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index

  1. 1. index Italic page numbers indicate tables, bold numbers indicate figures. action planning and implementation 68 following terrorist attacks 108, 121–7, aktas, g. 42 122–3, 125–6 Al Aqsa Intifada beliefs, identification and challenging of impact of on Israel 216 66 impact on Israel 217–18 Bertens, J. 98 israel’s recovery from 218–21 Blackman, D.A. 62 anticipation of crises 96 Bohle, H.G. 97–8 anticipatory preparedness models 24–5 Brickman, P. 120 Apollo 13 17 bricolage compared to improvisation argyris, C. 59 15–16 assessment of tourism vulnerability 81 Brown, J.S. 62 assumptions, identification and challenging Brown, S.L. 12 of 66 buffer zones in Sri Lanka 179–80 australia Burnett, J. 53 household income and Labour Dynamics Australia (HILDA) Caudron, s. 85 survey 107, 110–20, 117, 118, 119, challenging of values, beliefs and 121 assumptions 66 impact of Bali bombings in 117–20, chaos theory 16, 43 118, 119, 121 China impact of september 11 terrorist sars outbreak in 2003 28 attacks in 109, 112–16, 117, 120 tourists from in the Maldives 145, 146 impact of terrorist attacks on wellbeing see Corporate Crisis Management 108 module tourist behaviour following terrorist Cobra crises 79 attacks 121–7, 122–3, 125–6 Coles, t. 38, 41 australian and new Zealand risk communication Management Standard (ANZRMS) evaluation of strategies 64–5 189–90 as key role of destination Marketing Organisations (DMOs) 54 Bali bombings 80 management of in crises 39–40 household income and Labour proactive adoption of strategies 173–4 Dynamics Australia (HILDA) strategies in Maldives in response to survey 117–20, 118, 119, 121 tsunami 135, 136 impact on wellbeing 107, 108 compassionate tourism 96–7 Barney, J.B. 11 complexity of crisis responses 25–7 Bayley, R. 173 complexity theory 43 behaviour, tourist context, environmental, and crisis following crisis events 37–8 management 39
  2. 2. 242 Crisis Management in the Tourism Industry contexts see crisis contexts typologies of 79–80 contingency plans 78–9, 84–5, 173–4 uneven spatial distribution of 42 Cook, S.D.N. 62 crisis contexts Corporate Crisis Management module managerial context in crisis response aims 153 25, 26, 27 background and development of typology of 25 156–7 crisis management case studies 158, 159 Cobra crises 79 and China’s management culture contingency plans 78–9 163–4 definition 41, 77 evaluation of 159 destination marketing organisations as experiential learning 158 fundamental to 238–9 initial reluctance to engage in 162, 163 development of model for 28–32, 30, methodology 158–61 31 move from bureaucratic to systemic dimensions of 29 thinking 164 discourse of in tourism industry 38 participants 158 as emerging specialisation 236 participants knowledge of management and environmental context 39 164 focus on tourism in literature 152–3 pedagogy of 158 and framework for strategic planning pillars of crisis management 154–6 55, 56 presentations by participants 162 learning in 81 procedure 158 literature on 39–43 qualitative program assessment 160–1, models of 78–81, 83–5 162 need for more rigorous consideration quantitative program assessment of 152 159–60, 160, 161, 161 need for strategies in Sri Lanka 172 urgency for education 156 pillars of 154–6 corporate culture 83, 85 PPrr model 83–5 crises preparedness as integral 238 anticipation of 96 proactive approach as necessary 173–4 benefits from 96 proactive stage 78 classification of 42 problems with sMtes in sri Lanka definition of 40–1, 76, 96 174 impact of and growth in tourism Python crises 79 industry 38 reactive approach 39, 78 inability to act in initial phases of 152 recovery marketing as significant learning from 54 element 208 natural 77 strategically coherent approach to 31 as opportunities 43 and sustainability of tourism industry people made 77–8 96–7 potential for increased 24 themes emerging 236–9 prediction of 96 see also Corporate Crisis Management smouldering 79 module sudden 79 crisis prevention as research focus 23 as topic of perennial concern 37 crisis publications of tourism industry 62 as turning points for destinations and crisis responses, scale of complexity 25–6 businesses 53
  3. 3. Index 243 crisis situations, improvisation and see also sustainability of tourism planning as complementary 16–18 industry Crossan, M. 16 environmental sustainability index 94 culture, corporate 83, 85 error tolerance in different situations 17 Cunha, J.V. 11 espoused theory, reflection on 66 Cunha, M.P. 8, 11, 13 eurobodalla area research Cushnahan, g. 39 australian and new Zealand risk Management Standard (ANZRMS) data, collection, analysis and interpretation 189–90, 190–2 of 68 background 188–90 de sausmarez, n. 81 communicate, consult, monitor and decision-making, impact on of planning review 192, 200–2, 201–2 approach to strategy 8–9 context 190–1, 192–5, 193–4, 195 defiance tourism 96–7 learning from events 192 destination marketing organisations/ location of area 188 authorities major concern identified 202–3 communication as key role of 54 methodology 190–2 evaluation of crisis activities 62, 64–8 results 192–202, 193–4, 196–202 as fundamental to crisis management risk and risk management 189–90 238–9 risk assessment phase 191, 195, 196 as knowledge brokers 57–8 survey distribution 192 learning from current experiences by treatment of risk 191–2, 196, 196–200, 58 198–9 organisational learning for 64–8 evaluation as self-reflexive process 62 successful campaigns 208–9 evaluative enquiry 60–1, 61, 64, 68 destination recovery see recovery Evans, S. 78, 79 development of staff 80–1 experiential learning 158 dialogue, use of in organisational learning 66–8 Faulkner, B. 40, 53, 55, 59, 80 Dickson, R. 17 feedback loops 59–60, 81 disasters flexibility, strategic 12–13 definition of 40–1 france, tourists from in the Maldives 143, see also crises 143, 144 discovery by firms 11–12 freudenberg, n. 109, 110 dMos see destination marketing organisations (DMOs) galle district, sri Lanka see sri Lanka double loop learning 59–60, 81, 82 gambling analogy 225 germany, tourists from in the Maldives economic vulnerability 100 142, 142, 144 education module see Corporate Crisis glaesser, d. 41 Management module grant, r.M. 10 eisenhardt, K.M. 12, 15 Greatest Show on Earth, The, campaign 62 Elphick, S. 78, 79 gunlu, e.a. 42 emergent strategy 11–13, 16–18 gurtner, y.K. 38 environmental context and crisis management 39 hall, C.M. 38, 42 environmental sustainability 93–4 hamel, g. 9, 11, 12 harrald, J. 53
  4. 4. 244 Crisis Management in the Tourism Industry hayek, f.a. 11 impact on Israel 217–18 health practitioners see Corporate Crisis israel’s recovery from 218–21 Management module israel Heath, R. 78, 83 high level of tourism in 2000 216 Henderson, J.C. 57, 80–1, 153 impact of Al Aqsa Intifada on 216, Henderson, S. 62 217–18 holistic view 32–3 recovery from Al Aqsa Intifada holusha, J. 81 218–21 Hopper, P. 62, 67 italy, tourists from in the Maldives 141, hosie, P. 84 141, 144 household income and Labour dynamics Australia (HILDA) survey 107 Japan, tourists from in the Maldives 142, Bali bombings impact 117–20, 118, 143, 144 119, 121 Johanson, J. 11–12 methodology and measures 110–12, Johanson, M. 11–12 111, 113 September 11 attacks impact 112–16, Kanter, r.M. 14 117 Keller, P. 61 howard, John 109 Kirzner, i.M. 11 HRD (human resource development) 81–2 Klitzman, s. 109, 110 HRM (human resource management) 82–3 knowledge management Hui, E.L.L. 37, 41 building of knowledge 27–8 human induced disasters 77–8, 172, 237 creation of new knowledge 62, 67 human resource development (HRD) development of knowledge 61 81–2, 85–6 DMO as knowledge broker 57–8 human resource management (HRM) 82–3 four types of knowledge 62, 63 Hutchins, E. 17 importance of 57 Hystad, P. 61 tacit knowledge 57 Konno, N. 67 identification of values, beliefs and assumptions 66 Lander, J.F. 173 improvisation 10 learning advantages of 14 approach to strategic planning 7–8, company evolution via 14–15 11–13, 16–18 compared to bricolage/tinkering 15–16 crisis 24 definitions 13 experiential 158 discovery as outcome of 12 learning and feedback, organisational in organisations 13–14 action planning and implementation and planning as complementary in 68 crisis situations 16–18 collection, analysis and interpretation India, tourists from in the Maldives 147, of data 68 147 in crisis management 81 industry vulnerabilities 100 definitions 58 information dialogue, use of in 66–8 management of in crises 39–40 double loop learning 59, 59–60 sharing of 27–8 evaluative enquiry 60–1, 61, 64, 68 Intifada preparedness as integral 84–5 impact of on Israel 216
  5. 5. Index 245 reflection as part of process 60–3, 61, surveillance and security for safety of 63 tourists 139 single loop learning 59 third tourism Master Plan 138–9 studies on 55, 57 tourism Crisis Management unit 139 technology mediated 85–6 tourism emergency operations use by DMOs 58, 64–8 (TEOC) 139 Lee, y. 53 tourism prior to tsunami 131–2 life satisfaction Tourism Promotion Board 137–8 definitions 108 united Kingdom market 140, 140, impact of terrorist attacks on 110–20, 144–5 117, 118, 119, 121 value adding strategies 135 literature on crisis management in tourism managerial context in crisis response 25, 39–43 26, 27 loop learning 59, 59–60, 81, 82 marketing in the Maldives in response to tsunami Maldives, response to tsunami 140 additional factors affecting growth proactive adoption of strategies 173–4 144–5 Project Phoenix recovery Program cancellations prevention 135, 136 214–15 Chinese market 145, 146 recovery 239 communication strategies 135, 136 successful campaigns 208–9 contribution of tourism to economy Martín-Consuegra, D. 43 133 Mcdonald’s 25 Disaster Response Teams (DRTs) 139 McKercher, B. 37, 41 economic costs of tsunami 133 McKinsey Quarterly survey of executives emerging markets 145–7 9 french market 143, 144, 144 media funding for recovery 136 exposure of disaster hit destinations german market 142, 142, 144 173 impact of tsunami 131, 132 relationship with during and following Indian market 147, 147 crises 39–40 italian market 141, 141, 144 strategies towards during recovery Japanese market 142, 143, 144 207, 239 long term strategies following tsunami medical practitioners see Corporate Crisis 138–9 Management module map 134 Mercalli scale 99 market recovery strategies 135–9 Merlin Beach Hotel, Phuket 10–11, 12–13, market recovery trends 140–45 17 marketing 139 Meyers, g. 81 markets prior to tsunami 132, 132 Mickolus, e. 109–10 media strategies 135–6 Miller, G. 60 medium term strategies 137–8 Miner, a.s. 13 operation and utilisation of iCts 138 Minzberg, H. 16 recovery 132 Mitigation, Preparation, response, return to growth in 2006 133 Recovery (MPRR) model of crisis russian market 145, 146 management 83–5, 238 short term strategies 135–7 Mitroff, I. 24, 25, 78, 83 surfing market 136–7 Modified Mercalli Scale 99
  6. 6. 246 Crisis Management in the Tourism Industry Moore, S. 79 planning approach to strategy Moorman, C. 13 impact on performance and decision- MPrr model of crisis management 83–5, making 8–9 238 Plog, s.C. 153 Müller-Mahn, D. 38 politics as cause of vulnerability 100 Murphy, P.E. 173 PPrr model of crisis management 83, 83–5, 238 nankervis, a. 81 practical research 23–4 natural disasters 42, 77, 172–3, 237 Prahalad, C.K. 11 Neilson, C. 67 precautionary measures 171–2, 179–81, ng, a. 153 237–6 Nonaka, I. 67 prediction of crises 96, 173 preparedness 84–5 oloruntoba, r. 153 crisis management model 28–32, 30, online learning 85–6 31 opportunities, crises as 43 increase in 238 organisational culture 83, 85 models 24–5 organisational learning and feedback Preskill, H. 60 action planning and implementation Prevention, Preparation, response, 68 Recovery (PPRR) model of crisis collection, analysis and interpretation management 83, 238 of data 68 prevention of crises see crisis prevention in crisis management 81 Prideaux, B. 40 definitions 58 prior experience 178 dialogue, use of in 66–8 proactive firms 83 double loop learning 59, 59–60 proactive stage of crisis management 78 evaluative enquiry 60–1, 61, 64, 68 Project Phoenix recovery Program preparedness as integral 84–5 210–15 reflection as part of process 60–3, 61, Python crises 79 63 single loop learning 59 questions, asking 64–5 studies on 55, 57 Quinn, R.E. 163 technology mediated 85–6 use by DMOs 58, 64–8 rational strategy 7–8, 8–11 organisations, design of structure and reactive crisis management 39, 78 processes 23 reactive firms 83 reason, J. 190 Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) recovery 214–15 achievement of in tourism industry 18 Pauchaunt, T.C. 24, 78 funding for in the Maldives 136 people made crises 77–8, 172, 237 limitations of process in sri Lanka performance, impact on of planning 177–9 approach to strategy 8–9 in the Maldives in response to tsunami Pizam, A. 78 132 planning market recovery strategies in the and understanding of crisis types Maldives 135–9 79–80 marketing 139, 207, 208, 239 see also strategic planning media strategies 207
  7. 7. Index 247 Project Phoenix recovery Program impact in us 109 214–15 impact on wellbeing 107, 108 strategic themes of 207–8 political repercussions from 109 successful campaigns 208–9 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) of tourists in Sri Lanka 177 see sars trends in the Maldives 140–45 Seymour, M. 79 from tsunami in Sri Lanka 172, 176–9 Shaw, B.J. 94 reflection simulation scenario learning 84–5 on espoused theory/theory-in-use 66 single loop learning 59, 82 as part of learning process 60–3, 61, sipika, C. 81 63 Slotegraaf, R.J. 17 research small and medium tourism enterprises on crisis management in tourism (SMTEs) in Sri Lanka 174, 180 39–43 see also tourism industry crisis prevention as focus 23 smith, C. 84 lack of framework for 43 smith, d. 81 theoretical and practical 23–4 Smith, G. 78 see also eurobodalla area research smouldering crises 79 resilience, achievement of 12 social vulnerabilities 101 Richardson, B. 59 south east asia risk management Project Phoenix recovery Program anZrMs 189–90 214–15 literature themes 187 sars outbreak in 210–14, 213 meaning of risk 189 sri Lanka see also eurobodalla area research buffer zones 179–80 Ritchie, B.W. 39, 40, 53, 55, 58, 60, 68 coordination following tsunami 178 russia, tourists from in the Maldives 145, distribution of foreign aid following 146 tsunami 180–1 Galle District 175, 176 safety culture 190 good practice in other countries 181–2 santana, g. 39, 40, 41 government measures following sars tsunami 179–80 international impact 28 impact of tsunami 171, 175–6 outbreak in China 2003 28 internal resources following tsunami outbreak in south east asia 210–14, 177 213 lack of knowledge following tsunami Project Phoenix recovery Program 178 210–15, 214–15 lack of precautionary measures in see also Corporate Crisis Management before tsunami 171–2 module lack of prior experience 178 scenario simulations 84–5 lessons from the past 182 schon, d.a. 59 limitations of recovery process 177–9 scott, n. 28 need for crisis management strategies seaview hotel, Phuket 101–4 in 172 self-reflexive process, evaluation as 62 precautionary measures following september 11 terrorist attacks tsunami 179–81 impact in Australia 109, 112–16, 117, problems with sMtes following 120 tsunami 174, 180
  8. 8. 248 Crisis Management in the Tourism Industry recovery from tsunami 172, 176–9 tolerance for error in different situations sources and types of assistance 17 following tsunami 176 Torres, R.P. 60 tourism in 174–5 tourism disaster Management framework tourists, recovery for 177 55, 80–1 vulnerability of 179 tourism industry Stacy, R.E. 16 achievement of recovery 18 staff development 80–1 assessment of tourism vulnerability 81 Stafford, G. 67 control of risks by 171 stakeholders crisis management discourse in 38 involvement in evaluation 65 crisis management in 39–43 knowledge assumptions of 66 crisis publications 62 stevens, C. 94 growth in and impact of crises 38 strategic planning increased uncertainty in 7 framework for and crisis management as largest industry 93 55, 56 literature on crisis management in and improvisation as complementary in 39–43 crisis situations 16–18 vulnerabilities of 100 improvisation in 10 see also small and medium tourism learning approach 7–8, 11–13 enterprises (SMTEs); sustainability rational strategy 8–11 of tourism industry role of 7–8, 8–11 tourist behaviour subjective wellbeing see wellbeing following crisis events 37–8 sudden crises 79 following terrorist attacks 108, 121–7, sustainability of tourism industry 122–3, 125–6 and crisis management 96–7 training 80–1 definitions of 94–5 see also Corporate Crisis Management development of concept 93–5 module environmental sustainability index 94 Tsoukas, H. 7 increasing attention on 93 tsunami more comprehensive models needed types of 173 95 see Maldives, response to tsunami reactive and destination focus 95 turbulence in business and strategic systemic thinking 32–3 planning 11–13 typologies of crises 79–80 tacit knowledge 57 technology united Kingdom, tourists from in the as cause of vulnerability 101 Maldives 140, 140, 144–5 learning via 85–6 united states, impact in of september 11 terrorist attacks 77–8 terrorist attacks 109 tourist behaviour following 108, Uttal, B. 190 121–7, 122–3, 125–6 see also september 11 terrorist attacks Valikangas, L. 12 theoretical research 23–4 value adding strategies 136 theory-in-use, reflection on 66 values, identification and challenging of tinkering compared to improvisation 66 15–16 Verjaqns, S. 13, 15 Vikulov, S. 55, 59
  9. 9. Index 249 volatility in business and strategic planning Weichselgartner, J. 98 11–13 Weick, K. 13 vulnerability wellbeing definitions 97–8 definitions 108 economic 100 impact of terrorist attacks on 107, 108, external/internal sides of 98 110–20, 117, 118, 119, 121 industry 100 Wilder-Smith, A. 212 model 98–101, 99 World Bank 27 natural factors 101 politics as cause of 100 yates, M. 215 seaview hotel, Phuket 101–4 yin, s. 110 social 101 technology related 101 Zerman, D. 68 three perspectives of 98

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