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european school of governance Dr. Thomas R. Henschel


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  • 1. The role of mediation in international relations: „call for peaceful conflict resolutions in globalization“ Dr. Thomas R. Henschel European School of Governance culture meets culture 03.-06. Mail 2006, EUROAPHAUS WIEN
  • 2. content
    • Trends in Society and international relations
    • Democratization
    • Global society world and international conflicts
    • International conflicts and conflict prevention
    • Concepts of multilateral peace keeping
    • Mediation: a concept for international peace keeping
    • Conclusion and perspective
  • 3. Trends in Society
    • Economic development and prosperity:
      • 1871: more than 50% in agriculture
      • 2000: less than 3.2% in agriculture
    • GDP
      • 1830: 2000: ~ 130.-€ ~ 25.000.- €
    • Lifetime: doubled
    • Better education and access to information
    People in agriculture GDP
  • 4.
    • Today’s elite has no longer the monopoly of access to information - in the best case they have a little advantage of time
    • The radical change of the social structure , the revolution in the education and information sector has initiated a change in government: democratization
    • „ The Democratic Revolution is the most important trend at the end of the 20th century“
    • (Samuel Huntigton)
    Trends in Society
  • 5. Democratization
    • Increasing welfare leads to growing demands for democratic participation
    • Globalization promotes democratization
    • Welfare and development needs the autonomic and innovative citizen, who participates in decision making
    Number of people in % living in democratic societies
  • 6. The global society world
    • The emerging of the „society world“ (E.-O. Czempiel) has almost eliminated the classical international war between states
    • In 2001 the UN registered 105 violent conflicts and wars, all of them „ new wars“ (intra-state-wars)
    • Main issue of those conflicts: political and economic Participation
    • Challenge of the 21th century: how to deal with these conflicts in an alternative and non-violent way that answers the demand for participation?
  • 7. International conflict and conflict prevention
    • 1945: United Nations
      • Multilateralism institutionalized
      • Consensus building as a principle in international politics and peace keeping
      • Rule of international law and international government under the control of the United Nations
  • 8. International conflict and conflict prevention crisis of classical crisis-management
    • Collapse of security policy:
      • The crisis in Yugoslavia, Somalia and Rwanda made the collapse of the classical crisis-management obvious
      • Deadly conflicts, failed states, civil war, violence of human rights, genocide – the international community seemed to be almost helpless
      • A massive conceptional gap in security and peace policy
      • This became even more true after 9/11
    • Spending of Resources:
      • millions of Dollar where spent for re-active crisis management (military forces, humanitarian aid, recovery programs)
    • Development policy became a repair workshop
    The international community is in need of a concept for maintaining security in the new emerging world order
  • 9.
    • Prevention before a deadly conflict and C onsolidation after such a conflict became important, conceptional aspects for new forms of appropriate, effective and cheaper security strategies
    • Development policy aspects and security aspects (peace building) merged to the new concept of peace-consolidation (UN/OSCE)
    International conflict and conflict prevention search for new concepts of constructive conflict management Development Policy Security Policy Peace Consolidation
  • 10. Concepts of multilateral peace keeping
    • Peace Consolidation (UN / OSCE) A systematic and long-term oriented process to deal with the sources of violent conflicts and to build the framework, the institutions and structures for a society to live in together in peace
        • Three phases of Peace Consolidation (UN / OSCE)
    I. II. III. Preventing deadly conflicts Preventing escalation Preventing rebirth of conflict
  • 11.
    • A change in paradigm in Security Policy stresses the “culture of Prevention” (Carnegie Commission 1997) and pledges for a coherent conflict prevention strategy development (UN 1/2001)
    • “ Prevention is the only appropriate security policy.” (Ernst-Otto Czempiel )
    International conflict and conflict prevention a change in paradigm
  • 12. Concepts of multilateral peace keeping
    • The current model of peace Consolidation:
    Peace Consolidation Experts : Operative Prevention
    • Early warning and intervention
    • Preventive diplomacy
    • Economic measures (Sanctions, Benefits)
    • Enforcement measures
    Structural prevention
    • Security (in and between states)
    • Well-Being (i.e. social justice, political participations, sustainable Development)
    • Rule of law and just society (in and between states)
    short term mid term long term
  • 13.
    • Current model of UN and OSCE:
      • Experts are analyzing the conflict, its structure etc. and developing strategies for peace building
      • Experts are doing the job and they are trying to bring peace to the people
    Concepts of multilateral peace keeping
      • A good model for de-escalation of deadly conflicts by force,
      • but
        • also the best model for a sustainable peace building?
  • 14. Problems of the current concept
    • Peace Consolidation is basically seen as a technological project concerning resources, technical support, capacities, methods of external actors to act most effective according to the operational needs on the ground
    • Gap between early warning and early action
    • Lack of co-ordination coherent approaches between state and non-state actors
    • One track classical diplomacy
    • Almost non bottom-up information flow and network
    • High-tech military warning systems not suited to the prevailing of new wars
  • 15.
    • Empowering civic society by empowering the people
      • Mediation is an approach that empowers the civil society by empowering the people itself.
    • conflict owners and experts
      • The conflict groups and partners are experts for their problems and conflicts
      • they could be experts for peace building
    • Mediation: an approved process approach and tool
      • Mediation is an additional approved instrument for sustainable peace building
      • When people participate, it enhances the acceptance of the result
      • Sustainability is a result of the process itself
    Mediation: a concept for international peace keeping
  • 16.
    • supports the conflict parties in understanding their conflict:
      • Methods to stimulate the exchange about differences
      • Mapping the conflict by using visualization techniques
    • creates a room for the differences and for the mutual acceptances of those differences
    • Helps the conflict parties to find optimal regulations for their situations based on a better understanding of the interests and needs of everybody involved in the conflict
    • Conducts the creation of a contract and ensures – if needed - that a third party overlooks and guards the implementation process
    Mediation: a concept for international peace keeping How mediation could be useful Mediation
  • 17. Where mediation could make a difference:
    • Phase I: Prevention:
      • transferring preventive diplomacy into early mediation processes (by professional mediators and not diplomats, only)
      • Support of early mediation approaches by economic measurements (sanctions or benefits)
    • Phase III: Sustainable Peace-building
      • Establishing sustainable structures for peace keeping through the participations of the conflict parties in the strategy development process
  • 18. Mediation: an instrument for all phases and on all political levels in the process of peace building
    • Mediation could help to overcome structural gaps in the current concept of peace building:
      • Definition of Interest of the conflict parties, politicians etc.
      • activation of resources (from non-action to effective action)
      • Coherence building of actors in all fields of politics
      • Better coherence and co-operation in foreign policy, security and development policy in an complex and multilevel environment (regional and national governments, international organizations, NGO`s)
      • Better co-operation of government and private sector
      • Effective support oriented at the needs and interests of the people on the ground
      • Humanitarian assistance and development local capacities for peace could be forstered and their capacity could be strengthened
  • 19. Challenges for Mediation
    • In new wars the conflict parties are not so easy to identify
    • Each intervention has its own advantages and risk
      • Lack of impact assessment tools and methodology
    • International Organizations such as EU, UN or states such as the US or India have their own agenda and interests
    • Working without a concept could be after all not such a bad concept (process more import than concepts)
    • Demands long term stay on the ground
    • Requires a new self-consciousness of Mediation
    • Needs conflict sensibility (Ursula König)
  • 20. Mediation
    • UN and OSCE should promote the integration of Mediation as a complementary instrument and approach for conflict prevention
    • Mediation supports the parties, the responsibility for the content stays with the conflict parties
    • Mediation fosters the civic society by empowering the people itself and giving them back the responsibility for their conflicts and conflict-resolution strategies
  • 21. Conclusion
    • Most important trend: democratization
    • Democratization demands participation of the citizin and a strong civic society
    • Democratization and the growing global society has ended the classical international war between states
    • Today deadly conflicts are civil wars and terrorist acts
    • The UN / OSCE model is an approved - however imperfect it may be - instrument to de-escalate deadly conflicts
    • Peace building would profit from mediation in three aspects:
      • Early prevention (preventive mediation etc.)I
      • Continuous prevention (developing sustainable structures and regulations for peace building and keeping)
      • Mediation is a key resource for all aspects of peace building
  • 22. Perspective
    • In a more and more complex and dynamic world, in which one men could destroy the whole world, we need mediation as a sufficient approach and tool to deal in a peaceful and participative way with international conflicts.
    • An approach that empowers the civil society by empowering participation and the citizens itself.
    • An approach that is dialog and process orientated and leaves the responsibility with the people.
    • Within the states and between the states.
  • 23. Contact
    • Dr. Thomas R. Henschel European School of Governance, Berlin Im Palais am Festungsgraben Am Festungsgraben 1 10117 Berlin Tel.: +49 (0)30 20 61 62 57 FAX: +49 (0)30 20 61 62 92 Email: [email_address]