here: It includes a script version of the draft paperPresentation Transcript
"Opportunities for the development of fortification tourism: experience of European walled towns” A Presentation for the Kaliningrad Tourism Conference 15th April 2005 David M. Bruce, MA, MPhil, MRTPI, MCILT, MTS Principal Lecturer in Tourism, Bristol Business School, University of West of England
A word or two about myself David.Bruce@ uwe .ac. uk
I regret I cannot be here.
My background has been in
and finally Tourism
To begin with walled and fortified towns
Any town still defined by its walls or defensive structures is an anomaly.
Either the town's growth has been arrested at some point (crisis)
and/or economic life has subsequently passed it by.
This process is described in the ‘Ashworth model’
Ashworth model adapted Development Valuation Including Walls crisis Sustainable Development?
defences medieval or 'modern'
dramatic (or dramatically restored or re-created)
town walls or defensive structures which are intrinsic to the community identity .
Soave - Naarden
Founded in Wales in 1989 at Tenby to:
To create an international forum.
To encourage friendships visits and mutual understanding between the inhabitants
To encourage an increase in tourism whilst considering the challenges.
To develop joint marketing strategies to increase world-wide awareness of walled towns.
Walled Towns Friendship Circle http://www.tourism-research.org/wtfcresearchdb.html
‘Heritage’ a contentious subject
Glendinning in “Beyond the cult of the Monument” (2001)
condemns ‘the totalitarian (mis-)conception of age-value’
identifies the conscious and inadvertent mutual monument destruction of 20th Century warfare
sees ‘National Heritage’ as ‘now a mask for global commodification’
Ashworth and Lowenthal developed further themes
Conquest, changes in borders, changes in political control, even changes in population make ‘heritage’ contentious - ESPECIALLY ‘National Heritage’.
Tunbridge and Ashworth (1996)
about 10 pages on the case of Kaliningrad
Even walled towns may be divisive,
with insiders and outsiders.
Ownership and Responsibility
'Who owns the Past?' asked Lowenthal (1996)
Tourism incentives to inclusiveness
But dangers of heritage tourism leading to "irritation/resentment and displacement of [present] host communities"
The Economic Incentive of tourism for walled towns
Across Europe the 147 member towns
have a population of 3.5 million
attract some 50 million visitors a year.
usually staying only for a day or two
worth about one billion Euros a year
or 285 Euros per head of local population.
Costs and Benefits
In larger towns they cost little in the way of extra resources because the infrastucture is available to (and / or needed by) the local inhabitants.
about 66,000 full time jobs
though many may be part-time or seasonal.
The built heritage helps
to lengthen the stay
to increase the spend and employment.
European Commission INTERREG iiiC
a 3 year project called ‘ARCHWAY’
led by the Walled City of Chester with
7 other walled towns members
plus one other town
advised by the University of West of England.
Five dimensions of historic town management
Conservation and Interpretation
Transport and Traffic
Tourism and Marketing
Cultural Heritage Management
accessibility to the heritage
‘ Arabarri’ (a consortium of small towns in Spain)
WHERE WE WERE FROM Rachael Samantha Ma King Mojgan Kate Beam Wenting Ivy qu Lili Lanlan June David
Königsberg from Baedeker 1906
UNESCO NARA DECLARATION AND WALLED TOWNS
" The cultural heritage of each is the cultural heritage of all ” UNESCO
Piran Declaration Walled Towns are unique inheritances from times long past and should be treasured, maintained and safeguarded from neglect and destruction and passed on to perpetuity as irreplaceable 'Timestones of History'
WTFC Website the website of the Walled Towns Friendship Circle http://www.walledtowns.com and especially the linked research pages at http://www.tourism-research.org/wtfcresearchdb.html and for Unesco http://www. unesco .org