Emergency planning at a University ------well what is involved……. Explain the presentation will look at PPRR – Preparedness, Prevention, Response and Recovery which is the Comprehensive approach to Emergency Management Hazard identification – v – Risk Assessment Aust Standard 3745 -2002, Emergency Control Organisation UNSW Site Emergency Plan UNSW Emergency Procedures Manual DISPLAN arrangements Business Continuity Planning Terrorism
The first element is to prevent or mitigate (reduce the severity of) hazard impact. The second element is to ensure preparedness within the community. The third element is to provide an effective response, immediately following any hazard impact. The fourth element is to provide for recovery of the community affected by the hazard impact. Typical measures under programs of prevention, preparedness, response and recovery may include: PREVENTION/MITIGATION; Zoning/land use management...Building codes...Building use regulations...Relocation Safety improvements...Legislation Public information...Community awareness/education Tax...insurance incentives/disincentives. PREPAREDNESS; Community awareness/education...Disaster plans...Training/test exercises...Emergency communications...Evacuation plans...Mutual aid agreements...Warning systems...Resource inventories...Provision of special resources. RESPONSE; Implementing plans... Implementing emergency legislation/declarations...Issuing warnings... Activating emergency operations centres...Mobilising resources...Notifying public authorities...Providing medical assistance...Providing immediate relief...Search and rescue. RECOVERY ; Restoring essential services...Community rehabilitation...Counselling programs...Temporary housing...Financial support/assistance...Health and safety information...Long-term medical care...Physical restoration/reconstruction...Public information...Conducting economic impact studies. Not all these measures are likely to be relevant in every case. The hazard, the community and the nature of their interaction will determine which are appropriate. However, the need for programs of prevention, preparedness, response and recovery will remain constant. This can be expressed simply as the 'COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH' to emergency/disaster management, which is our second concept.
Prior to 1999, Emergency Managers would only complete the process of Identifying hazards or what is now known as a source of risk, and that was it. We would accept the hazard existed and worked around it. It wasn’t until 1999 when the Risk Management Standard was gazetted, that emergency managers were now able to pick up the known hazard and basically pull it apart. Emergency Managers within Australia now identify a risk that will cause an emergency – that is an event that requires a significant and coordinated response e.g earthquake, space debris, rail disaster UNSW is currently involved in the Randwick Local Government Emergency Risk Planning committee, where UNSW is identified as a large source of risks which may create an emergency event.
The objective of this Standard is to provide procedures for the safety of people in buildings, structures and workplaces during emergencies. This Standard has been written in general terms to make it applicable to all types of occupiable buildings, structures and workplaces. This Standard sets out the requirements for the development of procedures for the controlled evacuation of building, structures and workplaces during emergencies. The Standard also establishes guidelines for — the appointment of the emergency planning committee (EPC); (a) the setting up of an emergency control organization (ECO); (b) the preparation of emergency plans and procedures; (c) the role and authority of ECO personnel while executing their duties; and (d) the requirements of an education and training program. The standard covers emergency situations until the appropriate emergency service arrives to take control, at which time, the ECO will work in conjunction with that service.
Emergency type and first aid training at UNSW is compiled of a variety including (a) The roles and responsibilities of the ECO. (b) Establishing and managing an ECO. (c) Managing and developing emergency procedures and assessment activities. (d) Emergency communications, notification and warnings. (e) Training, drills and exercises. (f) Liaison with emergency services. (g) Evacuation management. (h) Post-evacuation management. Emergency prevention, mitigation and preparedness. (j) Decision making, command and control. (k) Human behaviour in emergencies.
The list goes on Senior First Aid Advanced First Aid Advanced Resuscitation Semi Automatic Defibrillation Occupation First Aid Emergency Management with the State Emergency Management Committee Emergency Management Australia – Mt Macedon
The aim of the University of New South Wales Emergency Site Emergency Plan (UNSW SitePLAN) is to: Provide a coordinated response by all relevant agencies to any emergency at UNSW in the shortest possible time to minimize loss of life and/or property; and Restore the UNSW to normal operating standards in an orderly manner in the shortest possible time Its authority is via State Planning Arrangements in our case, the NSW State Emergency and Rescue Management Act 1989 The principle of the plan is based on the PPRR model Annexures include – Risk Priority Matrix – of incidents or sources of risk that will cause an emergency as defined It is linked or associated with other plans including the Local Government Disaster Plan, through to the State DISPLAN.
The objective of this emergency procedures manual is to familiarise all members of the UNSW Emergency Control Organisation (ECO) with the procedures, which are in place to facilitate safe, orderly and timely evacuation when it is necessary. These procedures have been written to reflect the Australian Standard 3745 -2002 and the legislative overview attached as schedule 1. In addition, this document dovetails with the UNSW Emergency Site Plan. The Emergency Procedures manual is a ‘live document’ and is part of every emergency control team members working day.
Even though Universities are a diverse large organisation, we are part of the Grant Picture of Emergency Management. Each state and territory has its own emergency structure which all fits together like a large jigsaw. As you can see I have labelled each state and territory which State Committee is responsible for Emergency Management Arrangements
Like UNSW, all University would fit in the big picture. Emergency planning that University do needs to fit within the Emergency Management Structure applicable to your state. At UNSW we attend the Local & District Emergency Committee meetings, so we share information, share data, and also apply emergency management tools that all can understand. The flow of information from the Commonwealth filters through to our site level, and vice versa. This is good in number of ways, primarily it allows continuity for emergency management in all levels.
UNSW does not have a BCP at the moment, but it is planned within the next 6 months. Part of BCP , in respect to Emergency Management, you would need to consider a number of emergency scenario’s An example of this would be Terrorism attack to critical infrastructure such as power. Can you University function with out power for 3 days? How about 1 week, or even a month? Who would be affected – Research, IT, water filtration, finance What implication would this have on Finance, and most importantly INSURANCE! This leads onto the next and final point of discussion
Terror organisations apply their destructive strategies in four stages. Whatever the ideologies are, they all follow the same stages: First Stage- Preparation Second Stage- Organisation Third Stage- Action Fourth Stage-Civil War
Terrorist emerges from a society and on behalf of that society carry out devastating activities against the society and the government it constitutes. Therefore, what could be the reason caused the terrorist take action or the people become terrorists? In this context, it is not enough for an answer to blame internal or foreign enemies alone. In other words, it is essential that the economical and socio-cultural structure of the society should also be taken into consideration while the reasons of terror is explained. Economical problems affect people not only materially but also psychologically. That is why, the unbalanced sharing of income in the society is one of the most important elements terror organisations make use of. This is used as a material of propaganda and a tool for exploitation. Consequently, uneducated and ignorant people are very subject to be manipulated. Cultural change causes quite a few changes in social life, in other words, social life changes in proportion to cultural changes. However, if these changes in social structure are much too fast, and take place only in a certain section of the society making the rest remain undeveloped and fall far behind, problems occur and social balance is not maintained any longer. Consequently, conflicts among the people in society forms of course, it is impossible that every people think in the same way. Yet, there should be common agreements on some subjects for the good of society itself. Education has the power of changing the thoughts of individuals and society thoroughly. There is an opportunity to make people even as it is always missed and expected through a good education. In respect to psychological reasons the people who don't have insufficient personal capabilities don't like the roles, places, and the positions they are in. They think that they don't get respect, interest and love from the society. For this purpose, they head for violent and aggressive behaviours and activities to get interest and respect from others and to express themselves.
The First Stage called &quot;preparation&quot; consists of planning the operations to be performed. For this purpose, the most important work to do is analysing the society to be destroyed in all details. The reason why this is so is to sort out the weak and strong features of the society. The actual aim of the first stage is to determine the sympathisers and institutions, in other words, to form a base. It is impossible for the government to define this plan as illegal. The first applications appear to be innocent and reasonable propagandising. Expression of some defects in the system and incorrect applications causes the society to get accustomed to the negativeness, which make increasing the dosage of activities possible gradually. The group of sympathisers formed that way starts to perform simple activities. At UNSW, organisations that wish to demonstrate on campus for a regime are not permitted. Placards and posters that are put around campus campaigning for unknown organisations are pulled down by grounds maintenance, security, and cleaners. All this intelligence is also reported to the NSW Police.
In this stage, the works of organisations begins. The persons stand out among the group of sympathisers, need to gather with the other people supporting them, or some certain forces gather those people. Afterwards, they are educated and connected to each other in the way of the forces they are under the control of want them to do. The education given is for raising militants who would do any kind of duty. On the other hand, the organisations formed and educated are made in contact with legal or illegal foundations and organisations. Therefore, the base for starting illegal and unarmed or armed activities in co-operation of organisations is formed. Pirate meetings, boycotts, hanging placards, confidential publications and communiqués, activities in chambers and armed operations in small scale are the characteristics of this stage. Resources is one that Universities can focus on. By putting management practices in place, by eliminating the chance of terrorists getting hold of resources, such as Biological agents, radiation isotopes, we can contribute to the fight against terrorism. At UNSW, we have completed risk assessments on such stores of hazardous materials, and have put in place security mechanisms, which will make it even harder for unknown to obtain these goods.
The aim in this stage is to intimidate the public, weaken the forces of government, to destroy the loyalty of society - government and take over the control of the government by the way of encouraging armed activities in the urban and rural areas with the help of supporter legal institutions and trained organisations. The insufficiency of government forces is emphasised and the society's reliance on government is destroyed causing people feel down in morale. Terror activities like armed assaults and bombings, killing active, respected and reputed people, sabotages, armed robberies and operations to the places of settlement are the characteristics in this third stage. At UNSW, the Emergency Site Plan, the Emergency Procedures Manual are tools used by both the Emergency Services and the internal emergency response personnel to combat an incident or an emergency. An act of terrorism on campus would be deemed an emergency, and under the NSW State Emergency Planning arrangements, the NSW Police would be the leading agency. What UNSW needs to do is focus on business continuity – how can we open up shop tomorrow?
The aim of this stage is to take over the government. This is the last step of causing the system collapse from the inside. For this purpose, various regions, places of settlement, even big cities are invaded to build up bases. Clashes and battles with the government forces occur. Illegal organisations form systematic and trained troops gathering the gangs and groups in operations. Meanwhile, by the money, equipment, weapon, staff and technical helps of foreign forces an civil war is completely started to demolish the government. Civil war in Australia is highly unlikely, but god for bid, if were ever to happen, it would be a State of emergency, and its more than likely a University would not operate at full capacity.
So are you prepared before the incident & after the incident? Have you implemented emergency management arrangements? Does the scope of the plan dovetail in with responding agencies and government? Will your emergency plans fit within the context business continuity planning? Thank You!
Management of emergencies and crises on campus
Management of emergencies & crisis at UNSW Gaye Cameron Emergency Manager UNSW 20 TH May 2004 Gaye Cameron, UNSW
Content <ul><li>PPRR </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard Identification – v- Risk Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>AS/NZ 3745-2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Training </li></ul><ul><li>UNSW Site Emergency Plan </li></ul><ul><li>UNSW Emergency Procedures Manual </li></ul><ul><li>DISPLAN arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>BCP </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul>Gaye Cameron, UNSW
AS/NZ 3745-2002 <ul><li>Emergency Control Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Training </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb Threat procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Persons with mobility issues </li></ul>
Emergency Training <ul><li>Roles & Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing an ECO </li></ul><ul><li>Managing & developing emergency procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency communications </li></ul><ul><li>Drills & exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison with emergency services </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation /Post-evacuation management </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention, mitigation and preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Human Behaviour in emergencies </li></ul>
Emergency Training <ul><li>Senior First Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced First Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Resuscitation </li></ul><ul><li>Semi Automatic Defibrillation </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation First Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Management with the State Emergency Management Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Management Australia – Mt Macedon </li></ul>
UNSW Emergency Site Plan <ul><li>Plan objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>PPRR model </li></ul><ul><li>Annexures </li></ul><ul><li>Links with other plans </li></ul>Mt Stromlo Observatory after the devastating bushfires 18/01/2003
UNSW Emergency Procedures Manual <ul><li>Roles & Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of control </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Site Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Persons with mobility issues </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb Threat </li></ul><ul><li>Hazmat incidents etc </li></ul>
DISPLAN arrangements Northern Territory Counter Disaster Council Queensland State Counter Disaster Organisation NSW State Emergency Management Committee ACT Emergency Management Committee Tasmania State Disaster Committee Victoria Emergency Management Council South Australia State Disaster Committee Western Australia State Emergency Management Advisory Committee
Where do we fit in the structure COMMONWEALTH LEVEL STATE LEVEL LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNSW Information Flow
Business Continuity Planning IDENTIFY HAZARDS BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANNING EMERGENCY PLAN RISK ANALYSIS
Reasons for terrorism <ul><li>Economic Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-Cultural Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Reasons </li></ul>
Stage 1 - Preparation <ul><li>Planning of the operation </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the community, find its weak points </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the sympathisers & institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul>
Stage 2 - Organisation <ul><li>Leaders amongst sympathisers </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Pirate meetings, boycotts, banners and hanging placards </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>For example, KADEK has kidnapped children and by brains washing trained them as militants.
Stage 3 - Action <ul><li>Intimidate public </li></ul><ul><li>Weaken government agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Terror attacks such as assaults, bombings, sabotage </li></ul>
Stage 4 – Civil War <ul><li>Aim is to take over government </li></ul><ul><li>System collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Clashes and battles with government forces </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war </li></ul>