One hour turbidity peak (10 NTU) at the Tel Aviv Station on July 9 th 2001 between 12:00 and 13:00. Ammonia – 37.5 mg/l. Fish test bioassay – no positive results Mistake in the field tests. Overdosing of ammonia Fertilizer or/and pesticides that entered from an agricultural consumer. Notice to the public was late – 7 hours after initial findings were discovered. Management was not informed immediately. Many of the managers were away on holidays with out substitutes. Internal investigation to find the source of contamination.
This brief presentation describes what we did to improve our preparedness at all levels in order to manage emergency events and provide for an effective response….
This slide shows the various areas that mekorot deals with. As you can see we are involved in almost all areas of water resources and treatment. This provides a platform for technological excellence
Israel has three main natural sources of water; one central source of fresh water, the Sea of Galilee, situated in northern Israel, thus requiring water transfer to distant parts of the country. The other two sources of water are situated in the center of the country The fourth source is desalination In order to provide a highly reliable water supply all the water sources our interconnected via the National Water Carrier which is the backbone of the system. .
This graph shows how the domestic consumption has doubled in past fifteen years. This is caused by massive immigration (from the former soviet union bloc), high natural growth and an increase in the standard of living. Yet our absolute water resources are limited and additional amount of water comes from diverting agricultural water to drinking water, implementing large scale reuse schemes and desalination.
on-line bioassay instruments to detect chemicals and toxins in water (have been implemented for over 20 years. today we use, among others, Daphnia, Elephant Fish etc
Emergency situations happen and they are to be expected. Even if all possible contingencies have been addressed, somewhere along the line an unexpected event occurs. Managing properly these events can almost completely mitigate the effects, while bad management can multiply their consequences
We have focused on four major topics for upgrading our preparedness. Many other areas are considered but not all of them are currently developed or are available and therefore we felt that it is crucial to improve crisis management. In my experience the amount of money that can be invested into water security is infinite and our task is to optimize this. One factor in the equation is definitely proper crisis management.
This slide shows the roadmap and methodology we used in upgrading and improving our emergency and preparedness. This is not a one time event but rather a procedure is done on annual basis through out entire company at all levels of management and units.
Situation rooms are manned during a security or emergency situations and enabling managers and authorized personnel to receive information in real time, to communicate during an emergency, to execute continuous situational updates and finally to make decisions during an event with all parties involved - within the company, with external agencies and with the media
This slide shows the deployment of the situation rooms in Mekorot
A threshold trigger can be either a notice from other agencies, laboratory test results or from on line monitoring systems Initial data assessment is made by the District water quality engineer After initial data has been collected, the water quality engineer determines the severity by grading the event. This is then reported to all those concerned including upper management Complementary data collection is required to obtain a fuller picture and reassess the original evaluation. This is an ongoing process through out the entire event Arriving at a correct situation assessment is crucial. It takes practice to try to “connect the dots” and great emphasis is put on this technique – like workshops. exercises etc. After a correct assessment has been made, it is possible to provide operational orders to who, when and where Verifying is an essential component in obtaining proper treatment in an event, Back to routine is the hardest part since the decision process is not always clear for example how clean is clean….
This grade is not static and can change as more information is obtained. We require that at least every 6 hours a new assessment is given during an event.
We at Mekorot periodically initiate training exercises on different levels, starting from the local unit level, to the regional level on up to the national level. Our training exercises are both planned ahead of time and done on a &quot;surprise&quot; basis . Finally, the importance of debriefing goes without saying, including all training exercises and actual events whereby conclusions may be drawn, lessons learned and improvements made .
Investigating the agencies is crucial in finding faults between the procedures and intentionally prepare scenarios that focus on these interfaces The scenarios must be realistic as possible and great effort are put in these. The silent controller are usually internal employees from other districts or units The debriefing stage is extremely important and takes several weeks to finalize. Every sector prepares a detailed report which is then presented to the all the participants at the final debriefing together with the CEO. The principle of the debriefing is not to complement the achievements but rather to find the faults and how to correct them.
The employees and managers at all levels practice extensively before the exercises by preparing the situation room and all required technical support systems like computers, maps, communication systems etc. Also during this pre-exercise period the participants are encouraged to review all the procedures, guidelines and contingency plans. As soon as one discovers the weak points as result of the exercises a detailed work plan is initiated for treating the weak point. As result appropriate resources are allocated for this (money and manpower).
Decision Support System
In 2004 there were 80 light events, 3 moderate events and no severe water quality events.
Mr. Sion Cohen
Mekorot’s experience in preparing for emergency situations Presented by: Mr. Sion Cohen V.P. for Planning & Infrastructure Development May 2006
Our July 2001 “ Wakeup Call ” <ul><li>Four tons of Ammonia accidentally flowed into the National Water Carrier </li></ul><ul><li>The decision process was flawed and the contamination reached the consumers </li></ul><ul><li>The Ministry of Health Water issued a no-use of water </li></ul><ul><li>Panic through out the central district </li></ul>
<ul><li>We had to do something, fast and skip to a higher level that enabled a more effective response </li></ul>The Outcome
Ground Water Cloud Seeding Surface Water Desalination Reuse water Control Systems Water Resources Management Sources Wells Agriculture, Municipal Sector, Industry and Neighbors ( Jordanians and Palestinians) Brackish Water Sea Water Drinking Water Sewage Water Water Security Technological Improvements Water Quality Quality Mekorot – Israel’s National Water Company
<ul><li>Total Assets- 3b US$ </li></ul><ul><li>AAA rating </li></ul><ul><li>600 m US$ revenue </li></ul><ul><li>200 m US$ development </li></ul><ul><li>2,000 employees </li></ul>Mekorot – Israel’s National Water Company
Water Resources Reuse Desalination Control Systems Water Security R&D Mekorot’s Activities Water Quality Wells R&D
The National Water Supply Annual Water Consumption in million m 3 (m.c.m.) Based on 2005 figures Total 808 121 1134 2,063
<ul><li>A limited supply of water situated with 4 major sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The See of Galilee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mountain aquifer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The coastal aquifer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desalination </li></ul></ul>Main Water Sources
increasing consumption of water. million m3 Mekorot – Domestic Consumption
Dafnia and small fish Elephant Fish Biosensors for Water Security
The Need <ul><li>Managing and operating correctly during emergency situations is essential to minimize effects </li></ul>
Roadmap for Upgrading Emergency and Security Preparedness Constant Improvement Identifying gaps Preparing procedures Coordinating the procedures Training and workshops at all levels Exercises at all levels Extensive debriefing Surprise exercises Lessons learnt Work plan for improvement
Important Points for Crisis Management <ul><li>Implement simple and workable procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Use a uniform language within the organization and other agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Creating strong cooperation and coordination with all parties </li></ul>
<ul><li>Assimilate the procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing a decision support system that determines whether the information gathered commands an emergency situation and when to shift from the routine to emergency mode. </li></ul><ul><li>Deploy situation rooms for crisis control </li></ul>Important Points for Crisis Management – cont…
Important Points for Crisis Management – cont… <ul><li>Provide uniform modes of communication for accurate reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Training management on how to arrive at an accurate and reliable situation assessment – “connecting the dots” </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive exercises </li></ul>
Situation Rooms Eng. Team Info. center Authorities reps. Video Conference Professional Teamwork
Situation Rooms Deployment Jordan District Northern District Central District Southern District Head Office Legend unit district
Flow Chart for Emergency Situations Managerial Team Initial data assessment Determining the severity of the event Reporting Complementary data collection Arriving at situation assessment Verification that operational orders mitigated the problem Operational orders - who, when and where Back to routine Threshold trigger
Grading the Event <ul><li>All events are graded based on the apparent severity. </li></ul><ul><li>The severity grade dictates who manages the event, who to report to, what feedback is required and the resources to be allocated etc. </li></ul>
Severity Grade <ul><li>This is based on a standard table for grading the event. </li></ul><ul><li>The grade takes into account: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the number of anticipated people effected, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the level of contamination, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complaints of illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>media involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>professional assessment of situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>previous historical events at same location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other factors </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>All procedures and guidelines must be learnt by the employees, by way of theoretical and “on-site” training. </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic training includes “table top” and field exercises at all levels </li></ul>Training
Points for preparing exercises <ul><li>Pre-determine the goals and lessons to be learnt. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate the various agencies that will participate in water emergency events, </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare several complete scenarios for each exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Assign a silent controller to every participant. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide time for a detailed and extended debriefing period. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing a detailed work plan for improvement </li></ul>
Added Value <ul><li>Fifty percent of the goal is achieved by pre-exercise preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>A reduction in the number of water quality and water security events has been shown. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering weak points in the system without being in real crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper response in times of crisis at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform language between the participants and other agencies </li></ul>
Summary and Recommendations <ul><li>Mekorot has over the past five years upgraded its preparedness several levels </li></ul><ul><li>This is been by investing in monitoring systems, DSS models, situation rooms, uniform procedures and guidelines, training and exercises. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration with other agencies and consumers has risen tremendously. </li></ul>
<ul><li>This methodology actually works in preparing a large water company. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a long process and must be directed with full commitment by top management. </li></ul><ul><li>With enough patience it is possible to achieve excellent results. </li></ul>Summary and Recommendations – cont…