parent to be arrested for obstructing emergency responders, o Cause further risk or danger to the children in the school. The principal should:  Reassure them that pertinent information will be released to all parents as it  becomes available.  Tell them that it is best for them to stay at home or work where they can be  reached by the school if necessary and they can monitor the media for important updates. 29
  • 31.  In the aftermath of a critical incident, it is important to get as much information as  possible to parents. This helps them understand that their children are safe and will continue to be safe. It also limits the damage done by rumors or misinformation.  Tell parents exactly what is known to have happened. Do not embellish or  speculate.  Implement the plan to manage phone calls and parents who arrive at school.   Schedule and attend an open question-and-answer meeting for parents as soon  after the incident as possible. The meeting is an opportunity for school officials to listen and respond to parent concerns (which are helpful in combating rumors and other misinformation) and to work on restoring parental trust in the school.  In the event of an incident that involved structural damage or destruction, an open  house for parents and other members of the community to see the school restored to its ―normal‖ state helps everyone get beyond the crisis. School Threat Assessment Response Protocol The purpose of this protocol is to provide a mechanism to ensure that threats of violence in a school environment are addressed, whenever possible, before the violence occurs. The protocol is intended to identify credible threats of violence and address those threats and the individual making the threat before the threat is carried out. NOTE: This protocol is applicable during any school-sponsored event or function, whether the event or function is on school property or not. Procedures The following procedure is separated into several sections in order to reflect those instances where a threatened act of violence may be received by specific individuals. It is imperative that students, staff and others be urged to take all threats seriously and to report them to school administrators, faculty or staff. Any student, upon receiving information that a person is threatening to commit an act of violence, shall:  Assume threat is serious;   Immediately report the threat to a parent, guardian, school staff, administrator or  law enforcement officer;  Be available and cooperative in providing a statement of information, with the  understanding that the information source (student) will remain anonymous to the greatest extent possible. Any parent or guardian, upon receiving information that a person is threatening to commit an act of violence, shall:  Assume threat is serious;   Immediately report the threat to a school staff member, school administrator or  law enforcement officer;  Be available and cooperative in providing a statement of information, with the  understanding that the information source (parent or guardian) will remain anonymous to the greatest extent possible. 30
  • 32. Any school staff member, upon receiving information that a person is threatening to commit an act of violence, shall:  Assume threat is serious;   Immediately report the threat to a school administrator their designee;   Be available and cooperative in providing a statement of information, with the  understanding that the information source (the staff member) will remain anonymous to the greatest extent possible. Any school administrator, upon receiving information that a person is threatening to commit an act of violence, shall:  Assume threat is credible until and unless analysis suggests differently;   Cause the student making the threat, if known and on campus, to be immediately  removed from the classroom and segregated into a secured area pending further investigation;  Segregate any student or staff member who received the threat pending further  investigation;  Require the school staff member, if this is the source of the information, to  provide immediate written statements regarding the information received.  Request police assistance either from the assigned School Resource Officer or by  calling 911 to report a threat;  Request assistance from the school’s Threat Assessment Team;   Interview the subjects making the threat and those receiving the threat to assess  the available information, in an attempt to determine the veracity of the threat, in order to decide what level of follow-up action is needed and appropriate. Once the assessment is complete, Threat Assessment Team and administrator shall convene privately to discuss the threat and consider options for follow-up action. If it is agreed the threat is credible:  The law enforcement officer will commence a criminal investigation and take  whatever action he/she deems necessary;  The school administrator shall take appropriate action to ensure safety of the  students and staff;  The school administrator shall take administrative action in accordance with  School Board policy;  The student’s parents or guardian shall be notified in accordance with School  Board policy; If it is agreed that the threat is not credible, the school administrator shall assume responsibility to institute any further action deemed necessary which may include, but is not limited to:  Referral to counseling   Suspension   Notifying parents  31
  • 33. Once the situation has been assessed and action taken, the school principal assumes the responsibility for reporting to the Executive Director. Follow-Up Considerations The Threat Assessment Response Protocol shall be periodically reviewed to assess its effectiveness. Changes should be made as needed, based on actual experiences. Identification and Response to Warning Signs of Student Violence Students Who May Be a Threat to Others In the event that a staff member has reason to believe that a student may represent a potential threat to others, the actions listed below are to be taken. These steps apply only to situations in which the student is presenting no immediate threat.  Take all comments about doing harm to others seriously, especially if details  about how the acts are to be carried out are shared.  Immediately report concerns to an administrator.   Under no circumstances should an untrained person attempt to assess the severity  of the risk; all assessment of threats, attempts, or other risk factors must be left to the appropriate professionals. NOTE: It is important to avoid inappropriately labeling or stigmatizing individual students because they appear to fit a profile or set of early warning indicators. It is okay to be worried about a child, but it is not okay to overreact and jump to conclusions. Early Warning Signs It is not always possible to predict behavior that will lead to violence. However, educators and parents— and sometimes students—can recognize certain early warning signs. In some situations and for some youth, different combinations of events, behaviors, and emotions may lead to aggressive rage or violent behavior toward self or others. A good rule of thumb is to assume that these warning signs, especially when they are presented in combination, indicate a need for further analysis to determine an appropriate intervention. The U.S. Secret Service has investigated and analyzed many school shootings and has determined that there is no clear ―profile‖ or standard description of those who commit such acts. We know from research that most children who become violent toward self or others feel rejected and psychologically victimized. In most cases, children exhibit aggressive behavior early in life and, if not provided support, will continue a progressive developmental pattern toward severe aggression or violence. However, research also shows that when children have a positive, meaningful connection to an adult — whether it is at home, in school, or in the community — the potential for violence is reduced significantly. None of these signs alone is sufficient for predicting aggression and violence. Moreover, it is inappropriate — and potentially harmful — to use the early warning signs as a checklist against which to match individual children. Rather, the early warning signs are offered only as an aid in identifying and referring children who may need help. School communities must ensure that staff and students only use the early warning signs for identification and referral purposes — only trained professionals should make diagnoses in consultation with the child’s parents or guardian. 32
  • 34. The following early warning signs are presented with the following qualifications – they are not equally significant and they are not rated for levels of seriousness. Some early warning signs include: Social withdrawal. In some situations, gradual and eventually complete withdrawal from social contacts can be an important indicator of a troubled child. The withdrawal often stems from feelings of depression, rejection, persecution, unworthiness, and lack of confidence. Excessive feelings of isolation and being alone. Research has shown that the majority of children who are isolated and appear to be friendless are not violent. In fact, these feelings are sometimes characteristic of children and youth who may be troubled, withdrawn, or have internal issues that hinder development of social affiliations. However, research also has shown that in some cases feelings of isolation and not having friends are associated with children who behave aggressively and violently. Excessive feelings of rejection. In the process of growing up, and in the course of adolescent development, many young people experience emotionally painful rejection. Children who are troubled often are isolated from their mentally healthy peers. Their responses to rejection will depend on many background factors. Without support, they may be at risk of expressing their emotional distress in negative ways—including violence. Some aggressive children who are rejected by non-aggressive peers seek out aggressive friends who, in turn, reinforce their violent. Being a victim of violence. Children who are victims of violence—including physical or sexual abuse—in the community, at school, or at home are sometimes at risk themselves of becoming violent toward themselves or others. Feelings of being picked on and persecuted. The youth who feels constantly picked on, teased, bullied, singled out for ridicule, and humiliated at home or at school may initially withdraw socially. If not given adequate support in addressing these feelings, some children may vent them in inappropriate ways — including possible aggression or violence. Low school interest and poor academic performance. Poor school achievement can be the result of many factors. It is important to consider whether there is a drastic change in performance and/or poor performance becomes a chronic condition that limits the child’s capacity to learn. In some situations— such as when the low achiever feels frustrated, unworthy, chastised, and denigrated—acting out and aggressive behaviors may occur. It is important to assess the emotional and cognitive reasons for the academic performance change to determine the true nature of the problem. Expression of violence in writings and drawings. Children and youth often express their thoughts, feelings, desires, and intentions in their drawings and in stories, poetry, and other written expressive forms. Many children produce work about violent themes that for the most part is harmless when taken in context. However, an over representation of violence in writings and drawings that is directed at specific individuals (family members, peers, other adults) consistently over time, may signal emotional problems and the potential for violence. Because there is a real danger in misdiagnosing such a sign, it is important to seek the guidance of a qualified professional—such as a school psychologist, counselor, or other mental health specialist—to determine its meaning. Uncontrolled anger. Everyone gets angry; anger is a natural emotion. However, anger that is expressed 33
  • 35. frequently and intensely in response to minor irritants may signal potential violent behavior toward self or others. Patterns of impulsive and chronic hitting, intimidating, and bullying behaviors. Children often engage in acts of shoving and mild aggression. However, some mildly aggressive behaviors such as constant hitting and bullying of others that occur early in children’s lives, if left unattended, might later escalate into more serious behaviors. History of discipline problems. Chronic behavior and disciplinary problems both in school and at home may suggest that underlying emotional needs are not being met. These unmet needs may be manifested in acting out and aggressive behaviors. These problems may set the stage for the disengagement from school, and engage in aggressive behaviors with other children and adults. Past history of violent and aggressive behavior. Unless provided with support and counseling, a youth who has a history of aggressive or violent behavior is likely to repeat those behaviors. Aggressive and violent acts may be directed toward other individuals, be expressed in cruelty to animals, or include fire setting. Youth who show an early pattern of antisocial behavior frequently and across multiple settings are particularly at risk for future aggressive and antisocial behavior. Similarly, youth who engage in overt behaviors such as bullying, generalized aggression and defiance, and covert behaviors such as stealing, vandalism, lying, cheating, and fire setting also are at risk for more serious aggressive behavior. Research suggests that age of onset may be a key factor in interpreting early warning signs. For example, children who engage in aggression and drug abuse at an early age (before age 12) are more likely to show violence later on than are children who begin such behavior at an older age. In the presence of such signs it is important to review the child’s history with behavioral experts and seek parents’ observations and insights. Intolerance for differences and prejudicial attitudes. All children have likes and dislikes. However, an intense prejudice toward others based on racial, ethnic, religious, language, gender, sexual orientation, ability, or physical appearance — when coupled with other factors — may lead to violent assaults against those who are perceived to be different. Membership in hate groups or the willingness to victimize individuals with disabilities or health problems also should be treated as early warning signs. Drug use and alcohol use. Apart from being unhealthy behaviors, drug use and alcohol use reduces self-control and exposes children and youth to violence, either as perpetrators, as victims, or both. Affiliation with gangs. Gangs that support anti-social values and behaviors — including extortion, intimidation, and acts of violence toward other students — cause fear and stress among other students. Youth who are influenced by these groups — those who emulate and copy their behavior, as well as those who become affiliated with them — may adopt these values and act in violent or aggressive ways in certain situations. Gang-related violence and turf battles are common occurrences tied to the use of drugs that often result in injury and/or death. Inappropriate access to, possession of, and use of firearms. Children and youth who inappropriately possess or have access to firearms can have an increased risk for violence. Research shows that such youngsters also have a higher probability of becoming victims. Families can reduce inappropriate access 34
  • 36. and use by restricting, monitoring, and supervising children’s access to firearms and other weapons. Children who have a history of aggression, impulsiveness, or other emotional problems should not have access to firearms and other weapons. Serious threats of violence. Idle threats are a common response to frustration. Alternatively, one of the most reliable indicators that a youth is likely to commit a dangerous act toward self or others is a detailed and specific threat to use violence. Recent incidents across the country clearly indicate that threats to commit violence against oneself or others should be taken very seriously. Steps must be taken to understand the nature of these threats and to prevent them from being carried out. Imminent Warning Signs Unlike early warning signs, imminent warning signs indicate that a student is very close to behaving in a way that is potentially dangerous to self and/or to others. Imminent warning signs require an immediate response No single warning sign can predict that a dangerous act will occur. Rather, imminent warning signs usually are presented as a sequence of overt, serious, hostile behaviors or threats directed at peers, staff, or other individuals. Usually, imminent warning signs are evident to more than one staff member—as well as to the child’s family. Imminent warning signs may include:  Serious physical fighting with peers or family members;   Severe destruction of property;   Severe rage for seemingly minor reasons;   Detailed threats of lethal violence;   Inappropriate possession and/or use of firearms and other weapons;   Other self-injurious behaviors or threats of suicide.   When warning signs indicate that danger is imminent, safety must always be  the first and foremost consideration. Parents should be informed of the concerns immediately. School communities also have the responsibility to seek assistance from appropriate agencies, such as child and family services and community mental health. Immediate intervention by school authorities and law enforcement officers is needed when a child:  Has presented a detailed plan (time, place, method) to harm or kill others —  particularly if the child has a history of aggression or has attempted to carry out threats in the past;  Is carrying a weapon, particularly a firearm, or has threatened to use one; or   Exhibits other threatening behaviors.  Students Who May Be Suicidal In the event that a staff member has reason to believe that a student may be suicidal or represent a potential threat to themselves or others the following action is to be taken:  Take all comments about suicidal thoughts seriously, especially if details of a  suicide plan are shared;  Immediately report concerns to an administrator;   Under no circumstances should an untrained person attempt to assess the  severity of suicidal risk; all assessment of threats, attempts, or other risk factors 35
  • 37. must be left to the appropriate professionals. Response to a Suicide Attempt Not Occurring at School When a school becomes aware that a student or staff member attempted suicide, the school must protect that person’s right to privacy. Should a parent or other family member notify the school of a student’s suicide attempt, the family should be referred to appropriate community agencies for support services. Staff response should be focused on quelling the spread of rumors and minimizing the fears of fellow students and staff. As opposed to convening a Crisis Response Team meeting and alerting the student body, any services provided to the person who attempted suicide must be kept confidential and coordinated with outside service providers, such as a suicide crisis counselor or hospital emergency team. A suicide attempt becomes a crisis to be managed by school staff only when one or more of the following conditions exist:  Rumors and myths are widespread and damaging;   Students witness police action or emergency services response;   Any of the attempter’s friends are profoundly affected by the suicide attempt and  request support. When one or more of the above conditions exists, the following should be implemented:  Tell the person providing the information about the suicide attempt not to repeat it  elsewhere in the school;  If school office staff members heard the report, tell them not to repeat or give out  any information within or outside school unless they are specifically told to do so;  Have the Crisis Response Team member closest to the attempter talk to the most  profoundly affected friends and determine the type support they need;  Provide space in the school for the identified peers to receive support services.  Provide necessary passes to release these students from class to receive services. School Reentry for a Student Who Has Attempted Suicide Efforts to respond to suicide attempts and other traumas should be focused on making the student’s return to school a comfortable one. Because families exposed to a suicide attempt experience considerable guilt and fear, they are more likely to disclose that a daughter or son has made an attempt if they know the school has a helpful, non- threatening manner of dealing with suicide attempts. Because a student who attempted suicide often is at greater risk for a suicide in the months following the attempt, it is important to closely monitor his or her reentry into school and to maintain close contact with parents and mental health professionals working with that student. Assuming the student will be absent from one to four weeks after a suicide attempt and possibly hospitalized in a treatment facility, a school will follow these steps:  Obtain a written release of information signed by the parents. This makes it  possible for confidential information to be shared between school personnel and treatment providers; 36
  • 38.  Inform the student’s teachers regarding the number of probable days of absence;   Instruct teachers to provide the students with assignments to be completed, if  appropriate; Courses with required attendance need to be identified and the teacher needs to assess the impact on the student’s ability to complete the program.  Maintain contact with the student or parents to keep him/her informed of the latest  developments in the school;  Seek recommendations for aftercare from the student’s therapist. If the student  has been hospitalized, a Crisis Response Team member should attend the discharge meeting at the hospital;  The Crisis Response Team member should convey relevant non-confidential  information to appropriate school staff regarding the aftercare plan;  Once the student returns to school, a Crisis Response Team member should  maintain regular contact with him/her;  The school should maintain contact with the parents to provide progress reports  and other appropriate information, and be kept informed of any changes in the aftercare plan. Mitigation To prepare for a crisis or critical incident, each school must recognize and understand the specific threats that it faces. In addition to staff training, recognizing student threats and dangers, and issues from individual school Crisis and Emergency Management plans, each school should know the external threats in the school’s neighborhood and the threats posed by environmental and design factors of the school. These issues can be addressed by thorough intelligence gathering and analysis, and by conducting physical security assessments. Intelligence and Analysis Crime Analysis of Surrounding Areas Staff at each school should have an understanding of the types and frequency of crime around the school. Such knowledge can give an indication of risks and lead to plans to mitigate or minimize those risks. A basic crime analysis can be conducted using information from the local Police Department’s web site. One must first determine what ―beat‖ or police reporting area the school is in by using the Police Department Precinct and Beat Map and clicking on the area in which the school is located. After determining the beat number for the school and the contiguous beats, go to the Police Department Quarterly Crime Statistics. An Excel spreadsheet will open listing each beat, each crime category, and how many of each crime category occurred in each beat during that quarter of the year. A best practice is to update the crime analysis each quarter as new data becomes available and to maintain analysis for the previous 12 to 15 months. The crime statistics for a school’s neighborhood can be used to understand what students and their families face daily, educate staff about precautions they can take to protect themselves at and around work, and provide indicators about risks to the school and its occupants. 37
  • 39. Registered Sex Offender Locations As of October 1, 2008, there are 990 registered sex offenders living or working on the Peninsula. ( Hampton 334, Newport News 398, Poquoson 11, York County 30, James City County 79, Williamsburg 90 and Gloucester 48) There is no blanket law that prohibits all sex offenders from being on school property. Certain offenders may have restrictions restricting their access to school property. (State Police FAQ) It behooves school administrators to know who the sex offenders are in their neighborhoods and among their students’ parents. While offenders may have a legitimate reason to visit a particular school, administrators have the right and responsibility to regulate such visits and deny those that are neither legitimate nor necessary. The Virginia State Police operates the Sex Offender and Crimes against Minors Registry Home Page. By clicking the ―Search the Public Notification Database‖ button, the search page opens with search buttons of: zip code, county, city, name and map. In any search except ―map,‖ by clicking on an individual, one will see a photo, home address, work location, sex offender history, and other information. A search by zip code can be solely that zip code or include contiguous ones. A search by name is effective for checking the status of a child’s parent or a potential school volunteer. To search the map feature, enter the school’s address and a map will appear showing all registered sex offenders’ locations in relation to the entered address. This can be effective for checking in the immediate area of the school or in the area of a field trip location. To keep information current, each school is encouraged to register for community notification through the sex offender website, which will provide email notification of any new registrants in the area. While state law prohibits using information from the sex offender database to harass offenders, it is a valuable tool to school staff and student families when used appropriately. The information can be used in several ways, none of which violate offenders’ rights  Check parents and other volunteers and restrict their access if they are offenders Encourage parents to check their neighbors, places they do business, and their children’s friend’s families  Prescreen locations of field trips or locations where student may be assigned to go to discover if offenders are employed there. Physical Security Assessments Each school is responsible for maintaining its own physical security. Problems such as alarm systems that do not work, broken windows, nonfunctioning locks, etc. should immediately be submitted as work orders to ensure continuing physical security. Other aspects of physical security are ongoing and need continual attention. Many of these aspects utilize the principles of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) and follow the ―broken window theory.‖ Other factors are common sense and best practices for deterring, complicating, or preventing criminal activity. CPTED is based upon the belief that ―…the proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime and an improvement in the quality of life.‖ 38
  • 40. In 1982, James Wilson and George Kelling wrote Broken Windows. The idea they promoted is that in no matter what type of neighborhood, if a building is left with a broken window, graffiti, trash, etc., long enough, disorder and decline of the building or area surrounding it will spread. There are three main interrelated principles that make up the CPTED concepts and strategies:  Natural Surveillance  o Places physical features, activities and people in a way that maximizes visibility; o Is directed toward keeping intruders under observation – thus, they are less likely to commit criminal acts; o Also has a reverse effect of making legitimate users/occupants feel safer when they can see and be seen; o Utilizes design features to increase the visibility of a property or a building; and o To maximize the visibility of people, parking areas and building entrances, such features might include:  Unobstructed doors and windows,  Pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets,  Front porches,  Appropriate nighttime lighting.  Natural Access Control  o Physical guidance of people coming and going from a space by the judicial placement of entrances, exits, fencing, landscaping and lighting is directed primarily at decreasing the opportunity for criminal activity by denying access to crime targets and creating a perception for risk for offenders. o People are physically guided through a space by the strategic design of streets, sidewalks, building entrances, landscaping and gateways. o Design elements are useful tools to clearly indicate public routes and discourage access to private areas. o Natural access control also uses physical and mechanical means of controlling access such as:  Locks,  Alarm systems,  Signs.  Territoriality  o Uses physical attributes that express ownership such as fences, signage, landscaping, lighting, pavement designs, etc.; o Creates or extends a sphere of influence so that clearly delineated private spaces encourage people to have more interest or a sense of pride and ownership; o Encourages users to develop a sense of territorial control, while potential offenders, perceiving this control, are discouraged; o Includes features that define property lines and distinguish between 39
  • 41. private and public spaces; o Can be accomplished through measures such as:  Landscape plantings,  Pavement designs,  Gateway treatments,  Appropriates signage,  ―Open‖ fences, Three other ideas that support the principles of CPTED are:  Activity Support  o Encourages interaction by putting activities in public spaces that are intended for use by residents or customers and other legitimate users, and, therefore, discourages criminal activity o Is more effective when activities are planned for times when the use of a space is minimal  Target Hardening  o Traditional security measures such as good locks and alarms work in harmony with CPTED concepts. o Going overboard with such measures as barbed wire, window bars, intercoms combined with electronic remote locks, etc. can create an impression of an area with high crime and danger. o Such measures might deter legitimate users and create an impression of the location having high crime and danger that can also indicate to criminals that criminal behavior is expected or anticipated  Maintenance  o Enables continued use of a space for its intended purpose o Serves as an additional expression of ownership o Avoids deterioration and blight that indicate lowered concern and control by intended users o Limits signs of tolerance for disorder o Protects public health, safety and welfare and demonstrates acceptable standards Source: Safety by Design: Creating a Safer Environment in Virginia; Virginia Crime Prevention Association; February 2005 A security assessment can be a scheduled, formal, checklisted activity using school administrators, custodial staff, security and safety practitioners, law enforcement or other public safety authorities, and others. There should also be daily, informal visual surveys by any staff member with an eye for detail. Crisis Response Procedures Overview Communication is a critical part of crisis management. School staff members and students must be told what is happening and what to do. Parents of students and families of staff members must be informed about the situation, including the status of their child or family member. Timely contact with law 40
  • 42. enforcement and other emergency services is necessary for effective response. Superintendents and School Board members must be kept informed and updated information must be transmitted to the central office and to other affected schools. The press must be informed and kept updated. Additionally, groups that are a part of the school community (advisory councils, school sponsored clubs etc.) and can assist with getting accurate information into the community are important. This section focuses on communication – within the school and school division, with parents and the community, and with the media. Internal Communications - Notifying faculty and staff of an event or crisis and keeping them informed as additional information becomes available and as plans for management of the situation evolve is critical. Some practices found to be helpful by school administrators include the following: Telephone Tree - A telephone tree is a simple, widely used system for notifying staff of a crisis event when they are not at school. A very carefully crafted statement, specifying what is and is not yet known, should be drafted before the telephone tree is activated. As each ―branch‖ of the phone tree is given the message, the recipient should be asked to write down the message and read it back until the exact message has been received. That helps ensure that an accurate message is passed to the next branch. Morning Faculty Meeting – An early, brief faculty meeting provides the opportunity to give accurate, updated information about the crisis event/situation itself. It gives the opportunity to review procedures for the day, and to discuss the availability of intervention resources. Note faculty that come in at varied times and reach them individually as they arrive. End-of-Day Faculty Meeting – A brief end-of-day meeting provides the opportunity to review the day, update information, and plan for the next day. Misinformation or rumors can be addressed before staff members go home or into the community where they are likely to be asked about the situation. External Communications A very important aspect of managing crises is dealing effectively with parent reactions. Communication with parents and the community is best begun before a crisis occurs. Some useful strategies include the following:  Educate parents about the school crisis plan, its objectives, and the need for it.  Such information can be included in the school handout or other informational materials prepared for parents, at parent orientations, or at other informational meetings. However, do not release detailed information about response plans. That could compromise student and staff safety.  Develop a relationship with parents so that they trust and feel comfortable calling  school personnel in the event of crisis.  Develop materials that may be needed including:  o sample formats of letters to parents informing them of what happened o outlines of possible reactions of children and ways to talk with them o how the school and school division are handling the situation.  Develop a list of community resources which may be helpful to parents.  Identify parents who are willing to volunteer in case of a crisis, include them in preparation efforts, and include them in training. 41
  • 43. Dealing with Rumors Establishing reliable communications networks is critical for dealing effectively with a potentially detrimental phenomenon always present in crises: rumors. People are going to talk about an emergency and, when accurate information is not available, rumors begin. Without facts, people begin to speculate and the speculations soon come to be thought of as ―facts.‖ Left unchecked, rumors can become more difficult to deal with than the crisis event. They may create a negative perception of the school’s ability to manage an emergency or, even worse, a belief that the school cannot provide for the safety and well being of the children. The most effective strategy for combating rumors is to provide facts as soon as possible. Some strategies that may be helpful include the following:  Identify and notify internal groups including administrators, teachers, students,  custodians, secretaries, teaching assistants, and bus drivers. These people are primary sources of information and are likely to be contacted in their neighborhoods, at grocery stores, etc. It is critical that they have accurate information because what they know (or do not know and are speculating about) will be passed on. A faculty/staff meeting should be held before staff members are allowed to go home so that what is (and is not) known can be clearly communicated.  Clerical staff who answer the telephone at the school and at the administrative  office must know which information can be shared and which information cannot be shared. They must be kept informed of inaccurate information that is circulating so they can help ―correct‖ misinformation. Designating a few persons to answer calls helps control the circulating of misinformation.  Use of key communicators in the community will also combat rumors. A  telephone tree or a briefing held especially for identified community representatives directly associated with the school will help spread accurate information.  The media can also help control rumors; ask them to provide frequent updates to  the public, particularly providing accurate information where rumors need to be dispelled. After a crisis, public meetings may be helpful. They provide opportunities for people to ask questions and to receive accurate information. A follow-up public meeting may also be helpful in restoring the community’s confidence in the school’s ability to manage crises and to provide a safe environment. Communications with Media Contact with the media should be coordinated through the Executive Director’s office. When dealing with the media, the following suggestions promote clear communications:  Be honest. Do not try to ―spin‖ information to the best light. If you do not know  for sure, say that you do not know. Do not make it up or guess. If you are unsure whether you should release a particular piece of information, refer the question to the spokesperson or PIO.  Do not try to stonewall the media or keep them from doing their job.   Advise school staff of media procedures.  42
  • 44.  Advise students that they do not have to talk to the media. Remind them that they can refuse to speak to the media, but if they do, they must tell the truth.  If the crisis involves a death, consult with the deceased student/staff member’s family before making any statement. Explain school system policy and assure them that confidential information will be protected.  If the communications with the media occur while the crisis is ongoing, the  following tips can help ensure that only accurate information is released: o Attempt to define the type and extent of the crisis as soon as possible. o Inform employees what is happening as soon as possible. o Designate that a central source, such as the crisis communications center, coordinate information gathering and dissemination. o Instruct all employees to refer all information and questions to communications centers. o Remind employees that only designated spokesmen are authorized to talk with news media. o Take initiative with news media and let them know what is or is not known about the situation. o When communicating, remember to maintain a unified position and uniform message; keep messages concise, clear, and consistent; keep spokesman and alternates briefed. o Contact the top administrator or designee to inform him of the current situation, emerging developments, and to clear statements. o Delay releasing information until facts are verified and the school’s position about the crisis is clear. o Read all releases from previously prepared and approved statements and avoid speaking extemporaneously.  Assign sufficient staff to handle phones and seek additional information.   Keep a log of all incoming and outgoing calls and personal contacts.   Relieve key people from their normal duties so they may focus on the crisis.   Express appreciation to all persons who helped handle the crisis.   Prepare a general announcement to be given by the principal or designee. A  straightforward sympathetic announcement of loss with a simple statement of condolence is recommended. Also, a statement that more information will be forthcoming, when verified, can be reassuring to students and staff.  The following ―dos and do nots‖ can help an inexperienced person work with the  media:  Do nots  o DO NOT try to keep the media out or ―kill‖ a story. o DO NOT say ―no comment.‖ o DO NOT ad lib. o DO NOT speak ―off the record.‖ o DO NOT speculate. o DO NOT try to cover-up or blame anyone for anything. 43
  • 45. o DO NOT repeat negative/misleading words. o DO NOT play favorites among media.  Dos  o Emphasize your school’s good record. o Be accurate and cooperate as best you can. o Be prepared for and prepare in advance a response to questions that might violate confidentiality or hinder the police investigation. o Insist that reporters respect the privacy rights of your students and staff. o Speak to reporters in plain English — not in ―EDU-SPEAK‖ o When asked a question and you do not know the answer, say so, then offer to find out and call the reporter back. The primary goal should be to keep the public informed about the crisis while trying to maintain the privacy of students and ensure as little interruption of the educational process as possible. As soon as possible, prepare a written statement that gives the basic facts clearly and concisely or ask the division Community Relations Director to prepare one for you. Two or three minutes spent writing down some specific points is valuable. If there is time, try to anticipate what some of the questions will be and prepare answers. News people will always want to know who, what, when, where, why, and how. Try them out on your colleagues and see if they have any recurring questions. Use the same facts in dealing with all media so the story is consistent. Remember that the media have no right to be on a school’s campus. If they do not have express permission to be on campus from the principal and/or division spokesperson, then they must leave. Do not presume to tell a reporter what is or is not newsworthy. That decision is made by the reporters and their editors. Never lie to a reporter. Tell the bad news quickly; get it over with. It may be your only chance to set the record straight. It is vital to establish our division as the best source for information on the crisis. If the media think you are hiding something, they are likely to dig hard for information from other sources and play the story more sensationally — and perhaps less accurately. Protecting and enhancing the division’s credibility is important. Talk conversationally, or you will inadvertently pitch your voice up and sound strained. If you do not understand the question, say so. Parroting the reporter’s question is very dangerous on radio or video tape because the tape can be edited to sound like you concur whether you do or not. Suppose the reporter asks, ―How are you handling this terrible shock?‖ Do not respond, ―We are handling this terrible shock by . . .‖ Instead, respond in your own words to the effect that, ―The students are continuing their usual schedules, following a morning assembly where we discussed the situation.‖ Answer each question and then be silent. Stick with the statement. Do not embellish it and do not respond to media pressure to chat about it. Just because a TV reporter sticks a microphone in your face or a radio reporter lets the tape run does not mean you have to fill that prolonged silence. Do not worry . . . your pauses will be removed in the editing process. If you are standing for the interview, do not back up, even through the microphone seems to be put down your throat. Plant your feel firmly and stand your ground. Suggest that everyone sit down if you need ―space.‖ Remember that conflict is news, and 44
  • 46. reporters often frame their questions to bring out the conflict or emotion in a story. Guard your students against such intrusions if grief is involved in the response. (However, if the media wants student or community viewpoint, it may be well to arrange it for them.) If a reporter asks several questions at once, say something like, ―You have asked me several questions here. . . where would you like me to begin?‖ If a reporter interrupts you before you have finished answered your question, pause, let the reporter finish, and then continue your answer. Do not let the reporter get you off track or tell you when you have finished your answer. However, do not go into lengthy detail or run off with the interview either. Do not let a reporter’s friendly, sympathetic manner disarm you into giving him/her additional information. Do not assume any chatty comments ―are of the record‖ even if you say they are. Keep in mind that the media are not in business to help you with your communication needs: the media are in business to (1) make money and (2) disseminate news. ―News‖ can be defined as any information of interest to the public. Reporters are under constant deadlines, but no deadline is so important that it is worth making an inaccurate statement. If a reporter says he/she has deadline problems, ask how long you have to get the information, and then try to obtain it within that amount of time. Do not put reporters off: they will only get more insistent and abrasive if you do so. It is best not to answer a query with ―No comment.‖ Otherwise, the reporters may report you would not answer questions or may interpret for themselves why you are not answering. Instead, say, ―I can’t share that information with you right now, but I will call you as soon as I can release it.‖ (And do call them). Or say, ―I do not know the answer, but I should have it in an hour. Please call me.‖ If you can’t reveal information at all, tell the reporters why. Examples: Relatives of an injured student have not been notified yet or revealing the identity of a witness would jeopardize an investigation, etc. After you provide the written statement to the media or answer subsequent questions, keep a media log of whom you speak to and what you give them, whether it is the basic statement or a subsequent update. This allows you to track which medium received what information. Do not ask a reporter for editing rights or to see the story for approval before it runs. Most news media have specific policies preventing this. Reporters may well interpret these requests as insults or a slight on their competence. Do not complain to the media if you feel you were treated unfairly. You may simply draw more attention to the crisis. If major story details are inaccurate in a newspaper story, you can ask for a correction. But getting a similar correction in a TV or radio story is more difficult and must involve a giant inaccuracy. The Divisional Community Relations and Legislative Services Department should be updated on any crisis. The Divisional Community Relations Department will assist organizational or building administration in handling interviews with news media and coordinate the flow of information. 45
  • 47. Specific Crises Death of a Student or Staff Member  Contact Crisis Team members and have a team meeting as soon as possible.  Notify Director’s Office  Notify appropriate faculty members  Depending on the circumstances, it may be appropriate to request additional security or police assistance for the next school day.  Prepare a fact sheet giving accurate, up-to-date information – do not release any  information about the deceased without explicit permission from the family.  Hold a faculty meeting as soon as possible. Review the procedures for the day,  availability of support services, and referral process for at-risk students.  Hold a faculty meeting at the end of the day to review the day’s events.   Notify all bus drivers by written memo to be alert for students who show signs of  emotional distress, along with a telephone number for drivers to use to reach a guidance counselor  Personal contact should be made with the driver of the bus which goes into the  neighborhood of the student who has died. Suicide A school’s general response to a suicide does not differ markedly from a response to any sudden death crisis. However, some issues exclusive to suicide require specific attention. School administrators must allow students to grieve the loss of a peer without glorifying the method of death. Overemphasis of a suicide may be interpreted by vulnerable students as a glamorization of the suicidal act, which can assign legendary or idolized status to taking one’s own life. The following ―dos‖ and ―do nots‖ will help school staff limit glamorization of suicide:  Do acknowledge the suicide as a tragic loss of life.   Do allow students to attend funeral services.   Do provide support for students profoundly affected by the death.   Do not organize school assemblies to honor the deceased student.   Do not dedicate the yearbook or yearbook pages, newspaper articles, proms,  athletic events, or advertisements to the deceased individual.  Do not pay tribute to a suicidal act by planting trees, hanging engraved plaques, or  holding other memorial activities. WARNING: A suicide in the school community can heighten the likelihood, in the subsequent weeks, of ―copycat‖ suicide attempts and threats among those especially vulnerable to the effects of a suicide. To prevent further tragedies, students considered to be especially susceptible to depression/suicide must be carefully monitored and appropriate action taken if they are identified as high risk. These efforts require a limited, rather than school wide, response. Suicide Threats Students at risk can self-refer or be referred to the crisis team by school staff, parent, friend, neighbor, or other person from the community. Students at risk range from those talking of hopelessness, to those 46
  • 48. writing poems with suicidal intent, to students telling someone of planning to harm him or herself. The team member receiving the referral should gather pertinent information from the referral source before contacting other team members. Team Consult When possible, the available team members gather to designate a case manager, considering the following factors:  existing relationship with the student,   time and coverage constraints,  seriousness of the problem,  experience of the members.  The team or case manager reviews the student’s records and gathers information from staff who know the student. Crisis Interview The case manager interviews the student on the day of the referral. The case manager determines  the extent of suicidal thinking,   the potential plan of suicide,   the lethality of the plan,   the history of the student’s suicidal thinking and attempts.  For severe cases, ensure the safety of the student through adult supervision. Team Review The case manager returns as soon as possible to the available team members to discuss the case and formulate a plan of action. Depending on the seriousness of the case, the team may wish to consult with other members not initially involved or discuss the case with Newport News Mental Health. Plans formulated by the team might range from:  no further involvement,   to monitoring by a specific staff member,   to referral for counseling within the school setting,   to asking the parents to take immediate action with their child.  Outside Contacts Parents of all interviewed students will be contacted by the case manager on the same day of referral and interview. Parents will be told of the reason for referral, the outcome of the interview, and the plans formulated by the team. When the suicide potential is significant, the case manager needs to ascertain that the parents accept responsibility to follow through with the team’s recommendations. If the student is dangerous to self and the parents cannot be located, then the case manager or designated administrator contacts the Crisis Intervention Unit of Newport News Mental Health. In extremely dangerous situations, the police may be called first to ensure the safety of the student. Follow-up remains the responsibility of the case manager unless explicitly agreed to by other staff members. The case manager documents the case and shares information with other team members. Information must be kept confidential. 47
  • 49. Minor Accidents at School This includes those that might occur on the grounds, in the building, classroom or shop areas, or during school sponsored events.  All staff should know how to react to a minor injury or accident. Staff Member  are expected to remain calm. Teachers need to keep their students calm and controlled in emergencies.  The office should maintain a list and include it in the school’s CEMP of any staff  or students who have medical training or current certification such as: o EMT or Paramedic o CPR/AED Registered Nurse o First Aid  The Principal/Director or Assistant Principal will decide when parents receive  notification of minor injuries  Following protocols established by the school Nurse or Principal/Director, each  teacher should be provided information about any student in his/her classroom having special medical or physical needs and the procedures that the teacher may follow in the event of a medical episode. These conditions might include allergies, fainting, seizures, diabetes, etc. Fights in School Settings Fights and simple assaults on campus or at school activities can not be prevented or eliminated, but they can be deterred by all staff taking an active role in monitoring students, maintaining a culture of courtesy in the school, and encouraging staff to develop rapport with students to help break the ―code of silence.‖ Staff and students should be encouraged to report immediately any fight, assault, or potential for the same. Have a clear operation plan and be familiar with that plan. Be alert to patterns of stress and agitation in students. Be familiar with information provided regarding managing a potentially dangerous person. Intervention: Intervening and managing physical altercations and/or fights require making a judgment call. There may be several goals at one time and individual circumstances will determine the priorities of your interventions. Interventions may include:  Disperse the crowd and ensure the safety of the students.   Call for help and assistance in managing the incident.   Focus on diffusing the fight.   Attend to medical needs.   Be knowledgeable about intervening with individuals who are dangerous.  Fights are not uncommon in a school environment. They can range from simple yelling altercations or shoving matches between two people to full-scale brawls involving several or many participants. A response to each fight must be evaluated separately. Factors to consider include: 48
  • 50.  Number, age and size of participants,  Level of violence involved,  Weapons,  An obvious aggressor and victim, or ―mutual combat,‖  Respondent’s age, size, skill level and fitness level,  Bystander involvement. To attempt to end the fight with as little force as possible, Walk Briskly, do not run. Remove Glasses.  help along the way. Get Give specific commands in a firm, Recognize that there may be several subtle authoritative voice. things going on simultaneously that are being Defer to rules, not personal authority. tangibly expressed in the conflict. Is there gang Separate the aggressor and the victim. involvement? What other alliances might exist. Avoid physical force if possible. Dismiss the audience. Remove participants to neutral locations. Identify yourself to the fighters. Obtain identification. Call the student by name.  medical attention if necessary. Get Stay away from the middle of the conflict. Describe incident in writing. Provide protection and support for victims. Debrief witnesses. Provide counseling – not simply the day after Report incident to law enforcement or other the event, but as long as necessary. child serving agencies who may be serving the involved student(s). Medical Emergencies For any medical emergency that might occur, immediately notify the school Nurse or Principal, it is important to provide whatever first aid is appropriate. The Principal or school Nurse will decide if 911 needs to be notified. In addition to those notifications, notify any department that might be associated with the origin of the emergency, such as  Security   Etc.  Cardiac Arrest Each year, cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac arrest claim the lives of 335,000 Americans. Approximately 95 percent of those victims die before reaching the hospital. Effective bystander CPR, provided immediately after cardiac arrest, can double a victim’s chance of survival. CPR helps maintain vital blood flow to the heart and brain and increases the amount of time that an electric shock from a defibrillator can be effective. If bystander CPR is not provided, a sudden cardiac arrest victim’s chances of survival fall 7 percent to 10 percent for every minute of delay until defibrillation. Few attempts at resuscitation are successful if CPR and defibrillation are not provided within minutes of collapse. Source: CPR Facts and Statistics; American Heart Association; 2007 Most school facilities are equipped with at least one AED (Automatic External Defibrillator), and have staff trained in its use. It is recommended that all staff and appropriately aged students be encouraged to seek out CPR and AED training through the American Red Cross, American Heart Association, or other recognized authority. 49
  • 51. Other Life-threatening Medical Emergencies Potential life-threatening medical emergencies in a school environment are numerous. Such medical emergencies could include, but are not limited to, allergic reactions, falls, sports impacts, poisoning, assaults, diabetic problems, or electric shock. Having trained staff, first aid supplies, and a response plan play a vital role in mitigating the risk of loss of life due to such emergencies. The school nurse or school Principal should be immediately notified for any medical emergency. Angry Parent Listed below are some strategies that can help deescalate an encounter with an angry parent and contribute to keeping involved staff members safe:  Be courteous and confident,   Remain calm,   Do not touch,   Keep at least an arm’s length distance,   Keep an exit route available and clear,  Listen,  Allow the opportunity to vent,   Meet in a neutral, protected location,   Leave door open or have another staff member join you,   Avoid blame — focus on what can be done,   Ask:  o ―How can I help you get the services you/your child needs?‖ o ―How can we work together?‖ o ―What kinds of support can we put in place to help your child succeed?‖  If you feel threatened, leave and seek help.  School-related Bus Wrecks The Transportation staff is highly trained for procedures in the event of a bus wreck. In as far as it affects the school; response should be in line with any other response for a student or staff injury or death. If it is a mass casualty event or is near the school property, please follow the procedures outlined under ―Transportation Disasters.‖ For information about the driver’s duties in a bus wreck, see Appendix F, page 102. Power Failure/Lines Down Power loss often occurs with no warning. It can last from a few seconds to several days and be either local or widespread. The loss can be a result of internal sabotage (someone purposefully tripping breakers or switches with malicious intent); internal accidents (overloading circuits causing a breaker to trip); failure of transmission lines (lightning, falling tree limbs, car accidents at transformers or power poles, etc…); failure at the generating source (accident, weather- related, terrorism, etc.); or a planned outage. Encouraging staff and students to frequently save work on the computer can mitigate the damages incurred from an unexpected power loss. Emergency egress lighting should be checked on a regular basis and immediately repaired if not working. If lines are down, ensure that no one approaches them. 50
  • 52.  If there has been a power failure at a school, or if lines are reported down in the  area of the school, notify Facilities Manager. They will coordinate with Dominion Virginia Power to get power restored.  Notify the Director’s Office. If school will close early, coordinate with school  Principal and Transportation. Loss or Disruption of Water Water loss often occurs with no warning. It can last from a few seconds to a few days and be either local or widespread. The loss can be a flow stoppage or as a public health order due to contamination and can be as a result of internal sabotage (someone purposefully turning off valves or breaking pipes with malicious intent); internal accidents (frozen and burst pipes, broken pipes from construction or renovation); outside failure (flooding of treatment facilities, collapsed pipes, source contamination, etc…); or a planned outage. In addition to concerns about potable water supply and sanitation issues, schools with sprinkler systems must be aware of potential additional fire hazards during a time of water loss. To limit the potential for internal sabotage, it is recommended that access to main valves be secured at all times. There should be an emergency supply of potable water available for student/staff needs such as taking medication or heat illness-associated dehydration.  If there has been a water loss at school, notify the Facilities Manager. They will coordinate with the city waterworks to get water restored.  Notify the Director’s Office. If school will close early, coordinate with the  Principal and Transportation. Loss or Disruption of Communications Communications loss often occurs with no warning. It can last from a few seconds to a few days and be either local or widespread. Affected communications could involve either telephone or computers. Service loss can be as a result of internal sabotage (disconnecting phone wires, infecting computers with a virus, etc.); external sabotage (destruction of phone switching stations, infecting computers with a virus, etc.); external accidents (car hitting phone pole, weather-related downing of wires, etc.); or unexplained failure, especially with computer communications.  It is recommended that someone in each facility have a cellular phone and a hard  copy list of contact numbers.  Issued NHREC radios will be internal communications source and personal cell  phones will become primary communications tools for the site.  If there has been a communications loss at a school, notify Network  Administration. They will coordinate efforts to get communications restored.  Notify the Executive Director’s Office. If school will close early, coordinate with  be coordinated with divisional transportation directors. 51
  • 53. Loss or Disruption of Shelter Shelter loss can be as simple as a room being unusable due to a roof leak or noxious odor, to as complex as structural collapse of all or part of a facility. Such losses could have numerous reasons. Student and staff safety is the primary concern. Once safety is established, then other concerns such as effective learning spaces, building maintenance and repair, and building stability can be handled. Actions  Determine the extent of the damage.   Call 911 and Transportation Dispatch if shelter loss is catastrophic or the result of  an emergency: o Fire, bomb, noxious odor, etc. o Not for a roof leak, burst pipe, etc.  Evacuate or move students to safe areas in building.  o Move students only if uninjured. o Injured students should be evaluated by nursing staff other medical personnel before moving – unless danger is imminent if they do not move. o Uninjured students should be placed in a common location with adult supervision and accounting. o Injured students who can be moved should be put in a common location for triage/treatment.  If school will close early, coordinate with Community Relations and  Transportation. Perceived Crises Perceived crises are conditions or situations, often community-based, which are perceived as potentially affecting a large number of people. Examples of perceived crisis include racial events, school rivalry situations, events in which a group feels left out or not represented, introduction of new school procedures without adequate warning, real or perceived unsafe conditions such as toxic fumes or food poisoning, gang-related activities, or rumors about people with HIV/AIDS, MRSA or other contagious conditions. It is the task of those in charge to defuse any irrational response. Prevention:  Identify situations in advance that may be perceived crises.   Establish open lines of communication with students and staff.   Develop a procedure for dealing with the public and the media.  Intervention:  For any health condition, immediately contact the appropriate health authorities.   Do not panic. Project a sense of calm and control.   Gather detailed and accurate information about the perceived crisis.   If necessary, call a team meeting to assess the situation and make decisions on  what actions to take.  Provide appropriate faculty, staff and those individuals or groups affected by the  situation with specific information.  Designate someone who would act as a single point of contact for controlling  rumors. Keep lines of communication open; a feeling that secrets are being kept 52
  • 54. can increase the sense of crisis.  Have trained individuals available to speak with small groups of student / staff.   Take all actions that you have determined necessary to prevent a more serious  situation from developing. Post incident:  Conduct stabilizing activities as soon as possible to project an atmosphere of  normal conditions.  Conduct follow-up and assessment activities with team members and other staff.  Critical Incident Procedures Calling 911 - Call 911 immediately to report to police, fire or rescue any critical incident that causes an imminent threat or harm to students, staff or structure. When calling 911, tell the dispatcher the following information:  Where the emergency is;   What the emergency is;   Who is calling;   What responses are in place already.   Stay on the line until the dispatcher tells you to hang up.  Any time that 911 is called, notify the office, Principal/Director and Security. The Principal/Director will notify appropriate school resources such as the Executive Director’s Office, School Security, (depending on the nature of the event). In an event where it is necessary to immediately halt buses (lockdown, school shooting, terrorism) transportations should be notified. Fire/Explosion/Alarms Fire- Fires in schools may result from cooking, lab equipment, arson, infrastructure problems, natural causes, or accidents. While human life and safety are the paramount concerns, property cannot be ignored. Suppression efforts by staff with rudimentary training can minimize property damage and long-term disruption to the school. In the event a fire is detected within a school building:  Sound the FIRE ALARM by pulling the alarm system located in the halls or in  specific rooms.  Call 911 and Office.   Close all doors and windows, including any doors separating sections of the  building and at stairwells to confine the fire.  Evacuate the building immediately to at least 300 feet from the structure and out  of the Fire department’s operational area.  Make special provisions for handicapped students.  o Specific persons, plus alternates, should be assigned to assist specific handicapped individuals. o Evacuation plans for the handicapped should be reviewed and practiced and periodically updated.  Take roll. Each teacher should leave the room with a class roster and the day’s  roll to account for all students. 53
  • 55.  The Office Staff should bring out sign in logs when evacuating to account for  building visitors  Render first aid as necessary.   Keep access roads open for emergency vehicles.   Allow no one to enter the building until the Fire Department has declared it safe   Regulate who goes back into the school. Consider having one designated person  retrieve everyone’s individual personal items.  If the school closes and students need transportation to another location or home,  contact the Transportation Department NOTE: The custodial staff, maintenance, administrators, and other appropriate personnel should be trained to use fire extinguishers to fight small fires. However, they should not endanger their lives in doing so. Explosion An explosion could be accidental or intentional. Accidental sources may include a gas leak, boiler pressure, or a chemical reaction. Intentional sources may include chemical reactions, black powder, or high explosives. To mitigate potential damages from explosions, administrators should ensure that: the custodial staff comply with maintenance and operating standards for all equipment in the school; cleaning and other agents are kept secured; science experiments are properly supervised; threats are assessed and taken seriously; and a culture of trust is cultivated that encourages students to report suspicions without fear of reprisal. Follow the procedures for fire with the understanding that there may be more and more severe injuries. Unexpected Alarm Activation The alarm systems in the schools and facilities are in place to alert occupants that a fire or suspected fire is happening. Alarms may also be used as a diversion for an attacker or to simply disrupt school. Any decision to evacuate must be made with student and staff safety in mind based on a totality of the circumstances. On March 24, 1998, at Westside Middle School in Jonesboro, Arkansas, 11-year- old Andrew Golden activated the fire alarm and then ran to join 13-year-old Mitchell Johnson, who was waiting in the woods near the school with a supply of weapons. As teachers and students began filing out of the school, Golden and Johnson opened fire. They shot 15 students and teachers, killing five. There have been numerous examples of false fire alarm activations for students to postpone tests and assignments, or simply to disrupt campus activity. Under Virginia State Code § 18.2-212, maliciously activating the fire alarm in a public building is a class1 misdemeanor punishable by up to one year in jail and/or $2,500 in fines. (I need to discuss this) If the fire alarm sounds unexpectedly, and a fire is not immediately obvious to the administrator, the alarm should be quickly evaluated.  Consider immediately getting on the P.A. and instructing building occupants to  prepare for an evacuation, but to remain in their rooms  Ask for anyone who can see a definite fire or signs of fire to alert the office  54
  • 56.  Check alarm enunciator panel for location of alarm activation.  Have another person go to that area to check for fire  If the alarm is legitimate, evacuate and follow the procedures for Fire.  If the alarm is false: o Instruct building occupants to stay in place and not evacuate due to false alarm; o Turn off the alarm; o Secure the activated alarm and allow no one to touch it; o Notify the police and the alarm company; o Consider searching outside the school and restricting outside activities or movement until the area is believed safe. Whether legitimate or false, notify the Director’s Office of the event and coordinate with Community Relations and Transportation for any issues that arise. Flooding A flash flood is the rapid rise of water along a stream or in low-lying urban area. Slow moving or multiple thunderstorms occurring in the same area and the water runoff from roads and other surfaces overwhelming the ability of drainage systems to contain it can produce flash floods. A river flood is the inundation of a normally dry area caused by an increased water level in an established watercourse. River flooding is often caused by:  Excessive rain from tropical storms making landfall,    Persistent thunderstorms over the same area for an extended time,   Combined rainfall and snowmelt,   Ice jam.  NOAA Weather Radio is the best means for a school to receive warnings from the National Weather Service. The National Weather Service broadcasts weather forecasts and warnings that may include:  Flood Watch: Conditions are right for flooding in the watch area;   Flood/Flash Flood Warning: Flooding is imminent or in progress in the area of  the warning. The Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service of the National Weather Service provides improved river and flood forecasting and water information. The major themes of the AHPS are:  Short-term through long-term forecasts (from minutes to months including  probabilistic products for risk management decisions);  Real-time flood forecasts maps depicting the extent of flooding;   More timely and accurate flash flood warnings through the use of enhanced flash  flood decision assistance tools. Additional AHPS information Source: Floods – The Awesome Power; U.S. Department of Commerce; August 2002 In the event of a sudden or flash flood affecting school grounds, move all personnel to high ground such as a second floor, on top of desks or tables, or on stage in the auditorium. Make notifications to 911 and the Director’s Office. 55
  • 57. Tornados Each school must conduct tornado drills as directed by the Supervisor of Environmental Health and Safety. Each school should develop a map to determine areas of shelter to be used during a tornado. Areas of large roof expanses (gyms, cafeterias and large shop areas) and areas with large amounts of glass should not be used as shelters. The safest shelter areas are interior, windowless rooms and hallways that have load-bearing walls and are on the lowest possible level. Upon request, the Supervisor of Environmental Health and Safety can assist school staff in conducting a tornado shelter assessment. In the southeast United States, tornados occur most frequently in the spring and summer months. A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that typically spawns from a thunderstorm. Wind speeds may exceed 250 miles per hour. Destruction paths may be more than a mile wide and over 50 miles long. NOAA Weather Radio is the best means for a school to receive warnings from the National Weather Service. The National Weather Service broadcasts weather forecasts and warnings that may include:  Tornado Watch – Tornados are possible in your area. Remain alert for approaching storms;  Tornado Warning – A tornado has been sighted or indicated by weather radar. If  a tornado warning is issued for your area and the sky becomes threatening, move to your pre-designated place of safety;  Severe Thunderstorm Watch – Severe thunderstorms are possible in your area;   Severe Thunderstorm Warning – Severe thunderstorms are occurring.  Tornados can develop in areas under a Severe Thunderstorm Watch or Warning. People in those areas should remain alert to signs of an approaching tornado and seek shelter if threatening conditions exist. Warning signs of a tornado include:  Dark, often greenish sky,   Loud roar; similar to a train,   Wall cloud,   Visible funnel, may or may not   Large hail,  reach the ground Other dangers that often accompany thunderstorms include:  Flash floods – Number one weather   Damaging straight-line winds  killer– nearly 150 deaths annually, up to 140 mph,  Lightning – Kills 75 – 100 people   Large hail – Can be the size  each year of a grapefruit- causes damage annually to property and crops Source: Tornadoes… Nature’s Most Violent Storms; U.S. Department of Commerce; Revised February 1995 Status: TORNADO WATCH Principal/Director  Advise teachers and staff via the P.A. system that a tornado watch is in effect.   Advise teachers to review the ―drop and tuck’ command and designated areas of  56
  • 58. shelter with students.  Designate staff to monitor NOAA and television broadcasts for additional information.  Bring students located outside of the building or in classroom trailers into the main building.  Advise the teacher in science labs to prepare to shut off the main gas supply valve to the lab room in the event of a tornado warning.  Have a plan in place to assist special needs students and staff.  Have an alternate plan of communication ready should there be a loss of power (e.g., bull horn, phone tree, runners, etc.). Teachers  Review the ―drop and tuck‖ command and designated areas of shelter with  students. O Ensure that persons who are physically unable to ―drop and tuck‖know to stand directly against an interior wall, lie flat on the floor by the wall, or other method of protection that may be necessitated by a physical condition. The Supervisor of Environmental Health and Safety can assist with methods for specific cases.  Close windows and blinds.   Be prepared to ―drop and tuck‖ under desks if the immediate command is given  over the P.A. system or if there is an immediate need to do so. Status: TORNADO WARNING Principal/Director  Advise teachers and staff of the tornado warning.   Advise all teachers to escort classes to their pre-designated areas of shelter.   Notify pre-designated staff to keep a look out in order to ―spot‖ tornado funnels.  Depending on their position, these staff may need the means to make immediate contact with the Principal/Director if a funnel cloud is sighted.  Be prepared to give the ―drop and tuck‖ command via the P.A. system if danger is  imminent. Occupants may need to ―drop and tuck‖ under desks if they have not yet been moved to areas of shelter in the school.  Delay bus departures.   Parents picking up students should be advised of the tornado warning and  persuaded to stay with their child.  Have immediate access to the contents of the ―Emergency Management Kit‖ and  distribute flashlights as necessary. Teachers  Escort students to the pre-designated areas of shelter.   Take a class roster and account for all students.  57
  • 59.  Ensure that students sit quietly against a wall on the floor and that they understand  the ―drop and tuck‖ command: o Protect yourself. o Lie face down o Draw your knees up under you o Cover the back of your head with your hands o Or other safe method if physically unable to ―drop and tuck.‖  Close all fire doors and gates along the corridor to minimize injury from flying  debris. Other Severe Weather NOAA Weather Radio is the best means for a school to receive severe weather warnings and updates from the National Weather Service. The National Weather Service broadcasts forecasts, watches and warnings that may include:  Severe thunderstorms,   Flash floods,   Winter storms,   As well as non-weather-related public safety emergencies originating with the city or  state. Community Sheltering Operations There are eight primary shelters, eight secondary shelters, and two public works staging area shelters designated as Emergency Shelters. Shelters are designated to deal with hurricanes, flooding, radiological emergencies, or other events causing evacuation from any part of the city. Depending on the presenting situation, any school or public building in the city could be utilized as a shelter. The Newport News and Hampton Department of Social Services has employees assigned to operate these shelters on a 2 shift/24 hour basis. Shelters are operated in conjunction with the American Red Cross. These employees have been trained in shelter management by the Red Cross and Virginia Department of Emergency Services and all workers have specific assignments they are responsible for performing when a shelter is activated. In addition to the above shelter team members, supportive service agreements are in place with a number of city/community agencies that will also assist in shelter operations: Fire Department - Emergency Medical Technicians/Paramedics  Hampton Roads Chapter of the American Red Cross - Shelter Staff/Red Cross  Nurses  Police Department - Field Supervisor and Uniformed Officers   RACES - Licensed Communications Operators   Peninsula Clergy Association - Clergy  The City of Newport News operates the Emergency Operations Center from the command center at 513 Oyster Point Road during all emergency/disaster situations. The City of Hampton operates the Emergency operations Center from the command center on the 8th floor of City Hall at 22 Lincoln street. 58
  • 60. The staff in the Emergency Operations Center will ensure continued communications with each shelter activated through telephone communications, cellular telephones, and radio communications. The responsibility of the school staff reporting to the shelter will be of a supportive role and protection of school property interests. Newport News cafeteria manager will be called to open Woodside Lane Campus, if it is used as a designated shelter, school cafeteria and to begin to prepare a light snack/full meal (dependent on situation) for evacuees and staff working in the shelter. All food supplies available in the school will be made available to care for occupants of the shelter. School division personnel who are responsible for remaining at the shelter include a school administrator, at least one custodian, and a security officer if one is available. Due to the round- the- clock nature of shelter operations, personnel in these roles should make arrangements to provide for their families’ safety throughout the emergency and should develop a schedule for relief from a secondary team of an administrator and a custodian. It is suggested that 12-hour shifts be planned. The Principal/Director of each school that is designated as a community emergency shelter must include site-specific information in his/her School Crisis Emergency Response Plan. Upon notification that your school will be opened as a shelter, it will be necessary to ensure an employee with keys to the building responds immediately to unlock the main entrance to the building and all emergency fire exits. The operation of the shelter and decisions on where evacuees will be housed will be the responsibility of the Department of Social Services' Shelter Supervisor. School staff will assist and cooperate in unlocking doors, providing equipment and that may be needed by the shelter team, and limiting access to unused areas of the school The City of Newport News and Hampton has an Automated Shelter Registration System that operates through the city's computer mainframe. During shelter operations it will be necessary for Social Services employees to utilize one or more personal computers and terminals located in the schools. The city’s Data Processing Department has loaded software on the equipment. Labels have been affixed to indicate which machines have this software. The software on these machines is not to be altered in any way and the labels are not to be removed. The labels will direct Social Services data entry operators to correct equipment when a shelter is activated. If software files have been deleted or altered, the system will not operate and the system is rendered useless. Other support services of the division will ensure that critical services and maintenance are available as needed. Examples include plumbing, electrical service, information technology and communications. The City of Newport News and Hampton will determine when shelters are to be opened and when operations will be concluded. If shelter operations will be for longer than 48 to 72 hours due to a major disaster, the Department of Social Services will request assistance from the American Red Cross in continued shelter operations and staffing. Transportation Disasters Non-school-related transportation disasters are those that do not involve school students or staff, but which affect the school either through damage or road closures. This might include aircraft wrecks for those schools in the NNWIA approach path, hazardous materials tanker truck wrecks on nearby roads or highways, or severe multi-car wrecks near the school. A wreck that causes physical damage to the 59
  • 61. school facilities, or that produces a hazardous material exposure can be treated as any other facility damage or exposure. A wreck resulting in road closures around the school may affect the ability of students and staff to get to school or to leave school. A wreck producing mass casualties may require that school facilities be used as a shelter, triage center, temporary morgue, or Nightingale Medevac Helicopter landing zone. If disaster affects a school building:  Call 911 and tell the dispatcher what happened, where it is, and if there are any  injuries or fire.  Notify the Director’s office and Transportation.   Utilize emergency exit plan modified to maximize safety of students.   Assemble students and staff in an area as far from the crash scene as possible and  up-hill and up-wind from the crash.  Provide for treatment and removal of injured building occupants.   Account for all building occupants and determine extent of injuries. If near a  school building, but no damage to building: If near a school building, but no damage to building: Call 911 and tell the dispatcher what happened, where it is, and if there are any injuries or fire. Notify the Transportation dispatch office. Coordinate with Transportation and Community Relations for any deviation to student transportation that may be caused by the incident. All students and staff should remain in the buildings. Any students or staff outside should report immediately to their classrooms or designated areas until further instructions are received. No evacuations should occur unless subsequent explosions or fire endangers the building. Bomb Threats/Telephone Threats The building Principal/Director must evaluate the veracity of bomb or other threats using input from all sources; then the director acts in such a manner that reflects the best safety interests of those under his/her charge. Bomb and other threats may originate in writing, in person, over the telephone or through a second source. An anonymous threat has historically been thought of to include the threat to place or detonate a bomb. However, in today’s environment there are other threats that can be assessed and reacted to in similar ways. These include mailed, phoned or left threats of chemical or biological exposure (I am going to release anthrax in your school. I have chlorine gas and will place it in your school’s ventilation system.), threats to commit violence (I am going to shoot six cheerleaders in the gym during the pep rally), and bomb threats (the word BOMB‖ written in lipstick on a bathroom mirror). Reasons that a person may make an anonymous threat in a school environment may include: to disrupt school activities to provide a diversion for some other action to test and observe reactions for a future attack 60
  • 62. to extort to invoke fear and confusion among students, staff and the community to ―copycat‖ The threat may come as a phone call, email message, note, graffiti, letter, etc. While every threat must be taken seriously and investigated thoroughly, reaction to each threat will be different depending on a threat assessment. The police department investigates threats. A suspicious package or item can range from an unattended book bag left by a water fountain during school hours to a piece of plastic pipe with wires attached to a timing device left on the front stoop of a school overnight. The fire department investigates any suspicious package or item assessed to be threat. Suspicious mail can be in the form of a threat (addressed under Anonymous Threats) or as a piece of mail that contains characteristics commonly accepted as being suspicious. These characteristics include: No return address Excessive postage Restrictive markings (―confidential,‖ Oily stains, discolorations, ―personal,‖ ―do not bend,‖ etc…) crystallization on wrapper Sealed with tape Excessive tape Misspelled words Strange odor Badly typed or written Incorrect title or addressed to title only Unknown powder or suspicious Rigid or bulky substance Lopsided or uneven Possibly mailed from a foreign Protruding wires country Suspicious packages or mail could contain chemical, biological, radiological or explosive agents; they could be completely benign or be done as a prank or to test responses in preparation for a future attack. source: Mail Center Security Guidelines; United States Postal Service; Publication 166; September 2002 Even without an accompanying threat, a suspicious item or mail should be assessed as a threat. If deemed threatening, then procedures should be followed as outlined in ―if a suspicious item or package is found‖ below. Basic Documentation - The individual taking the call should: Keep the caller on the line as long as possible and gather information as outlined below Notify principal/building director. Call 911 Write down all the information obtained in the exact words. Use the record sheet in the appendix; place copies of the bomb threat sheet at switchboard and other appropriate phone locations. Find out what time the bomb is due to go off. Document in writing, as soon as possible, other types of threat contacts including: o Specific time message is received, o Date and day of week, o Exact wording of message, o Estimation of sex, age, cultural background of person making call, 61
  • 63. o Background noises, tone of voice. The building administrator or designee shall: Evaluate the threat and consider the veracity; Decide on a course of action that considers the safety of students and staff, as well as accounts for instructional time and needs. The police department investigates bomb threats, but will not advise whether to evacuate or remain inside. There are three basic actions that could result from a bomb threat based on levels of believed veracity: o Search with students in place Announce that all students and faculty are to clear the halls and remain in their current locations. Have a prepared written search command that administrators, security or other staff member can hand deliver to each room. Have teachers search their classrooms (library, gym locker room, etc.) for any suspicious item or package. Have other staff search their areas of responsibility (cafeteria, nurse’s office, computer room, storage closets, etc.) for any suspicious item or package. Have custodians and/or security search common areas (halls, stairwells, bathrooms, etc.) for any suspicious item or package. Each staff member should discreetly notify the office that the each has been completed and if anything has been found. Office personnel should maintain a list of all rooms and check off those that have been searched and cleared so that a thorough search can be documented. o Search with students contained in a common area Determine where students will be contained (auditorium, gym, etc.) and search that area for any suspicious item or package. Move all students and staff to the cleared area without their personal belongings. Have designated staff search rooms and common areas for any suspicious item or package. Each search member should discreetly notify the office that the search has been completed and if anything has been found. Office personnel should maintain a list of all rooms and check off those that have been searched and cleared so that a thorough search can be documented. o Search with an evacuated building Determine where students will be contained (ball field, parking lot, or other area a safe distance from the school building and search that area for any suspicious item or package). Move all students and staff to the cleared area without their personal belongings. Have designated staff search rooms and common areas for any 62
  • 64. suspicious item or package. This search may include law enforcement K9 units and fire department investigators. Each search member should discreetly notify the office that the search has been completed and if anything has been found. Office personnel should maintain a list of all rooms and check off those that have been searched and cleared so that a thorough search can be documented. o If a suspicious item or package is found, Searchers must not touch or move the item. Clear the area around the item or building. Ensure that the investigating police officer is aware. The fire department investigates all suspicious items or suspected devices. In any event, no bomb threat should ever be ignored or disregarded without being investigated. If a decision is made to close school for the day, be sure to coordinate with the Director’s Office, Transportation and Community Relations. 63
  • 65. 64
  • 66. Chemical or Hazardous Materials Exposure In most cases, the actual chemical will be unknown at the time of the exposure. Exposure may come by eating, drinking, breathing or touching harmful chemicals. A strong chemical odor or a visible vapor cloud could mean that a chemical is in the air. However, a bad odor or a visible vapor cloud does not always mean the chemical is harmful, and some toxic chemicals do not have any odor or a vapor cloud. Symptoms of a minor chemical exposure may include: tearing eyes blurred vision burning of the eyes, nose, throat, chest stomach ache or skin diarrhea headache anxiety sweating Once exposure ends, the symptoms may go away quickly. A large chemical exposure may also cause more serious effects such as: difficulty breathing feeling faint coughing weakness wheezing The most severe exposures may produce a sudden collapse, convulsions or seizures, or death. A person can receive indirect exposure by contacting the clothing, skin or decontamination water of a directly exposed victim. A hazardous chemical release or exposure could be accidental or intentional. Accidental causes may come from a science experiment, motor vehicle wreck, cleaning supplies, or industrial accident. An intentional release may be a misguided ―prank,‖ an assault, or an act of terrorism. Mitigation steps may include: ensuring that HVAC systems are functioning as designed; securing cleaning materials and other chemicals; ensuring all science experiments are supervised; monitoring the emergency alert radio; providing personal protective equipment and training to anyone who may respond to a chemical release. Source: Unknown Chemical Exposure; Virginia Department of Health; August 4, 2004 If the spill or exposure occurs inside the building with a known substance: Consult the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) or The Hazardous Materials Emergency Response guide to determine correct response and respond accordingly. MSDS Search MSDS and the ERG will detail o physical data o first aid o melting point o reactivity o boiling point o storage o flash point o disposal o toxicity o protective equipment 65
  • 67. o health effects o spill handling o procedures Notify the building Principal. If the spill or exposure occurs inside the building with an unknown substance: Evacuate the area. Notify o 911 o front office, Building Principal Shut down HVAC systems and seal the area. Get exposed persons to fresh air and treat symptoms. If the spill or exposure occurs outside the building: Get all persons inside the building. Close all windows and doors. Shut down HVAC systems. Notify o 911 o Front Office, Building Principal Treat symptoms of exposed persons. All Teachers should assure that they maintain a current MSDS sheet book for their classroom or shop area. A master MSDS Sheet book should be maintained in the front office. Radiological Emergency (Surry Nuclear Power Station and Other Sources) There are numerous potential radiation hazards in the Newport News area. The Surry Nuclear Power Station has a 10-mile plume phase emergency planning zone (EPZ) and a 50- mile ingestion phase EPZ. The following schools are located within the 10-mile plume phase EPZ:  New Horizons Regional Education Center Woodside Lane campus Several hundred facilities in Virginia use radioactive materials ranging from major medical facilities performing therapeutic or diagnostic procedures to industrial users testing for lead in paint. Each application has its own risk of contaminating or exposing people to unnecessary levels of radiation. Facilities in Newport News that use radioactive materials include Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Labs), Northrop Grumman (shipyards), and Riverside Regional Medical Center. Facilities in Hampton that use radioactive materials include Sentara Care Plex, LAFB, NASA, Teledyne-Hastings, VA Medical Center. Numerous shipments of radioactive materials travel on the Commonwealth’s highway every day with the potential for a transportation accident that may damage the shipping containers. Potential also exists for a radiological emergency originating on one of the many nearby military bases or from a terrorist attack. Source: First Responders and Local Radiological Emergency Response Officials; Virginia Department of Health; January 5, 2007 66
  • 68. Surry Nuclear Power Station Schools located within 10 miles of the Surry Nuclear Power Station could require one of two actions: evacuation or sheltering. Evacuation In the event that Newport News schools located with in 10 miles of the Surry Nuclear Power Station are instructed to evacuate, proceed according to the following plan. Upon receiving notification of a need to evacuate, the appropriate signal will be given and the staff will proceed with all students to their respective rooms. Staff will review the class roster to ensure all students are present. An employee will be designated to check the playground, and grounds to warn teachers and students to return to the building and their respective rooms. The Butler Farm Campus will work with the Woodside Lane campus to move student to Butler farm When the buses arrive at the bus loading area, the students and staff will leave their rooms and proceed to the bus loading area. Staff will carry rosters and other evacuation supplies. Students and staff will board the buses. Windows must remain closed. Risk School Host School Woodside Lane Campus Butler Farm Campus Sheltering In the event that Newport News schools located within 10 miles of the Surry Nuclear Power Station are instructed to shelter in place, proceed according to the following plan. Upon receiving notification of a need to shelter, the appropriate signal will be given and the staff will proceed with all students to their respective rooms. Staff will review the class roster to ensure all students are present. An employee will be designated to check the playground and warn teachers and students to return to the building and their respective rooms. Custodial staff will ensure all windows and doors are shut. Heating, cooling and ventilation systems will be cut off. Students and staff will remain sheltered until notified by the Emergency Operations Center that such action is no longer necessary. Risk and Host Schools Crisis and Emergency Response Plans The Principal of each risk school must make evaluation and sheltering information parts of his/her School Crisis and Emergency Response Plan. The Principal of each Host school must make the reception of evacuated students and staff a part of his/her School Crises and Emergency Response Plan. 67
  • 69. Loss, Disappearance or Kidnapping of a Student A student can become missing due to kidnapping or abduction by a non-custodial parent or guardian, kidnapping for ransom, kidnapping for sexual assault or other crime, running away, or simply becoming lost. It could happen on the way to or from school, on school property, or on a school field trip. On average, 2,185 children are reported missing each day. Over 200,000 each year are the victims of family abductions. Nearly 60,000 each year are the victims of non-family abductions. Each year, over 100 children are the victims of a ―stereotypical‖ kidnapping in which someone whom the child does not know or who is a slight acquaintance holds the child overnight, transports the child at least 50 miles, kills the child, demands ransom, or intends to keep the child permanently. Source: Statistics; National Center for Missing & Exploited Children Schools can take many mitigation steps. Within the school, administrators should ensure that access control is always in place and that each staff member plays a role in identifying people on the campus or in the building. Staff members should familiarize themselves with registered sex offenders in the area of the school and encourage parents to do the same. Students should not be alone at any time. If a staff member is not present, then at least one other student should be. When planning or on a field trip, check for sex offenders employed by the destination. Ensure adequate chaperones. Assign field trip ―buddies.‖ Away from school, encourage parents to be involved with their children and to monitor internet use so that the children practice safe surfing. If a child is reported missing from school: Call 911 or notify the assigned School Resource Officer. If appropriate put the school into Lockdown. Notify parents of child. Call Director’s Office. Identify team to work on the crisis while rest of school maintains routine. Obtain full description and pull out school picture. Search school building and grounds. If a kidnapping, try to obtain description of suspect. When child is found, ensure that Director’s Office, investigating police, child’s parents and staff are informed. If appropriate, consider informing other school parents. Arrange for counseling for staff and students, if necessary. Call emergency staff meeting to determine how best to prevent such a situation in the future: o No student should be released to anyone not currently listed as approved in ESIS. o ESIS and ID must be checked of anyone picking up a student – the school may not know of a recent change to that student’s domestic status. o Anyone picking up a child must do it in the office. o Emergency cards of such students should be tagged. o Before releasing a child to anyone except a parent of guardian on the list, the school secretary should check with the custodial parent and/or guardian for approval; a record of the time and date of phone approval should be made and kept. 68
  • 70. o When parent telephones a request that a child be released from school, the identity of the caller should be confirmed (by a separate call to the parent or guardian, if needed) before the child is permitted to leave. In the event of any doubt, the message and phone number should be written down; a return call should be made after cross-checking the phone number with those on file in the child’s folder or on the emergency card. If there is any doubt, the child must not be released. Lockdown Events A lockdown is when all entrances to the school building are locked, no one is permitted entry except law enforcement first responders, all students and staff are in locked rooms, sitting on the floor away from windows or doors, and room lights are off. Lockdown shall occur in the event of: A credible threat of firearm violence on campus Violent intruder in the building A shooting in or around the building Other circumstances where, in the judgment of the school administrator, students will be safest confined in classrooms. Staff, students and parents must be prepared in advance for a lockdown. All staff members must know their roles. That includes substitutes and central office, maintenance, or contractors who may be in the building. Student must understand that lockdown is serious and they must immediately comply with orders from staff. Students and staff should understand that unauthorized or indiscriminant use of cell phones must not happen. If too many people are trying to use phones, it could tie up the cell and prevent necessary communications between the school and responders. If parents are called, then responding parents could cause traffic to be blocked, preventing responders from getting to the school; parents could be in extreme danger from the cause of the lockdown; and parents could be in danger of arrest, detention or violence from responding police. Parents must understand in advance that if their child’s school is in lockdown, then the best thing they can do is stay away and do not call the school or the Administration offices. The reasons for staying away are outlines above, with the addition that the parent will be unable to get in the building and no student will be released. They should not call the school because phones must be kept open to communicate with responders. Each school should develop a code word to be used if an intruder is in a room. For instance, a school’s code word might be the staff member’s first name. If in lockdown, the office calls three rooms for updates. The first room’s teacher says, ―This is Mrs. Jones, my class is fine.‖ The second room has a custodian in it, but no teacher. He might say, ―This is Mr. Smith, I have seven students in Room 112 with me and one needs his inhaler for asthma.‖ The intruder is in the third room and has the teacher at gunpoint. He made her put her green card in the window. She might say, ―This is Mary Brown, my class is fine.‖ That alerts to the responders that an intruder is in the room and a hostage situation may be developing. In an emergency requiring lockdown, these procedures must be followed by staff and students: Principal or his designee will decide to go into Lockdown – simultaneously, the following four or five actions shall take place: 69
  • 71. A person designated by the Principal will call 911, and o tell the dispatcher what the emergency is, o where in the school the emergency is, o the school is going into lockdown, o where the command post is being established, o and stay on the line for further instructions. A person designated by the Principal will call Transportation, and o tell the dispatcher what school is calling, o who is calling, o the school is going into lockdown, o what the emergency is, o who is in command, o an available phone number, o and ask the dispatcher to: notify buses to not approach the school, make other notifications A person designated by the Principal will announce over the P.A. system the following: o ―ATTENTION, WE ARE NOW IN LOCKDOWN. ALL STUDENTS AND STAFF IMMEDIATELY GET IN THE NEAREST OCCUPIED ROOM. IGNORE ANY BELLS OR ALARMS.‖ - repeat During the lockdown announcement, an administrator, custodian or security officer will lock the building entrance. This step is if an SRO is present at the school – A person designated by the Principal will call the School Resource Officer on the radio and tell the SRO o what the emergency is, o where it is, o a description, if known, of involved subjects. Teachers or other persons in charge of a given room: Stay calm but commanding. Have students in the room get on the floor away from windows and doors. Instruct them to stay quiet. Get any students in the immediate vicinity of the door inside the room – do not argue or chase after any, your responsibility is to the children in your room. Lock the door. Turn off the lights. Get your room’s Emergency Kit and Plan. If all in the room are uninjured, place the GREEN card in the door window. If anyone in the room needs immediate medical attention, place the RED card in the door window. Get away from the door and windows with your laptop. Ensure that no one is using a cell phone, text messages, etc. Await instructions via the P.A. system or email. Do not unlock or approach the door for anyone under any circumstances – the 70
  • 72. intruder may be using a ruse to gain entrance to the room. If contacted by the office or administrators, give them the information they ask for. Use a preestablished code if the intruder is in the room. Quietly comfort and reassure the students. After the incident, Law Enforcement or a school administrator will unlock the door and direct occupants out – no one should leave the room or open the door for any other reason. o Everyone must follow directions which may include keeping hands on the head or laying on the ground to be searched. o Law Enforcement may treat everyone as a potential suspect to ensure everyone’s safety. These procedures apply to any room in which students can be secured. It will most likely be a classroom, but could be the auditorium, gym, cafeteria, a store room or other location. It is crucial that all doors have working locks and that any staff member assigned to that room has the ability to lock it. Any staff member who has a radio (Security Officer, Custodian, etc.) will join the nearest secure room and keep the radio clear for emergency traffic. Wait for the command post to call, do not call the command post unless directed otherwise. Secured Building There may be cases where it is impractical or unnecessary to go or stay in lockdown status, yet the school and its occupants still need to remain secured. Situations where this may be appropriate include: Non-specific threat of firearms violence in the building, A series of brawls or continuing minor violence on a particular day, A report of a fleeing criminal or other police activity near the school, K-9 searches of the school. During a secured building status, the halls and open areas are off limits to all students and staff except for administrative and security personnel and those specifically directed to enter these areas. All entrances will be closed and locked with entry restricted to administrative and security staff, law enforcement and emergency services. Upon an announcement of a secure building status, faculty and staff should Keep all students in the classroom; allow no one to leave the room. Close and lock the door. Close and lock all windows. Close all shades/blinds except one from which to keep watch. Be ready to go to lockdown if the situation changes. Intruder or Trespasser Each administrator should make every effort to ensure that every person entering or occupying the school campus or building has a legitimate reason to be on the property, is positively identified, and is only in an authorized area. Everyone entering the campus or school should be made aware of: 71
  • 73. Code of Va., § 18.2-128. Trespass upon church or school property. A. It shall be unlawful for any person, without the consent of some person authorized to give such consent to go or enter upon, in the nighttime, the premises or property of any church or upon any school property for any purpose other than to attend a meeting or service held or conducted in such church or school property. B. It shall be unlawful for any person, whether or not a student, to enter upon or remain upon any school property in violation of (i) any direction to vacate the property by a person authorized to give such direction or (ii) any posted notice which contains such information posted at a place where it reasonably may be seen. Each time such person enters upon or remains on the premises after such direction shall constitute a separate offense. C. Any person violating the provisions of (i) subsection A shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor and (ii) subsection B shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. (1994) All staff should be empowered and encouraged to confront unidentified persons on campus or in the building and authorized to direct such persons to report to the office to sign in, or leave the property. Staff should notify administrators and security of any such contact as soon as possible when the person complies, and immediately when the person does not comply. Police should be called for any trespasser who refuses to comply or who presents any threat to students or staff. The principal may consider putting the school into lockdown. In that circumstance, it is appropriate to give the reason with the lockdown announcement: ―We are now in Lockdown because of a trespasser in the science hall who refuses to leave. He is a white male in a blue jacket.‖ Trespass with no threat may be dealt with through informing the intruder of the offense being committed. Positively identify the person and escort them off school property. Be aware that trespassers who comply or seemed confused about rules may be conducting a probe of the school’s security measures. Such probes have been conducted in the past by: Media Burglars Pedophiles Terrorists It is important to obtain positive ID and relay the information to the police, even if the person complies and leaves. Weapons Threat If a student or other person makes a threat with or about a weapon (gun, knife or other weapon) Evacuate the area o Evaluate the perpetrator o Isolate Consider lockdown Notify law enforcement Remain calm o Get help 72
  • 74. o Avoid heroics o Do not threaten o Keep a safe, non-intimidating distance o Avoid abrupt sporadic movements Look for a place to dive or jump (Adapted from National School Safety Center, 1995) Hostage Situations/Barricaded Subject A hostage situation is a person or persons using force or the threat of force to hold someone against his or her will while demands are made. A hostage taker may want to use the hostage(s) to negotiate freedom or concessions, for political gain, to commit sexual violence or to stall for more media coverage of the outcome. Historically, if hostage taking occurs incidental to a criminal act (a robbery gone bad, a fleeing felon, etc.), there is a higher probability of a safe resolution. If the hostage taking is the reason for the criminal act (Bailey, Colo. and Nickel Mines, Penn. – 2006; Beslan, Russia – 2004), then it is likely to result in the deaths of hostages and the hostage taker(s). All hostage situations are dangerous events. A hostage taker might be a terrorist, fleeing felon, disgruntled employee (past or present), employee’s spouse, drug or alcohol abuser, emotionally disturbed person, trespasser, and on occasion, a parent, student or citizen who is unusually angry about some situation and decides to resolve it by taking hostages and making demands to achieve some resolution. No policy can dictate how a person will respond if taken hostage. Any person taken hostage must evaluate the situation in its entirety. If negotiations are ongoing and death or serious bodily injury does not seem imminent, then it might be best for a hostage to comply with the hostage taker’s directions. If death or serious bodily injury appears to be imminent, then the hostage may have to decide to attempt escape, encourage students to escape, attack the hostage taker, or face that possible death or serious bodily injury. The dynamics of hostage situations vary greatly and no two incidents will be the same. Upon notification of a hostage situation within any activity, event, school, or building under the control of the New Horizons Regional Education Center Schools, the following procedures should be implemented: The Principal shall immediately institute lockdown procedures and await further instructions from the responding police authorities. The Director of Human Resources, Technology, Facilities, Divisional Community Relations and Executive Director should respond to the Administration Building to establish a division command post. The Security Officer (or designee) will respond to the area of the school to participate in a unified command post. He will liaise between the police department and NHREC administration. In addition to keeping the administration informed of developments, he may relay needs from the scene such as: o Staff for perimeter management o Transportation needs for evacuation or perimeter management o Location for evacuation o Plant Services issues o Food/drink issues 73
  • 75. The NHREC spokesperson will coordinate with the Police Department’s Public Information Officer for all press matters as well as the dissemination of information to students and parents at the scene. It is important to remember that it is the philosophy of the Police Department to end a hostage situation through negotiating tactics. Often it is a lengthy process. An assault is only used when all indications are that the hostage taker will harm the hostages and lives will in fact be saved by an assault. Even if a hostage situation has seemingly ended, police must take time to ensure that the building is clear of any possible accomplices and/or booby traps. Police may also need additional time for forensic analysis of any evidence. Only when the police turn control of the school back over to NHREC can any school or division staff member have access to the building. Consideration must be given to the possibility of a hostage situation occurring on a bus operated by the school divisions. If such an incident occurs, a bus driver must assume a position of heightened responsibility for the welfare of the students on the bus as well as his/her own safety. Sound judgment, good decision making, knowledge of school and police procedures in handling such incidents, and training are the items that will be of greatest assistance to you should you become a victim. Students must be made aware of the behavior that will be required of them so they will be safe and do not inflame an already volatile situation. The bus driver should accomplish the following tasks if they can be done in a safe manner: Bus drivers are to follow the procedures of their school divisions. Teachers and staff driving NHREC buses need to be familiar with the following. Disable the bus or throw the keys away from the bus. This will eliminate the need to move the bus and will be helpful to the Police Department who will respond to the scene as soon as the location has been established. Evacuate as many students as possible from the bus and order them to move to out of sight of the bus. Clear the area of as many students and others as is safely possible. Notify the school administration of as much information as possible regarding your situation and location. If allowed to maintain radio/phone contact, do so. All radio/phone transmissions must be disciplined. Administration will make the following calls: Call 911, and o tell the dispatcher what the emergency is, where the bus is (if known) or where it should be if the driver was unable to convey enough information, o stay on the line for further instructions. Notify all other buses to not approach the area. Notify the Director’s office. Notify the security office. 74
  • 76. Employee Victim-Hostage A situation may arise in which you become a hostage. Other individuals, such as students, employees, and citizens may become hostages as the same time. Remember that each incident involving hostages is different. Variables such as hostage takers, hostages, motivation for the act, and location of the incident make each occurrence unique. Sound judgment, good decision making, knowledge of school and police procedures in handling such incidents, and training are the items that will be of greatest assistance to you should you become a victim. Hostages must remain calm and act in a manner that will preserve their lives and the lives of other hostages. If other hostages are students, New Horizons Regional Education Centers personnel have the additional duties of ensuring that these children are aware of the behavior required of them to stay safe. You must remain calm and give deliberate instructions to the students. Initially, you may be the person who is thrust into the role of negotiating with the hostage taker(s). Always remain calm and request that the situation end by the release of the hostages or the escape of the hostage takers from the area. In some hostage situations, it has been helpful for hostages to tell the hostage taker their names and background information. Some say that it helps to humanize the hostages to the taker and make him less likely to harm them. At all times, remain neutral regarding the reasons given by the hostage taker(s) for taking this action. Your concern is safety and the release of the hostages. Further, responses of the hostage taker may be irrational or illogical, depending upon his/her mental condition and/or the stress of the situation. Police Department Be prepared to wait, as the resolution of hostage situations traditionally takes time. Be assured that New Horizons Regional Education Center and the Police Department are acting on your behalf and are acting as quickly as possible. The Police Department Crisis Negotiator will contact the hostage taker and begin the process of negotiating an end to the situation. If requested to talk to the negotiator, the New Horizons Regional Education Centers’ employee should do so. Answer all questions as fully as possible. At this point, the negotiator has the responsibility to successfully end the situation. If police conduct a dynamic entry of the room, drop immediately to the floor and show your hands. At the conclusion of the situation, you can expect to be treated as a suspect until your identity is confirmed. The police will interview you – be as complete and as truthful as possible, no matter how unpleasant it might be to recount the story. Mass Casualty Caused by Criminal Actions In the event of a mass casualty incident caused by criminal actions, the principal shall inform the Executive Director of the need to request the assistance of the Department of Criminal Justice Services and the Virginia Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund through the City of Newport News Office of Emergency Management at 269-2900 or Hampton City Office of Emergency Management 727-1208. The Executive Director or designee shall inform the principal after such request has made. 75
  • 77. Appendix A. Samples Statements and Communication with Parents 76
  • 78. Pre-event Sample Letter Home to Parents and Students Letter to Parent Regarding Procedures for Picking up Children in a Crisis (To be mailed to parents at the beginning of each school year) Dear Parents: Providing for your student's/child's safety when at school/in our care is a major responsibility of our staff. All New Horizons Regional Education Centers Schools have a disaster plan. The staff and I are prepared to make prompt and responsible decisions in any situation that could threaten the safety of the students. The need to close a school or center and evacuate the students before the regularly scheduled closing time could arise from a relatively minor emergency such as a prolonged interruption of power or from a major event such as fire, tornado, or severe storm. At times, communication and/or transportation may be disrupted. In the event of an emergency, information will be disseminated in a number of ways, including: Broadcast over local radio stations Broadcast by local television stations New Horizons web site (www.nhrec.org) During a critical incident or lockdown situation, no child will be released and no unauthorized persons will be admitted to the school building. This is for the safety of the children. Attempting to bypass this policy may subject a parent to law enforcement action and may endanger your child. No student will be dismissed from school unless a parent (or individual designated by a parent) comes for him/her. No student will be allowed to leave with another person, even a relative or baby sitter, unless we have written permission to that effect or that particular person is listed on the student's Emergency Medical Release Form in our files and is able to identify him/herself. Please complete the attached emergency card and return it as soon as possible. If the information changes, remember to call the office to request a new card. Everyone attempting to sign out a child must show positive identification. All parents or designated persons who come for students must sign out at (complete for your site, e.g., the office or from the alternate release location which will be established). Signs will be posted if this alternate location is required. We are prepared to care for your student in emergency situations. If you are not able to reach the school/ center, we will care for your student until you or a designated person arrives. We have a number of staff members with first aid training, and we will be in communication with local emergency services. We do ask for your help in the following ways: 77
  • 79. Please do not call the school/center. It is essential that telephone lines be kept open for emergency calls. Please do not try and reach your child by their cell phone Tying up or overloading the cell could prevent necessary communications between administrators and responders. Do turn to the radio and television stations for information. Do not come to the school. The school access route and street entrance areas must remain clear for emergency vehicles and/or may be blocked by debris. Coming to the school may put you or your child at risk. During the school year your child will be trained in the necessary emergency procedures. She/he will learn how to react, where to assemble, and what to expect in an emergency situation. We suggest that you have the members of your household practice response to emergency situations and that you maintain emergency supplies. There are several good publications available to assist you in these preparations. The Department of Homeland Security website, www.ready.gov contains good information about preparing and reacting to an emergency. If you have any questions or comments about our emergency preparations, please call the office at ____. Very truly yours, Principal Post-event Sample Letters Home to Parents and Students Notice of Bus Accident Dear Parents, This morning, prior to school, there was an accident involving a school bus and an automobile. There were known injuries to the passengers of the car. The children on Bus #___ witnessed the aftermath of the accident but were not involved in it. The children from the bus involved in the accident were taken to the library by the guidance counselors and administration. The children were asked if they were injured in any way and their parents were then contacted. Your child, because of being on Bus #___ may show delayed reaction to the accident. Please be alert over the next several days to symptoms of delayed reaction, including: A desire to be alone, Crying, Loss of appetite, Angry outbursts, short temper, Problems with sleeping, nightmares, Headaches, upset stomach, Depressed, sad, unusually quiet Difficulty with concentration, 78
  • 80. Your child may also exhibit some physical complaints. Please contact (principal’s name) to fill out an accident report. The school will be offering support services for students needing help dealing with the accident. We will also provide counseling services to parents in helping their children to cope. Please do not hesitate to call if you have any questions or concerns. Sincerely, Principal of School Tips for Parents to Help Create Safe Schools Parents can help create safe schools. Here are some ideas that parents have used: Discuss the school's discipline policy with your child. Show your support for the rules, and help your child understand the reasons for them. Involve your child in setting rules for appropriate behavior at home. Talk with your child about the violence he or she sees--on television, in video games, and possibly in the neighborhood. Help your child understand the consequences of violence. Teach your child how to solve problems. Praise your child when he or she follows through. Help your child find ways to show anger that do not involve verbally or physically hurting others. When you get angry, use it as an opportunity to model these appropriate responses for your child-and talk about it. Help your child understand the value of accepting individual differences. Note any disturbing behaviors in your child. For example, frequent angry outbursts, excessive fighting and bullying of other children, cruelty to animals, fire setting, and frequent behavior problems at school and in the neighborhood, lack of friends, and alcohol or drug use can be signs of serious problems. Get help for your child. Talk with a trusted professional in your child's school or in the community. Keep lines of communication open with your child--even when it is tough. Encourage your child always to let you know where and with whom he or she will be. Get to know your child's friends and the friends’ families Listen to your child if he or she shares concerns about friends who may be exhibiting troubling behaviors. Share this information with a trusted professional, such as the school psychologist, principal, or teacher. Be involved in your child's school life by supporting and reviewing homework, talking with his or her teacher(s), and attending school functions such as parent conferences, class programs, and open houses. Work with your child's school to make it more responsive to all students and to all families. Share your ideas about how the school can encourage family involvement, welcome all families, and include them in meaningful ways in their children's education. Volunteer to work with school-based and community groups concerned with violence prevention. Talk with the parents of your child's friends. Discuss how you can form a team to 79
  • 81. ensure your children's safety. Find out if your employer offers provisions for parents to participate in school activities. Make sure your child understands that reporting a friend who may be planning to harm himself or someone else is not the same as snitching or tattling. It is protecting the friend from getting into something that he may not be able to handle. Give your child the number to the NNPS Student Crime Line (591-3800) to anonymously report threatened violence at school. Student Tactics for Safe Schools There is much students can do to help create safe schools. Talk to your teachers, parents, and counselor to find out how you can get involved and do your part to make your school safe. Here are some ideas that students have used successfully: Listen to your friends if they share troubling feelings or thoughts. Encourage them to get help from a trusted adult-such as a school psychologist, counselor, social worker, leader from the faith community, or other professional. If you are very concerned, seek help for them. Share your concerns with your parents. Create, join, or support student organizations that combat violence, such as ―Students against Destructive Decisions‖ and ―Young Heroes Program.‖ Work with local businesses and community groups to organize activities that help young people think of ways to prevent school and community violence. Share ideas for how these community groups and businesses can support your efforts. Organize an assembly and invite your school psychologist, school social worker, and counselor--in addition to student panelists--to share ideas about how to deal with violence, intimidation, and bullying. Get involved in your school's violence prevention and response plan Participate in violence prevention programs such as peer mediation and conflict resolution. Employ your new skills in other settings, such as the home, neighborhood, and community. Work with your teachers and administrators to create a safe process for reporting threats, intimidation, weapon possession, drug selling, gang activity, graffiti, and vandalism. Use the process. Ask for permission to invite a law enforcement officer to your school to conduct a safety audit and share safety tips, such as traveling in groups and avoiding areas known to be unsafe. Share your ideas with the officer. Help to develop and participate in activities that promote student understanding of differences and that respect the rights of all. Volunteer to be a mentor for younger students and/or provide tutoring to your peers Know your school's code of conduct and model responsible behavior. Avoid being part of a crowd when fights break out. Refrain from teasing, bullying, and intimidating peers. Be a role model — take personal responsibility by reacting to anger without physically or verbally harming others. 80
  • 82. Seek help from your parents or a trusted adult — such as a school psychologist, social worker, counselor, teacher — if you are experiencing intense feelings of anger, fear, anxiety, or depression. Know and use the NNPS Student Crime Line to anonymously report potential acts of violence at school (591-3800). 81
  • 83. Appendix B Planning Surveys and Checklists 82
  • 84. Staff Skills & Information Inventory (To be conducted annually) Name: _______________________________________ Room # _______ Position:_________________________ Address ____________________________________________ City ____________ VA Zip __________________ Home phone # ______________________ Cell Phone # _________________ Home email __________________ Can you receive email on your cell phone - _______ Can You receive a text massage on your cell phone _______ Emergency Contact for yourself ___________________________ number ______________________________ Please check any of the following in which you have current certifications and / or licenses: (ATTACH Copies) _____ CPR & AED _____ First Aid _____search & Rescue _____ EMT/ EMTP _____ Fire Fighting _____START Triage _____ NIMS for schools _____Emergency Mgt. _____ CISD (Critical Incident Stress Debriefing) _____ Nurse (RN) list your specialty _______________ _____ Mass casualty I & II _____ Other _________________________________ Foreign or Sign Language ____ What language______________________ could you act as an interpreter? _____ Other (Specify) _______________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Special Needs – Do you have any special needs (explain)____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ CLASSROOM Emergency Check ______ Fire & Evacuation Plan current and posted ______ First Aid Kit (gloves, Band-Aids, gauze) ______ MSDS book and ERG book – current and copies in front office ______ Fire Extinguisher ______ Emergency shut off (electric, gas etc as indicated) ______ Life Safety signs posted as needed ______ Flash light and batteries ______ Locks to secure room all working ______ window cover intact and working ______ Room secure signs on back of door ______ Other _________________________________ ______ Other _________________________________ 83
  • 85. Staff Skills & Information Inventory November 2008 Current Certification and/or licenses: Speak Name Position Home Phone Cell Phone IM Home Email Cell Special CPR First Aid Search/ EMT/ Fire START NIMS for Emer. CISD Nurse RN Mass Other Foreign Email Needs & AED Rescue EMTP Fighting Triage Schools Mgt. (RN) Speciality Casualty I & II Language Administration: Clark, Sammy L Facilities Supv. 757-723-0200 n/a n/a Haislip, Jennifer Admin. Secretary 757-596-1709 757-870-1942 Y jbridges18@cox.net N Johnson, Joseph Executive Director 757-810-0883 757-810-0883 Y kojohnson@juno.com Y Jones, Nancy Finance 757-249-3661 n/a n/a Jordan, Dedra Human Res. Dir. 757-405-3783 757-406-4571 Y n/a N Y Lanford, Cheryl Secretary 757-357-1725 757-817-6553 N n/a N wheelchair Mongold, Gail Registrar 804-693-4968 804-832-8254 Y gmongold@yahoo.com N Spanish Ragland, Don Finance Director 757-596-1030 757-641-4188 N donragland@verizon.net N Tarr, Theresa H. Finance 804-694-0589 804-815-5062 Y ttghays@aol.com N Career & Techinical - Butler Farm Campus: Burton, Ray Carpentry Instr Needs Sheet Chapman, Gerald (Lee) HVAC 757-599-3277 757-570-1749 Y Y HVAC Cooke, Penny Early Childhood Ed. 757-887-9266 757-345-1715 Y pennycooke@cox.net N Creamer, Dave Principal Needs Sheet Delp, Ruth Secretary 757-599-9841 757-879-1859 N ruthdelp@cox.net N Dement, Sharon Instructional Asst. 757-851-0901 757-218-6856 y warriormom02@verizon.net N Y-CPR Duncan, Archie Criminal Justice 757-461-2903 757-681-2615 Y Duncan@pinn.net N Y Y Y Law Enfor. Dupree, Ed Welding Instr. 757-867-8294 757-719-5077 N hdupree2@cox.net N Fletcher, Cherie Nursing Asst. Instr. 757-887-8549 757-660-4384 N sweetcherie94@cox.net N Y Y Y geriatrics Gabany, Michael Fire Science Instr. 804-642-7597 757-880-0213 y FDK9@hotmail.com N Y Y Y Y Y Gabany, Roxann EMT Instr. 804-642-7597 757-880-4376 Y mrgabany@aol.com N Y Y Y Y Y Y ED/trauma Y Harris, Gregg Computer Network 757-766-2534 757-660-8480 Y Y Hernandez, Ed Auto Body Instr. n/a 757-846-0906 Y n/a N Kincaid, Mary Preschool Teacher 757-868-5297 757-725-1503 Y kincaid_family@verizon.net N Y Lee, Carmelle ParaProfessional 757-369-8229 757-469-2685 Y-CPR Y *QMHP McHugh, Deborah C&T Specialist 757-875-0046 n/a n/a imanddebmchugh@verizon.net n/a Parker, Darryl Auto Tech II Instr. 757-233-6641 757-201-0669 Y dprp2005@juno.com N Spanish Russo, Brooke LPN Instructor 757-851-2364 757-342-7756 Y brookesrusso@aol.com Y Y Y Y med surg. Schaffer, Bruce Asst. Principal 757-595-0034 757-880-3506 Y bschaffer3@cox.net N Servais, Vickie Cosmetology I 757-825-0996 757-344-2253 N cmalbums4you@yahoo.com N Smith, Anthony Auto Tech I Instr. 757-673-3122 757-676-2949 Y asmith319@cox.net N Sprock, Greg Mach Tech Instr. 757-591-2108 n/a n/a ggsprock@hotmail.com n/a Spanish Sykes, Michelle Cosmetology II 804-693-4149 757-329-4735 Y N Talmage, Joanne Electronics Instr. 757-865-3242 757-329-0648 N n/a N Fiber Optics Portuguese Wornom, Jill Secretary 757-851-7534 757-810-5010 N wornomj@cox.net N Young, Dennis Auto Tech I Instr. 757-474-0714 n/a n/a dyoung553@cox.net n/a Career & Techinical - Woodside Lane Campus: Governor's School - Butler Farm Cezzar, Ruknet P/T Teacher 757-850-3494 646-752-3311 Y rockczar@hotmail.com Y Turkish Chandrasekhar, Dawn Biology Teacher 757-345-2516 757-879-7528 N chandra880@cox.net N Chapman, Ann Teacher 757-827-7670 757-817-1025 N n/a N Chinnabhandar, Sridhar Comp Sci Instr 757-553-7494 757-553-7494 Y sridharchin@yahoo.com N Clarke, Jennifer Chemistry Teacher 757-868-7569 n/a N n/a N Feygelson, Rimma Teacher 757-223-4948 757-344-9224 N rjmail@cox.net N Russian Fritz, Alicia Honors Res. & Men. 757-327-0926 757-344-2685 Y cuzimalady17@yahoo.com Y Louis, Naomi Precalculus Teacher 757-872-6565 757-831-0374 Y fionaspirit@yahoo.com Y Moffatt, David Physics II Teacher n/a 434-414-4349 Y dsmoffatt@hotmail.com N Mulvey, Margaret Teacher 757-886-0289 757-876-7495 N newmanmulvey@cox.net N Munyaradzi, Justice Research Teacher 757-369-8861 757-968-0511 Y doctorcool29@yahoo.com Y Spanish Purman, Richard Physics Lab Teacher 757-827-0575 n/a n/a n/a n/a Wismer, Vikki Director Needs Sheet Adult Education - Butler Farm Bullock, Betty Admin. Assistant 757-596-3030 757-869-2226 Y betsonme6@yahoo.com Y Logan, Linda Admin. Assistant Y mrslogan2003@hotmail.com Taylor, David Director, CFAAT 757-887-5850 757-876-7940 Y dtaylor130@cox.net Y Youth Workforce - Butler Farm Magnotta, Jim Youth Wkforce Mgr 757-867-8880 757-329-8880 jbmagnotta@verizon.net N Health Education - Butler Farm Gillis, Denese Coordinator 757-827-9119 757-827-9119 Y dgillis29@yahoo.com N Y Y psychology Phillips, Beatrice Teacher 757-833-0299 757-876-5410 Y bjack39402@aol.com Y Y Y Y Spencer, Marcine Secretary 757-877-1233 757-947-4466 Y n/a *QMHP = Qualified Mental Health Professional 84
  • 86. INSERT NHREC INCIDENT REPORT on this page 85
  • 87. Post Event Report/Response Critique School: ________________________________________________ Description of incident (include date, time, place): ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Immediate actions by Crisis Response Team: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Assistance provided by Emergency Services: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Assistance provided by other community agencies/organizations: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Follow-up that has occurred/is occurring: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ With students: ______________________________________________________________________________ With faculty/staff: ______________________________________________________________________________ With parent(s)/guardian(s) of student(s) involved: ______________________________________________________________________________ With community: ______________________________________________________________________________ Recommendations to improve responses to such crises in the future: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________ _________________ Principal Signature Date 86
  • 88. Designation of Assignments/Activity Locations Incident _____________________________________ time began ___________ Comments:_________________________________________________________ Assignment Title/Name Operations Site(s) Decision Making/Control 1. Principal Main Office ____________________________ 2. Ass't Principal ____________________________ Crisis Team 1. Coordinator ____________________________ 2. Substitute Coord. ____________________________ Communications/Notification 1. ______________________ Main Office 2._____________________ __ ____________________________ Evacuation and Sheltering 1. ______________________ ____________________________ 2. ______________________ ____________________________ Student Accounting and Release 1. ______________________ ____________________________ 2.______________________ ____________________________ Building Safety/Security 1. ______________________ Main Office 2. ______________________ ___________________________ Information (Telephone and 1. ______________________ ___________________________ "Walk-Ins") 2. ______________________ ____________________________ Family Contact/Visitation 1. ______________________ ____________________________ 2. ______________________ ____________________________ Coordinate assistance for 1. ______________________ ____________________________ emergency/medical response 2. ______________________ ____________________________ Support counseling for 1. ______________________ ____________________________ staff/students 2. ______________________ ____________________________ 87
  • 89. Appendix C: Suggested School-based Training and Drills to Maintain Preparedness 88
  • 90. Sample Agenda for In-Service Training or Staff Meetings 1) Introductory background on development of School Crisis and Emergency Management Plan 2) School Crisis and Emergency Management Plan a) Purpose of Plan & Overview b) Overview of Incident command in schools c) General review of roles and responsibilities 3) Typical impacts of crises a) Shock; stages of grief b) Restoring equilibrium & maintaining control i) Importance of first 48 hrs ii) Post incident 4) Critical incident management a) Definitions and examples of ―critical incidents‖ b) Coordination with emergency services 5) Communications a) Confidentiality b) Rumor-control within the school c) Communication outside school i) With media ii) With parents and community groups d) Radio – expectations e) Cell phone use 6) Dealing with specific types of crises a) Review of general procedures in the case of the expected death of a student or faculty member. b) Review of general procedures in the case of staff or student death c) Review of general procedures in the case of a suicide d) Review of general procedures in the case of a medical emergency e) Review of general procedures in a case of armed intruder in the school f) Review of general procedures in case of natural disaster g) Additional incidents/scenario appropriate to the school 7) Closing discussion and questions Scenario Ideas for Training Sessions For each scenario identify key issues and formulate a preliminary action plan. Scenario I A seventeen year old boy is waiting for his parents to pick him up for an early dismissal, when a car swerves around the busses and hits another student. He witnesses it. The child, seriously injured, is taken to the hospital by paramedics. Students are scheduled to be dismissed in 15 minutes. Scenario II An automotive student with three friends riding is headed home after school when they are involved in a 89
  • 91. head on collision. They are speeding and it has started to rain. They hit a van and three of the four are killed. The fourth person is in critical condition. Scenario III A parent who has brought her child to school reports to the office that a house in the neighborhood caught fire early that morning and there were fatalities but she does not know who. The house is that of two students at the school. Scenario IV It is a rainy Tuesday morning and, nearby, a truck has overturned releasing toxic fumes. The Fire Department has just ordered that your 350-students be evacuated immediately. The accident is on 64 and the school is down wind. Scenario V You hear on the 11p.m. news on a Sunday night that an 11th grade girl at your school is reported missing; she was not home when parents came home from a weekend trip. Minutes after the broadcast a staff member calls and reports that there are rumors that foul play is suspected. Scenario VI At 5:30a.m., you are notified by police that a very popular teacher at your school committed suicide, leaving behind a husband and two children, one of whom attends your school. Scenario VII You are in your shop area when you hear a student cry out. Other students are yelling for you. When you arrive at the group you see a student who is profusely bleeding from 3 inch laceration on his head. Scenario VIII You have just received information that there is a tornado warning for the area in which your school is located. Using your schools floor plan designate the sheltering locations for your class. Scenario IX You are teaching in the classroom when you hear an announcement for lock down. How have you prepared your students and what steps do you now take. Planning Steps for Table Top Drills 1) Utilize a paper and pencil activity where the crisis team is presented with five possible crisis situations and each team member records their hypothetical response. 2) Team members discuss their anticipated responses and select one scenario to simulate each semester with precautions taken to not unduly alarm staff and students. 3) It is important to inform the public of the need for crisis planning and the conduction of drills. 4) Avoid the use of dramatic props such as starter pistols and simulated blood. 5) Place a sign in the area where drills are to be conducted clearly designating that a drill is taking place and let all relevant agencies know in advance that it is a drill. 90
  • 92. 6) Practice drills that do involve moving staff and students to a safe location. 7) An objective staff member from another building of the central office should observe the drill and give feedback to the crisis team. 8) The crisis team should meet and review their activities with the emphasis placed on continual improvement. 91
  • 93. Appendix D: Informational Handouts 92
  • 94. Suggested Classroom Activities after a Loss Supporting Others Discussing and preparing for funeral (what to expect, people’s reactions, what to do, what to say) Encouraging mutual support Discussing ways to cope with traumatic situations Discussing the stages of grief Encouraging students to keep a journal of events and of their reactions, especially in an ongoing situation Learning Activities Writing a reaction paper Discussing historical precedents about issues related to crisis situations Writing a ―where I was when it happened‖ report Investigating laws governing similar incidents Debating controversial issues Reading books about loss Classroom Discussion Review the facts (with survivors’ approval) and dispel rumors. Share your own reactions with the class and encourage students to express their reactions in a way appropriate for them, noting that people react in many ways and that is okay. o Possible discussion: What was it like for you when you first heard the news? Inform students of locations for grief support; reassure students that any adult in the building is available for support. o Possible discussion: How can you students help each other through this? Listen to what students have to say. It is important not to shut off discussion. Talk with students about their concerns regarding ―what to say‖ to other bereaved students and the family of the deceased. If applicable, share information about the deceased’s culture (beliefs and ceremonies) which will help students understand and respond comfortably to the affected family. o Possible discussion question: If you were a member of the deceased’s family, what do you think you would want at a time like this? If the student died of an illness and it is appropriate to do so, discuss the illness. This is especially useful for younger children who may need to differentiate between the illness of the child who died and any medical problems of others the child knows. If a suicide occurs, discuss facts and myths about suicide. Allow students to discuss other losses they have experienced. Help them understand this loss often brings up past losses; this is a normal occurrence. Encourage students to discuss their feelings with their parents. 93
  • 95. Keep in Mind, a ―regular‖ day may be too hard for grieving students. Offer choices of activities. Helping Your Child after a Disaster Children may be especially upset and express feelings about the disaster. These reactions are normal and usually will not last long. Listed below are some problems you may see in your child: Excessive fear of darkness, separation, or being alone, Clinging to parents, fear of strangers, Worry, Increase in immature behaviors, Not wanting to go to school, Changes in eating/sleeping behaviors, Increase in either aggressive behavior or shyness, Bed wetting or thumb sucking, Persistent nightmares, and/or Headaches or other physical complaints. The following may help your child: Talk with your child about his/her feelings about the disaster. Share your feelings, too. Talk about what happened. Give your child information he/she can understand. Reassure your child that you are safe and together. You may need to repeat this reassurance often. Hold and touch your child often. Spend extra time with your child at bedtime. Allow your child to mourn or grieve over a lost toy, a lost blanket, a lost home. If you feel your child is having problems at school, talk to his/her teacher so you can work together to help your child. Please reread this sheet from time to time in the coming months. Usually a child’s emotional response to a disaster will not last long, but some problems may be present or recur for many months afterward. Professionals skilled in talking with people experiencing disaster-related problems staff your community mental health center. They can be a valuable resource for continuing problems 94
  • 96. Appendix E: Resources 95
  • 97. The resources listed below are intended to assist schools and communities in developing and enhancing school crisis and emergency management plans. The list is not exhaustive, nor is inclusion intended as an endorsement. Federal Resources FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) www.fema.gov U. S. Department of Education, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osdfs/index.html National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) www.ncjrs.gov Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) www.cops.usdoj.gov Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) www.mentalhealth.samhsa.gov Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) www.prevention.samhsa.gov Centers for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.gov Division of Adolescent and School Heath (DASH) www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash Division of Violence Prevention www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/dvp.htm National Institute of Mental Health http://www.nimh.nih.gov National Incident management system Homeland security http://www.dhs.gov National Organizations Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence University of Colorado at Boulder 96
  • 98. Campus Box 442, Boulder, CO 80309-0442 (303) 492-1032 www.colorado.edu/cspv Community Policing Consortium 1726 M Street N W Washington, DC 20036 Publications - 1-800-421-6770 www.communitypolicing.org National Association of Elementary School Principals 1615 Duke Street Alexandria, VA 22314-3483 (703) 684-3345 www.naesp.org National Association of Secondary School Principals 1904 Association Drive Reston, VA 22091 (703) 860-0200 www.nassp.org National PTA 330 North Wabash Avenue, Suite 2100 Chicago, IL 60611-3690 1-800- 4PTA www.pta.org National Law-Related Education Resource Center www.abanet.org/publiced/resources/home.html National Safety Council www.nsc.org National School Safety Center www.schoolsafety.us National Youth Gang Center www.iir.com/nygc Partnerships against Violence Network (PAVNET) www.pavnet.org Virginia Resources Center for School-Community Collaboration, Virginia Commonwealth University 97
  • 99. www.soe.vcu.edu/csc Virginia Department of Education www.pen.k12.va.us Virginia Department of Emergency Management www.vdem.state.va.us Virginia Effective Practices Project http://web.jmu.edu/osar/OutreachHistory_instruction.asp Virginia State Police www.vsp.state.va.us Virginia Youth Violence Project www.youthviolence.edschool.virginia.edu Online Documents Bullying Prevention Kit http://www. jmu.edu/cisat/vepp Combating Fear and Restoring Safety in Schools http://www.ncjrs.org/jjvict.htm Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth- Serving Organizations, and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings www.ncjrs.org/jjdp Creating Safe and Drug-Free Schools: An Action Guide http://www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/SDFS/actguid/index Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/earlywrn Manual to Combat Truancy http://www.ed.gov/pubs/Truancy Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising www.ncjrs.org Safe and Smart: Making the After-School Hours Work for Kids www.ed.gov/pubs/SafeandSmart 98
  • 100. Appendix F: Transportation Information 99
  • 101. School related bus wreck procedure and guidelines: Accident/Incident response is crucial that appropriate Transportation personnel receive immediate notification of accidents so that responses can be made in the timeliest manner. Notification of your immediate supervisor or School Principal must be done immediately. In the event of a school bus accident, the following is a list of responsibilities for Pupil Transportation personnel. Bus Driver Response: 1. Remain calm. Radio Pupil Transportation Dispatch that you have had an Accident. Indicate location, loaded or unloaded, the school students attend, and any injuries. 2. DO NOT MOVE THE BUS FROM THE ACCIDENT LOCATION, unless instructed to do so by the police or a supervisor. Do not transfer any students to another bus or release to anyone until directed by the Principal or Police at the scene. 3. Attend to the injured (most serious first) 4. If necessary, evacuate the bus. 5. Compile a list of students on the bus. 6. Bus drivers shall not make any comment until directed to by the Principal (Absolutely no statements to anyone.) Staff Response: On notification from Bus Driver, the transportation representative will report directly to the location of the accident/incident. A. Before arrival at the scene: 1. Determine if the bus has passengers or not. 2. Determine if there are any injuries. 3. Notify the police and/or ambulance, if necessary 4. Have the driver prepare a list of all students on the bus and their conditions. 5. Have Driver contact the school with the student list. The school office will notify parents as needed, and send a representative to the scene if there appears to be students with injuries. 6. Contact the Insurance Carrier. 7. Place emergency warning triangles within 10 minutes. On two lane roads place a triangle at prescribed distances of 100 feet behind the bus. On a one way or divided highway place triangles at 10 feet, 100 feet, and 200 feet behind the bus. B. Upon arrival at the scene: 1. Tend to driver and student needs. 2. Secure the scene making sure warning triangles are placed. 3. Assist emergency personnel to verify status of every student. 4. Arrange a recovery vehicle or additional bus as needed to minimize delay of uninjured students. Release only after medical check. 5. Release only to their parents 100
  • 102. 6. Collect the other driver and students’ information. 7. Take pictures and investigate for cause. 8. A Supervisor must go to the hospital if anyone is injured and transported for treatment. 9. Contact the shop, give status of vehicle. Dispatch a wrecker if needed. C. Post Accident: 1. Immediately transport the driver for mandatory drug screen unless otherwise directed by the Transportation Director. 2. The bus route should be completed by a sub-driver if available. 3. The driver must provide a written statement of the events as soon as possible. 4. Prepare written reports for insurance. 5. Have the driver complete the Report of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses form NNPS 416-A so that it is completed in the event medical attention is needed. This form is required for coverage under the Virginia Worker’s Compensation Act. School Safety Audits § 22.1-279.8. School safety audits and school crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plans required documentation and review A. For the purposes of this section, unless the context requires otherwise: "School crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plan" means the essential procedures, operations, and assignments required to prevent, manage, and respond to a critical event or emergency, including natural disasters involving fire, flood, tornadoes, or other severe weather; loss or disruption of power, water, communications or shelter; bus or other accidents; medical emergencies, including cardiac arrest and other life-threatening medical emergencies; student or staff member deaths; explosions; bomb threats; gun, knife or other weapons threats; spills or exposures to hazardous substances; the presence of unauthorized persons or trespassers; the loss, disappearance or kidnapping of a student; hostage situations; violence on school property or at school activities; incidents involving acts of terrorism; and other incidents posing a serious threat of harm to students, personnel, or facilities. "School safety audit" means a written assessment of the safety conditions in each public school to (i) identify and, if necessary, develop solutions for physical safety concerns, including building security issues and (ii) identify and evaluate any patterns of student safety concerns occurring on school property or at school-sponsored events. Solutions and responses shall include recommendations for structural adjustments, changes in school safety procedures, and revisions to the school board's standards for student conduct. B. The Virginia Center for School Safety shall develop a list of items to be reviewed and evaluated in the school safety audits required by this section. Such items shall include those incidents reported to school authorities pursuant to § 22.1-279.3:1. The Virginia Center for School Safety shall prescribe a standardized report format for school safety audits, additional reporting criteria, and procedures for report submission, which may include instructions for electronic submission. Each local school board shall require all schools under its supervisory control to annually conduct school safety audits as defined in this section and consistent with such list. The results of such school safety audits shall be made public within 90 days of completion. The local school board 101
  • 103. shall retain authority to withhold or limit the release of any security plans and specific vulnerability assessment components as provided in subdivision 7 of § 2.2-3705.2. Each school shall maintain a copy of the school safety audit which may exclude such security plans and vulnerability assessment components, within the office of the school principal and shall make a copy of such report available for review upon written request. Each school shall submit a copy of its school safety audit to the relevant school division superintendent. The division superintendent shall collate and submit all such school safety audits, in the prescribed format and manner of submission, to the Virginia Center for School Safety. C. The school board may establish a school safety audit committee to consist of representatives of parents, teachers, local law-enforcement agencies, judicial and public safety personnel, and the community at large. The school safety audit committee shall evaluate, in accordance with the directions of the local school board, the safety of each school and submit a plan for improving school safety at a public meeting of the local school board. D. Each school board shall ensure that every school that it supervises shall develop a written school crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plan, consistent with the definition provided in this section. The Department of Education and the Virginia Center for School Safety shall provide technical assistance to the school divisions of the Commonwealth in the development of the school crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plans that describe the components of a medical emergency response plan developed in coordination with local emergency medical services providers, the training of school personnel and students to respond to a life-threatening emergency, and the equipment required for this emergency response. The local school board shall annually review the written school crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plans. The local school board shall have the authority to withhold or limit the review of any security plans and specific vulnerability assessment components as provided in subdivision 7 of § 2.2-3705.2. The local school division superintendent shall certify this review in writing to the Virginia Center on School Safety no later than August 31 of each year. Upon consultation with local school boards, division superintendents, the Virginia Center for School Safety, and the Coordinator of Emergency Management, the Board of Education shall develop, and may revise as it deems necessary, a model school crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plan for the purpose of assisting the public schools in Virginia in developing viable, effective crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plans. Such model shall set forth recommended effective procedures and means by which parents can contact the relevant school or school division regarding the location and safety of their school children and by which school officials may contact parents, with parental approval, during a critical event or emergency. Campus Crisis Plan Table of Contents The principal of each school campus is required to produce and maintain a school crisis plan that outlines that school’s specific responses to the crises specified in §22.1-279.8 as well as: lockdown, secured building, after-hours alarm response, community sheltering operations (schools specified on page 41) and radiological emergencies (schools specified on pages 51 and 52). The plan will also include the planning surveys and checklists listed in Appendix B and necessary staff training. The plan should include any school-specific threats or hazards. All school plans must be in compliance with the Multi-Hazard Crisis and Emergency Management Plan (CEMP). All building administrators and others who may be ―in charge‖ during a crisis must be familiar with the school crisis plan and their duties 102
  • 104. during times of crisis. The needs of teachers and other faculty and staff will be met by the Classroom Crisis Response and training. There is no need to make the school crisis plan or the CEMP available to all staff. Each school’s crisis plan will use this table of contents as a template: 1. Chain of command and alternates 2. Contact information 3. School floor plan 4. Designation of assignments/activity locations 5. Summary of staff skills surveys 6. Staff and students with special needs 7. School-specific responses a. fire, b. flood, c. tornadoes, d. other severe weather; e. loss or disruption of i. power, ii. water, iii. communications iv. shelter; f. bus or other accidents; g. medical emergencies, i. cardiac arrest, ii. other life-threatening medical emergencies, h. student or staff member deaths; i. explosions; j. threats; i. bomb, ii. gun, iii. knife, iv. other weapons, k. spills or exposures to hazardous substances; l. the presence of unauthorized persons or trespassers; m. the loss, disappearance or kidnapping of a student; n. hostage situations; o. violence on school property; p. violence at school activities; q. acts of terrorism; r. lockdown; s. secured building; t. after hours alarm response; u. community sheltering operations; (if applicable) v. radiological emergency risk school; (if applicable) 103
  • 105. w. radiological emergency host school; (if applicable) 8. Staff training plan 9. Staff training documentation 10. Other school-specific needs 104
  • 106. Appendix G: Homeland Security 105

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