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  • 1. In: Proceedings of the 25th Arctic and Marine Oilspill (AMOP) Technical Seminar, Calgary, Canada, June 2002, Environment Canada, pp.1103 – 1114. 1 CMSMAP: Oil, Chemical, Search and Rescue, and Marine Emergency Response Crisis Management System E.L. Anderson, E. Howlett, C. Galagan, T. Giguere Applied Science Associates, Inc Narragansett, RI, USA ela@appsci.com Capt. F. Wee, Capt. James Chong Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore Abstract The paper and system demonstration describe a crisis management system developed for and with the expert collaboration of the Maritime and Port Authority in Singapore. It represents a singular integration of ship’s bridge simulator hardware and software, numerical models, and emergency response software. The system is installed and integrated with two shipping bridge simulators in a new purpose-built building on the campus of Singapore Polytechnic University, Singapore. Oil spill, chemical spill, search and rescue, marine emergency, and nuclear disaster model systems are incorporated within one user interface, and connected to a response management system. The system is being used to train mariners and port operations personnel to respond to marine emergencies. Detailed histories and costs of planned response activities are logged and available for review and reporting. Estimates of damages associated with oil and chemical spills are derived for reporting and estimation of the effectiveness of alternative spill response plans. Extension of the system to function as a real time response aid is planned for 2002. 1 Introduction The Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) has recently commissioned a new Integrated Simulation Centre (ISC) on the campus of Singapore Polytechnic. The building houses two complete ship’s bridge simulation systems by Kongsberg Maritime Ship Systems, Horten, Norway. As part of the contract to supply these bridge simulation systems, Applied Science Associates, Inc (ASA) has developed an integrated Crisis Management System (CMS). The CMS connects to the bridge simulator and enables viewing of predicted sea surface coverage of oil and chemicals from the underlying numerical models in the CMS. Two rooms in the ISC building are dedicated to the CMS system: a Hot Response Room and an Emergency Support Room. The purpose of this paper is to describe the functionality of the CMS system and serve as an introduction for a demonstration of the system itself.
  • 2. Whether running in training mode or real-time response mode, the system is designed to run in a network environment so that multiple stations may be used cooperatively to respond to an incident. Each station may represent an ICS function such as Planning, Logistics, Finance, and Operations. A station can request resources, send messages to other stations, track costs, estimate response effectiveness based on resource deployments, and use numerical models and screening tools to evaluate response plans. Each station accesses an underlying relational database that stores initial resource information (locations and amounts of response equipment) as well as time-changing data as the incident evolves. The database tracks and stores every event from every station so that the response may be reviewed and audited. For smaller incidents, a single station may cover all of the response functions. A sophisticated resource management database based on the ICS framework allows the system to add new resources, edit their properties, order and assign resources to response divisions. Each resource has a number of properties including supplier details, hourly, daily, or one-time costs, location of home base, activation time, transit speed, and response capabilities. Resources may be combined into task forces so that multiple capabilities may be brought into a single unit. For example, a task force may be a vessel with 6 personnel (each an individual resource), 100 feet of boom and 16 barrels of oil dispersant. This task force may be given a set of waypoints for its transit to the oil spill response division. Based on the deployment of these resources, the CMS will estimate how much oil may be cleaned up. Another type of response is the evacuation of personnel from both marine and land facilities . The student operators can deploy vessels or land-based vehicles to pick up personnel from evacuation divisions. Each response resource may make multiple sorties. The CMS will estimate how effective the evacuation is based on these deployments. A real-time tracking system maintains the status of every resource and tracks the status changes as resources are ordered, assigned, and made available. This is integrated with the cost component so that costs may be monitored on a real-time basis.
  • 3. 2 CMS Components Figure 1 shows the CMS user view. The main area of the view is a map of the area of interest. The base map is an electronic nautical chart (ENC in S57 format) developed by the MPA itself. Standard ENC operations allow the user to view and/or hide specific features desired. Figure 2 shows the form which controls which ENC features are to be displayed. As an example, the “Show Shallow Soundings” check Figure 1: CMS Instructor User View box is selected at 10m. This causes a heavy line to be drawn at the 10m contour, and all the soundings below 10m in depth are displayed on the chart. The bottom of the CMS User View shows a set of response records, filtered by the locations at which resources are located and by the types of resources. The view in Figure 1 has been created by the CMS_Instructor user Capt. James Chong (shown in lower left, bottom). The Exercise is named AMOP1, and starts at 20 June 2002 at 1200 hours. An associated oil spill event, termed an Incident, is defined for this Exercise, and is called AMOP1_OIL1. The Incident begins at 20 June 2002 at 1000 hours, and consists of a 100 tonne medium crude oil spill from a tanker which has come aground in the middle right of the map view at the icon labelled ⊕. The clock at the upper left of the display shows the time as 00:16 minutes into the exercise, at 20/6/2002 12:16. The “real time” view of the surface oil is shown
  • 4. as grey and black polygons to the SE of the release point. When the CMS_Student starts his application, he/she will see the oil spill as it is defined by the model simulation. Both the CMS Student and CMS Instructor see the same user view, including a list of all available response resources in the lower part of the display. The view in Figure 1 shows all the resources available at the Shell Eastern Petroleum Pte facility. The Shell facility itself shows near the middle of the map view on the northeast shore of the island Pulau Bukom. Also shown on the ENC are anchorage areas, restricted areas, and shipping lanes. After an overview of the CMS functions, we will return to this oil spill example to show how the CMS Instructor and CMS Student interact in a response exercise. Figure 2: ENC Display Settings Control Several model systems and emergency management tools are embedded in the CMS User Interface: • Oil Spill Management System • Chemical Spill/Gas release Management System • Search & Rescue Management System • Marine Emergency Management System • Nuclear Fall-out Management System The Oil Spill Management System contains: Oil Spill Trajectory & Weathering Model (OILMAP) Wind Forecasting/Linkage to MPA Hydrodynamics Countermeasures Booming Skimming Dispersant Sorbent Resource Management (Vessels, Equipment, Personnel) Cost Management/Reporting
  • 5. Linkage to Economic Damages Module The Chemical Spill/Gas release Management System contains: 3D Chemical Spill Trajectory & Weathering Model (CHEMMAP) Wind Forecasting/Linkage to MPA Hydrodynamics Display of toxic thresholds in water column and atmosphere Countermeasures Spill Containment Evacuation (Air Plume) Resource Management (Vessels, Equipment, Personnel) Cost Management/Reporting Linkage to Economic Damages Module The Search & Rescue Management System contains: Object at Sea Drift Model (SARMAP) Wind Forecasting/Linkage to MPA Hydrodynamics Search Area Calculation based on IMO/USCG Calculations Man Overboard Drifting Vessels Containers Countermeasures Search Unit Deployment Resource Management (Vessels, Equipment, Personnel) Cost Management/Reporting The Maine Emergency Management System contains: Marine Emergency Response Construction Tanker Collisions Vessel Groundings Ferry Accidents Marine Emergency Countermeasure Simulation Electronic Access to Marine Emergency Action Plans Resource Management (Vessels, Equipment, Personnel) The Nuclear Fall-out Management System contains: Nuclear Emergency Response Construction Radioactive Plume Prediction Nuclear Emergency Countermeasure Evacuation Fall-Out Shelter Management Electronic Access to Emergency Action Plans Resource Management (Vessels, Equipment, Personnel)
  • 6. The system allows the instructor and student user to manage an entire response including tasks such as: manage response resources, manage checklist assignments, schedule assignments, track costs, and prepare invoices. Response assets are displayed on the GIS when the asset layer is activated. Task lists specific to each type of emergency incident enable quick and efficient actions to be defined for the responder. The complete contingency plans are also implemented in HTML for quick reference. Figure 3 shows a simple dispersant response to an oil spill incident. The black circle on the map view is the footprint of an on-water response group (division in ICS terminology). Two pieces of response equipment are en- route to the on-water response group along a per-determined path to deployment. In the lower portion of the user view, the Status Tab shows all of the response groups The On Water Cleanup division has been selected. Two resources show as assigned to that group. The resource showing the amount of dispersant has been interrogated, and the form shows the order time, the from and to locations for the item, the travel distance along the defined route, mobilization time, resource speed, travel time, and arrival time. For all resources, an endurance measure for on-scene activity is defined. Collections of resources also may be defined as Task Forces. Below the On Water Cleanup group listing are shown Current Response Status and Predicted Response Status. At the clock time for the simulated Incident, no response activity has started, so the Current Response Status shows no success. The Predicted Response Status shows the model- predicted dispersant action. Dispersant effectiveness is determined with a 10:1 surface oil to dispersant application ratio, and dispersant effectiveness is keyed on the oil spill model predicted viscosity. If model-predicted emulsion formation yields an on-water oil viscosity of over 10,000 centipoise, no dispersant activity is predicted. The management system will: (a) Maintain a list of resources for various emergency situations; (b) Show the status and location of resources; (c) Show the estimated time of arrival of resources at the incident scene; (d) Show resources were obtained/ purchased/ committed; (e) Link the application/use of these resources into a financial tracking data base; and (f) List/record special requirements associated with each resource such as needs operators, needs special airlift.
  • 7. 3. Oil Spill Example Incident Returning to the Exercise displayed in Figure 1: the Figure shows the Instructor view of the oil spill Incident AMOP1_OIL1. The Instructor has defined an oil spill event which occurred two hours before the beginning of the Exercise. At the time shown in Figure 1, the Exercise Clock shows 16 minutes of Exercise time have expired, and the spill (which occurred two hours before the Exercise start time) is two and one-quarter hours into its evolution. The CMS Instructor creates an Exercise and a spill Incident. The CMS Student (or a group of Students) makes responses to the Incident. Figure 3 shows the model-predicted mass balance for the spill without any response. Of the 100 tonnes of oil spilled, about 30 tonnes is predicted to evaporate, and after one day approximately 55 tonnes is predicted to come ashore. Weathering/Fates for MEDIUM CRUDE OIL Surface Water Column Ashore Evaporated Cleaned 60 50 40 30 Tonnes 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (hours) Figure 3: Mass Balance for the Incident spill w/o response.
  • 8. Figure 4 shows the CMS Student view of the same Exercise and oil spill Incident. The time shown on the upper left is 31 minutes into the Exercise. The CMS Student has created an on-water work group named “Dispersant” with a circular footprint around the release site. He has also created a Task Force of a vessel with a dispersant application system and 2500 liters of dispersant. Shown on the map view are the surface oil in grey and black polygons, the area of coverage for the “Dispersant” work group, the track line for the Task Force from the Shell terminal to the work group, and the current location of the Task Force (just above the word “Petroleum” in the label for Shell Eastern Petroleum Pte Ltd.) Figure 4: Student view of the Incident, with Dispersant Work Group and Task Force in transit.
  • 9. The lower half of the user view shows the “Status” tab of the resources, with the Dispersant work group expanded to show the Task Force TF 1 with its two individual resources, and the predicted response (20 tonnes dispersed). Weathering/Fates for MEDIUM CRUDE OIL Surface Water Column Ashore Evaporated Cleaned 60 50 40 30 % 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (hours) Figure 5: Model-predicted mass balance after dispersant application. The history of all student actions is recorded in the data base, and retrievable through a report (extracted below): Exercise History Exercise: AMOP1 Exercise Date/Time: 20/6/2002 12:31:27 PM -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Action Time Resource Status Changed By Resource Ordered 20/6/2002 12:43:07 TF 1 Ordered ANDERSON, Mr. Eric Resource Ordered 20/6/2002 12:43:07 SBM Mooring Boat w/ Ordered ANDERSON, Mr. Eric Resource Ordered 20/6/2002 12:43:07 2500 liters Oil Dispersant Ordered ANDERSON, Mr. Eric The cost of all student actions is also recorded, and retrievable through a similar report: Exercise Cost Summary Exercise: AMOP1 Exercise Date/Time: 20/6/2002 12:31:27 PM Division Resource Kind Resource Name Ordered By Total Cost Dispersant Task Force TF 1 ANDERSON, Mr. Eric $0.00 Dispersant Vessel SBM Mooring Boat ANDERSON, Mr. Eric $800.00 Dispersant Oil Dispersant 2500 liters Oil Dispersant ANDERSON, Mr. Eric $410.00
  • 10. ----------------- TOTAL COST $1,210.00
  • 11. 4 Benzene Example Model Outputs The system alternatively can predict the on-water, in-water, and atmospheric concentrations of released chemicals through the underlying chemical model. Figures 6a-c show CHEMMAP outputs for a similar release of 100 tonnes of benzene (instead of medium crude oil). Figure 6a shows the model-predicted surface concentrations of benzene 24 minutes into the release. The color key shows predicted concentrations of benzene floating on the water’s surface in grams per square meter. Figure 6a: Predicted sea surface concentrations of Benzene Preparation of Incident Action Plans: The response management is based on ICS guidelines. ASA developed the first computerized version of this for the United Stated Coast Guard (Anderson et al, 1998, 1999). The implementation for the Singapore MPA has hidden much of the ICS formulation, because MPA and its clients have not fully embraced the ICS methodology as yet. A separate effort is in the planning stages now to both implement ICS training within the MPA and
  • 12. supply a version of the CMS system which incorporates much of the NIIMS ICS formalism. 5 Conclusions A useable computer based management system has been generated and connected to several underlying predictive model systems. The system is designed for use as a training system for oil and chemical spill responders and marine emergency management. Simplified Task Lists, specific to the pre-defined contingency plans, allow a common tool to guide the student through each type of incident. The system is further connected to a ship’s bridge simulation system for added realism in the projected view of the response scene. Extension to the real time application for the Singapore MPA is now in the planning stage. 5 References Anderson, E., Galagan, C., Howlett, E., Jensen, D. “The On Scene Command and Control system (OSC2): An Integrated Incident Command System (ICS) Forms-Database Management System and Oil Spill Trajectory and Fates Model”, In: 21st Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, June 10-12, 1998. Anderson, E., Galagan, C., Howlett, E., Jensen, D, “OSC2, A Combined ICS Forms, Database and Trajectory Model System”. In: 1999 International Oil Spill Conference, March 8-11, 1999. French-McCay, D. “Chemical Spill Model (CHEMMAP) for Forecasts/Hindcasts and Environmental Risk Assessment”, In: Proceedings of the 24th Arctic and Marine Oilspill (AMOP) Technical Seminar, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, June 12-14, 2001, Environment Canada, pp.825-846, 2001.

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