Effective Crisis Prevention
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Like this? Share it with your network


Effective Crisis Prevention






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



0 Embeds 0

No embeds



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Effective Crisis Prevention Document Transcript

  • 1. Policy Paper 12 Tobias Debiel Martina Fischer Volker Matthies Norbert Ropers Effective Crisis Prevention Challenges for German Foreign and Development Policy
  • 2. u2 Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation Crisis prevention is a dictate of rational politics. Foreign multaneous strengthening of state and non-state actors. and development policy currently find themselves facing Our proposals primarily refer to the German situation. a host of conflicts with a high potential for escalation. Not Here we recognize a particular need for decisive meas- only governmental und multilateral institutions, but also ures and are familiar with the diversity of actors and exist- actors from civil society are increasingly being con- ing institutional structures. We are aware, however, that fronted with the realities of disintegrating social struc- new initiatives and measures should be embedded in a tures and with a social climate of violence that ranges all broader European and international framework. Our rec- the way up to armed hostility. These realities affect their ommendations are based on a three-phase model which work for peace, human rights, and development as well as includes a gradual internationalization of all endeavours. the delivery of humanitarian assistance. The wars and ca- The new infrastructure should be capable of making a sig- tastrophes of the 1990s—most recently the war in nificant contribution to effective crisis prevention by Kosovo/ Yugoslavia—show that traditional measures are 2005 at the latest. extremely limited in their effectiveness and that no proper We address three areas of activity. The first covers the use has so far been made of more up-to-date instruments creation of early-warning and prevention units within ex- of crisis prevention. isting institutions and the improvement of consultation Against this background, the fact that the German mechanisms within the framework of dialogue forums. government has accorded an important place to the task of This process should be backed by an ‘Early Warning and crisis prevention in its coalition agreement of October Dialogue Unit’, which would act as a point of contact for 1998 is to be welcomed. This task covers a wide spec- the various milieus, build up an ‘institutional memory’ for trum, including: gearing development co-operation more evaluating and passing on experiences, and fulfil ‘sen- strongly to the requirements of stabilization in crisis re- sory’ and alarm functions. gions; reforming and expanding international organiza- Secondly, we believe that promoting peace-oriented tions in line with co-operative security; and pursuing dis- forces on the ground and providing them with external armament in the area of small-arms and via regional de- support—via, amongst other things, a Civil Peace Service militarization agreements. Another task that needs tack- (Ziviler Friedensdienst)—is a crucial task. As a way of ling is that of creating an infrastructure for peaceful con- developing this area, we propose that a process be insti- flict management—in a way that is geared to practical tuted in which relevant information is gathered about or- politics and is theoretically well thought through. This ganizations and individuals and in which task-sharing is Policy Paper focuses on the steps needed to achieve this fostered. This would ensure that the work done is geared (see table ‘Summary of Contents’). We suggest practical to professional standards and that reliable financial provi- ways in which ‘classical’ diplomacy might be developed sion is made for relevant projects. We believe a ‘Peace- into preventive diplomacy. We also ask how actors in de- building and Networking Unit’ needs to be created to ad- velopment co-operation, humanitarian assistance, and vance this process. peace and human-rights work can help strengthen peace- The third area of activity relates to the training of indi- promoting structures in societies undergoing develop- viduals employed in peace missions organized by interna- ment or transformation. tional organizations, in humanitarian assistance, and in The infrastructure for peaceful conflict management the work for peace and human rights done within the needs to have flesh put on its bones over the next few framework of civil society. All these types of work call for years. Jörg Calließ—who has played a crucial part in very similar basic competences (regional expertise, lin- shaping this idea in Germany—has pointed out that this guistic, social, and practical skills). At the same time, fleshing-out is also a ‘learning process’. It serves to struc- there are specific skills that differ according to the partic- ture communication and co-operation between different ular area of operation (election observation, for example, actors and ensures that the various contributions to the or verification missions, or reconciliation work and work overall task of containing violence, settling disputes, and with refugees). A crucially important factor is how the transforming conflicts are closely intermeshed with one various providers co-ordinate their activities and link up another. In our view, new forms of co-operation based on with one another. In this connection, we propose the insti- ‘public-private partnerships’ should become a basic com- tution of a process backed up and monitored by a ‘Train- ponent in the creation of an infrastructure for peaceful ing and Expert Pools Unit.’ conflict management, as a way of underpinning the si- Policy Paper 12: Summary of Contents I. Crisis prevention II. Early action via crisis analysis, as a political challenge prevention units,and dialogue forums III. Peace constituencies and IV. Training and Expert Pools civil peace service
  • 3. Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation 3o I. Crisis Prevention as a Political Challenge 1. From ‘Classical’to 2. Strengthening Peace-building Preventive Diplomacy: Structures: New Perspectives New Concepts for Foreign and for Development Co-operation Development Policy and Humanitarian Assistance At the time of the East-West conflict, preventive meas- Development co-operation and humanitarian assistance ures were essentially aimed at averting a third world war. have also found themselves in crisis as a result of intra- High-tech military early-warning systems, nuclear deter- state conflicts. The experiences in Somalia and Rwanda rence, and post-Cuba-shock crisis-management were in particular fuelled a (self-)critical debate about the lim- meant to preclude a direct confrontation between the its and possibilities of what organizations in this area blocs. To these measures were added elements of arms could achieve. Two pioneering publications in this con- control and détente. The many—mostly internal—re- nection were the Dutch study Between Development and gional and local disputes at the periphery of the bipolar Destruction (1996) and the international Joint Evaluation system were either ignored or were treated as proxy wars of Development Assistance to Rwanda (1996). Develop- and exploited or escalated as a way of securing some ad- ment co-operation found itself increasingly acting as a vantage in the arena of power politics. ‘repair workshop’ dealing with a never-ending stream of Since then, this type of locally confined military con- war-damage. In addition, because of the various flict has come to occupy centre-stage in international cri- processes of state disintegration, it began to lose many of sis-diplomacy. As a result of numerous ethnic power- its state ‘counterparts’. struggles, civil wars, and processes of state disintegra- Humanitarian assistance measures began increasingly tion, and also complex humanitarian catastrophes associ- to be accompanied by unintentional negative side-effects, ated with flight and expulsion, ‘ethnic cleansing’, famine, notably exploitation and abuse by parties to the conflicts. and genocide, a glaring gap has become visible in foreign As a result, in civil wars such aid not infrequently became and development policy. Despite early warning, the hor- part of a ‘war economy’ fraught with violence, and it rific events in question were not prevented. Once the sometimes involuntarily helped prolong and intensify crises had broken out, the measures used by the interna- hostilities and human suffering. It also saw itself more tional community mostly turned out to be unsuitable for and more frequently having to act as a stop-gap, making containing or halting the acts of violence and barbarities. good the failure and inertia of politics. At the same time, huge sums were paid out for expensive New concepts at the UN, OECD, and EU level took military operations, humanitarian assistance, and recon- these experiences into account. This was the case with the struction. Guidelines on Conflict, Peace and Development Co-op- Traditional diplomatic instruments are clearly no eration published by the OECD Development Assistance longer up to their task (see table ‘Crisis Prevention as a Committee in 1997. ‘Post-conflict peace-building’, the Political Challenge’). A new concept of preventive con- theoretical groundwork for which had been laid in the UN flict management, based on the old adage ‘prevention is Agenda for Peace, emerged as an important new area of better than cure’, would seem to be more humane, politi- activity. The idea was permanently to preclude any re- cally more effective, and, above all, cheaper than the ex- eruption of violence by instituting measures of recon- tremely costly reactive type of conflict management and struction, renewal, and reconciliation. aftercare. Since the United Nations, in its 1992 Agenda These schemes recognize that, in order permanently for Peace, highlighted the special significance of preven- to overcome the deeper causes of violence and war, the tive measures—for example, confidence-building and the burden of social and economic problems that weighs on preventive deployment of UN troops—there have been many societies has to be reduced, and the capacity of greater efforts by other international organizations, and these societies to effect peaceful change has to be en- also by national governments, non-governmental organi- hanced. The main starting-points for this are seen as being zations (NGOs), and academic institutions, to develop the the provision of support for socio-political mechanisms idea of crisis prevention further, and to find ways of of non-violent conflict management and the strengthen- putting it into practical operation. There is also an in- ing of democratic and civil-society structures. As far as creased realization that a new kind of ‘multi-track diplo- practical operations on the ground are concerned, the idea macy’, involving a major contribution by NGOs, is is that local forces and capacities should be mobilized to a needed. In its final report of 1997, the ‘Carnegie Commis- greater extent in the effort to secure peace—as proposed, sion on Preventing Deadly Conflict’ urged the institution for example, in the 1996 study Do No Harm: Supporting of a ‘culture of prevention’ and called for the adoption of a Local Capacities for Peace through Aid, published by the diversified, task-sharing approach based on public-pri- American NGO ‘Collaborative for Development Action’. vate partnerships. In Germany, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ—German Agency for Technical Co-operation), is attempting, via its ‘Development-Ori- ented Emergency Aid’ (Entwicklungsorientierte Nothilfe/ EON), to meet the challenges involved in constructively
  • 4. u4 Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation Crisis Prevention as a Political Challenge Foreign and Security Policy Problems Proposed solutions The reactive-curative approach to crises and Proactive-preventive action is needed. conflicts is inhumane, politically ineffective, and costly. ‘Classical’international crises and inter-state disputes A conceptual adjustment to civil wars and processes of are no longer predominant. state disintegration plus humanitarian catastrophes is required. The ‘classical’image of war (state-organized, Crisis-management must be used to respond to the ‘privatization’ state-directed warfare between large military conglomerates) and ‘chaoticization’of war. has changed. High-tech military early-warning systems are not suited Network-style civil early-warning capacities involving to the prevailing (intra-state/social) crises. ‘bottom-up’information need to be created. ‘Classical’diplomacy has diminished in importance ‘Multi-track diplomacy’with major involvement by non-state as states have disintegrated and state interlocutors and actors and promotion of ‘peace-processes from below’is negotiating partners have disappeared. becoming more and more important. There is a ‘gap’between early warning and early action. Mechanisms of communication and consultation must be altered, a form of contingency planning based on prevention must be developed, and obstacles to early action must be removed. There is a lack of co-ordinated,coherent approaches Co-ordination, complementary task-sharing and coherence between state actors and non-state actors and between various crisis-prevention actors must be improved. international organizations. Development Co-operation and Humanitarian Assistance Problems Proposed solutions The links between development, peace, and military violence What is needed is critical (self-)reflection, greater crisis-relevance have not been sufficiently clarified. in planning and action, and the promotion of societal structures that assure peace. Civil war is the ‘greatest enemy’of development co-operation. Intra-state conflicts, processes of state disintegration, and civil wars, associated with humanitarian catastrophes (‘complex political/humanitarian emergencies’), must be taken into account in development schemes. Where there are processes of state disintegration, Co-operation with societal actors on the ground must be state counterparts disappear. strengthened. Projects often turn out not to be ‘crisis-proof’. Projects must be more deeply rooted at various social levels. Development co-operation and humanitarian assistance Crisis prevention, acute emergency aid, and long-term feel they are being used as ‘repair workshops’to deal with development must be organized on a new basis. a never-ending stream of war-damage. Abuse and exploitation of humanitarian relief by parties Local capacities for peace,and peace constituencies that work to wars and ‘warlords’are on the increase,and this against violence and war, must be fostered, and their capacity unintentionally helps prolong and intensify violence and for mobilization must be strengthened. suffering (‘feeding the war’). Humanitarian aid often functions as a substitute for (Political) pre-care to avert catastrophes must have priority political action. over (humanitarian) after-care.
  • 5. Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation 5o combining acute emergency aid, long-term development terests in crisis prevention; misjudgement of a situation; co-operation, and the added ingredient of conflict man- poorly co-ordinated approaches; and a reluctance, based agement. Overall, development co-operation and human- on international law, to interfere in the internal affairs of itarian assistance have become more prevention-oriented, other states. On top of all this, in the run-up to crises, it is and thereby also ‘more political’. not usually possible to arouse much public interest, or, as a consequence, to work up much pressure for influencing developments—given that what is involved is, after all, 3. The Problems of Crisis Prevention still a ‘non-event’ and there is therefore no ‘CNN effect’. The psychological obstacles include: repression of early by State Actors warning signals, and concentration on existing problems. And the bureaucratic obstacles include: everyday rou- Despite the obvious advantages of preventive conflict tines geared to the status quo; competition between differ- management, the reactive approach to crises and conflicts ent authorities and services; and the lack of an institution- still predominates in the world of states. What is more, it alized mandate and organizational capacity for early involves a drastically disproportionate investment of hu- warning and early action. man and financial resources—as has just been vividly demonstrated in the Kosovo/Yugoslavia war. In a study published in mid-April by the University of the Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehrhochschule) in Munich, Recommendation: NATO’s costs were estimated to be between DM110 mil- lion and DM130 million per day. The US share was said In order to eliminate political, psychological, and bu- to be DM80 million and that of Germany DM5 million. reaucratic resistance to effective crisis prevention, we On this basis, the first three weeks of the war cost NATO propose a clear-cut change of policy and clear signals DM3 billion. After just less than two months of war, a that there is to be extensive investment in preventive more recent study by the university arrived at even higher structures. This means, not least, that politics must get costs. One scenario assumed the war would go on until itself involved even where its own national interests in the 1 July. On this basis, NATO alone would spend DM22 the narrower sense do not appear to be affected. Ade- billion for military purposes. If one adds to this humani- quate resources must be made available for planning, tarian expenditure, the costs of war damage in Yu- political consultation, and the improvement of intra- goslavia, Yugoslavian military expenditure, and ‘other governmental co-operation. Steps must be taken to economic costs’, the cost of the war comes out at DM110 strengthen both contingency planning and conflict im- billion (see table ‘The Costs of the War in Kosovo/Yu- pact assessment. There ought to be improved co-ordi- goslavia’). The reconstruction of Kosovo and of the Yu- nation between national governments, international goslavian economy will cost tens or hundreds of billions organizations, NGOs, and academic institutions in as- of DM. Compared with these figures, the sums spent on sessing information. Early-warning and planning ele- prevention-efforts are minute. ments ought to be integrated more effectively into the Despite prompt early warning, appropriate preventive structures and sequence of the processes through action is rarely taken. In the discussion about crisis pre- which consultation, opinion-forming, and decision- vention, this state of affairs is often referred to as the ‘gap’ making occur. Experiences from past conflicts should between early warning and early action. The way in be subjected to independent evaluation at national and which crises and conflicts are dealt with seems not infre- multilateral level and be taken into account as ‘lessons quently to be determined by entrenched routines of tradi- learned’. Expert reports of this kind ought to be com- tional power-based or interest-led politics, or by internal missioned from a variety of sources—in other words, political considerations. In addition, there are various concentration on one establishment, or a handful of es- forms of political, psychological, and bureaucratic resist- tablishments of similar outlook, ought to be avoided. ance. The political obstacles will often include: weak in- The Costs of the War in Kosovo/Yugoslavia (The scenario assumed the war would continue until 1 July 1999.) NATO military expenditure 22 billion DM Cost of humanitarian assistance 13 billion DM Costs of war-damage in Yugoslavia 31 billion DM Yugoslavian military expenditure 6 billion DM Other economic costs 34 billion DM (e.g. loss of tourist trade, suspension of trade relations) Total Costs of War 106 billion DM Source: Bundeswehrhochschule München, as quoted in Der Spiegel, 24 May 1999, p. 20
  • 6. u6 Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation II. Early Action via Crisis Analysis, Prevention Units, and Dialogue Forums How does one go about identifying starting-points for preventive endeavours? How does one organize early ac- Recommendation: tion during phases of escalation? As a way of improving crisis analysis for decision- makers, and of getting this type of analysis integrated into institutional opinion-forming and decision-mak- 1. Crisis Analysis and ing processes, we propose the following steps: Crisis-Prevention Units s Practical peace and conflict research and crisis-sen- sitive regional research should become major targets The extent to which particular countries and regions are at for support from the German Federal Ministry of Edu- risk of crisis is generally well known. Despite this, impor- cation and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung tant initiators of action in governmental and non-govern- und Forschung—BMBF) and from independent foun- mental institutions often lack detailed, up-to-date analy- dations of various kinds. At the same time, govern- ses of conflicts giving policy-oriented assessments of ac- mental and non-governmental institutions should sup- tors, of the mechanisms that trigger violence, of escala- port the development of international information net- tion scenarios, and of options for action. There are already works and networks of experts by concluding project various schemes a-foot to ensure decision-makers get in- agreements and co-operation agreements, with a view formation about the development of conflicts. In Ger- to forming strategic task-sharing alliances. many, at the administrative level, one notable enterprise s The members of the Federal German Security is the research project on ‘Crisis Indicators in Develop- Council (Bundessicherheitsrat—made up of the min- ment Co-operation’ run by the German Federal Ministry istries of foreign affairs, development, defence, the in- for Economic Co-operation and Development (Bundes- terior, economics, justice, and finance, together with ministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und the Chancellor’s office) should create small early- Entwicklung—BMZ). Church-based development or- warning and prevention units at planning/general pol- ganizations are considering integrating information rele- icy level. Their task would be: to request, evaluate, and vant to conflicts to a greater extent into their work. deliver an opinion on internally and externally relevant Research institutes for regional affairs and political advi- information relating to crises; to stimulate the develop- sory bodies are also involved in background analyses and ment of options for action; and to facilitate inter-minis- the compilation of lists of indicators within the German terial co-ordination. To ensure that these units are vi- and EU framework. able and that they carry weight within the ministries, a A whole range of multilateral organizations (UN, EU, total of 5 to 10 posts in each ministry (particularly the OECD) make efforts to assimilate information about foreign, development, and defence ministries) would crises systematically into their work. In addition to these, have to be redesignated. Existing bodies closely linked there are two international networks that are particularly to government (e.g. the Bundessicherheitsakademie) notable for linking up early warning and early action: the could be adjusted to conform to the requirements of a Forum for Early Warning and Early Response (FEWER), peaceful policy of prevention. formed by various international organizations, research s The experiences of the war in Kosovo show that institutions, and NGOs in 1997; and the Conflict Preven- parliamentarians have specific needs in terms of infor- tion Network (CPN), which is based at the Stiftung Wis- mation and advice when it comes to shaping opinions senschaft und Politik (SWP—Research Institute for Inter- and making decisions about crises. The German Bun- national Affairs) in Ebenhausen, a suburb of Munich, and destag should therefore consider either setting up a is designed to provide support to the EU Commission in small working unit for this purpose or participating di- its decision-making and strategy-development. Both or- rectly in the creation of a non-governmental ‘Early ganizations, however, are in need of further development: Warning and Dialogue Unit’ (see below). FEWER’s effectiveness is hampered by its meagre re- s The larger NGOs should respond to the new de- sources; and the readiness to work with CPN is adversely mands in regard to the prevention of violence and to in- affected by the ‘one-way system’ whereby the views of tervention in crises by effecting institutional reforms numerous experts are passed on to the EU but there is no and reallocating resources. In order to ensure that new exchange or shared learning-process. standards, instruments, and mechanisms are imple- mented, early-warning and prevention units compris- ing 3 to 5 staff members will need to be created at the general policy and planning levels.
  • 7. Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation 7o 2. Networking via Dialogue Forums and government institutions. In addition, through ac- for Crisis Prevention tive participation in the forums, these latter bodies Circumspect, co-ordinated action in situations of crisis is should ensure that government expertise and concerns the result not only of learning processes between actors make themselves fully felt at this interface with civil from different milieus but also of shared interests and the society. pressure of common problems. Dialogue forums are par- s Talks between the German Federal Ministry for ticularly suitable as a means of improving communica- Economic Co-operation and Development and NGOs tion on specific regions or topics. As we understand the about specific countries should take account of crisis- term, a dialogue forum is a periodic meeting of experts, related developments and should be further expanded decision-makers, and practitioners from academia, na- into, or linked up with, dialogue forums. tional administrations, international organizations, busi- s The German Ministry of Defence should be in- ness, NGOs, and the media. All those involved should not volved to a greater degree than previously in this ex- just bring their own particular expertise to the meetings; change, and should bring its experience—for example, they should also derive some kind of ‘added value’ from with peacekeeping operations—to it, so that future op- the exchange with the other participants. erational mandates can be formulated more realisti- One example of such a body at the international level cally and be more effectively co-ordinated with the ac- is the ‘Great Lakes Policy Forum’, meetings of which are tivities of civil society. organized on a regular basis in New York and Brussels by the Center for Preventive Action of the Council on For- eign Relations. A German instance would be the dialogue group ‘War in Turkey—The Time is Ripe for a Political 3. ‘Early-Warning and Dialogue Unit’ Solution’. The Peace Research Information Unit Bonn Practice shows that, in Germany, systematic early warn- (Arbeitsstelle Friedensforschung Bonn—AFB) has ing and co-ordinated action only works in very few cases. amassed a variety of experiences through two expert There is clearly an urgent need for a non-governmental meetings on Ethiopia and the Caucasus region. The De- contact- and relay-point that functions as a ‘service unit’ velopment and Peace Foundation is currently developing and can systematically promote the processes of dialogue a ‘Policy Forum on Regional Conflict Management’, for needed here. Such a body should perform six functions: which five international workshops are planned over a k First, it should act as a point of contact for individuals period of a year. Meetings in this area have also been held and organizations in Germany who would like to pass by the German Foundation for Development (Deutsche on observations or anxieties and who, within the frame- Stiftung für Entwicklung—DSE) and the Research Insti- work of crisis-related processes, are seeking a practi- tute for International Affairs in Ebenhausen. In addition, cally oriented exchange with other interested parties. various church organizations have started up processes of k Secondly, such a body could monitor and support exist- dialogue between local actors and decision-makers in ing consultation mechanisms and help bring together Germany. Political foundations working, inter alia, in the academic, political, and practical expertise that is cur- Horn of Africa, the Black Sea region, and South Asia, are rently dispersed. Close exchange with the human-rights also of crucial importance here. Last but not least, men- institute envisaged in the coalition agreement from Oc- tion should be made of the expertise of business enter- tober 1998 would also make sense here. prises and associations, which have considerable poten- k Thirdly, the service unit itself should initiate processes tial at their disposal when it comes to assessing, and deal- of dialogue. ing with, situations of crisis. k Fourthly, the service unit would gradually build up an institutional memory for processes of dialogue. k Fifthly, the service unit should establish contact with similar initiatives at the international level. Recommendation: k Finally, after a preparatory phase, the service unit could assume warning or signalling functions. s NGOs and independent foundations working at the interface between civil society and the state should concentrate their resources more on process-oriented dialogue forums. This could involve, on the one hand, Recommendation: the creation of discussion-groups on particular coun- tries and regions, and, on the other, meetings on partic- We propose that an ‘Early-Warning and Dialogue ular themes—especially practical fields such as elec- Unit’ be created. It should be independent of govern- tion observation and assistance, fact-finding, monitor- ment and be active at the interface between state and ing of human rights/the judicial system, and post-con- non-state actors. Initially, it would be advisable for the flict peace-building. Resources for these forums unit to be located within an existing institution that has should be made available as part of government fund- relevant expertise and good contacts at the national ing for projects. and international level and enjoys broad acceptance s The findings of the dialogue forums ought to be amongst governmental and non-governmental actors. systematically taken into account in country- and It should not, however, be located within a govern- topic-based co-ordination between various ministries ment-oriented advisory body, because this could jeop-
  • 8. u8 Development of an Infrastructure for Peaceful Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management in Germany Early Warning and Dialogue Peace-building and Networking Training and Expert Pools Phase 1 kPromotion of policy-oriented peace research kRealigning development co-operation, humanitarian kUnderpinning existing establishments that and regional research assistance, and peace and human-rights work provide training so that they bolster peace constituencies kCreation of early-warning and prevention units in government administration and in NGOs kEstablishment of Civil Peace Service under kCreation and back-up evaluation of the responsibility of the Federal Ministry for Civil Peace Service training-programme kLinking-up of various actors via dialogue forums Economic Co-operation and Development (BMZ) (DED,Forum ZFD, AGDF,AGdD) and consultation mechanisms on specific topics, coun- tries, and regions kEstablishment of peace-building programmes kConduct and evaluation of the Foreign Ministry pilot in development organizations and institution project ‘Preparation for International Peace Missions’ kCreation of an ‘Early Warning and Dialogue Unit’ of budget items for peace-building in BMZ and (with broad participation by civil-society actors) Functions of this service unit: acting as point of Foreign Ministry contact, supporting and monitoring consultation kGuide-lines for training and preparation pro- mechanisms and processes of dialogue kCreation of a ‘Peace-building and Networking Unit’ grammes: multinational participants; independent Functions of this service unit: directory and survey evaluation; public-private partnership between (esp.identification of needs and resources) state and civil society Phase 2 kFurther development of service unit kFurther development of service unit kSignificant increase in proportion of foreign Additional functions: initiation of processes Additional Functions: clearing-house, professional- participants in all training schemes of dialogue; creation of institutional memory; ization, information on funding options kCreation of a Foreign-Ministry-sponsored international link-up kPractically oriented link-up of governmental and ‘Academy for International Peace Missions’that is kClose exchange with the human-rights institute non-governmental peace-building organizations organized in public-private partnership envisaged in coalition agreement of October 1998 kCreation of fund—DM25-30 million per year—for kCreation of a ‘Training and Expert Pools Unit’ kCreation of fund for commissioning studies selected areas of work/crisis regions Functions of this service unit: co-ordination from existing institutions/networks and of training modules; further training; supervision; for financing dialogue forums data bank for experts (min.DM5 million per year) kBuild-up of a distinct profile of Civil Peace Service kInstitutional expansion of Civil Peace Service through soundly designed and systematically training-programmes,co-ordination within Konsortium evaluated operations ZFD Phase 3 kFurther development of service unit kEuropeanization of concept und organization kIncorporation of service unit and Civil Peace Additional activity: warning and signalling function of Civil Peace Service Service training-programmes into a newly created ‘Training Centre for Peaceful Conflict Management’ kCo-ordination with a possible ‘Federal Foundation kFurther development of service unit into for Peace’or a ‘Foundation for Peace-building’ a ‘Foundation for Peace-building’with own kFurther development of Foreign-Ministry-sponsored funding capacities ‘Academy for International Peace Missions’into an ‘OSCE Academy’ Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation
  • 9. Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation 9o ardize its ‘interface’ function. One possible approach s In the second phase, lasting between three and five would be for two or three of the institutions that have years, there should be greater emphasis on the advisory built up relevant experience and are pooling their ef- and initiatory functions and on making contacts more forts within the framework of the ‘German Platform international. The role of the service unit as an ‘institu- for Peaceful Conflict Management’ to form a co-oper- tional memory’ should also be expanded. Where nec- ative association. essary, background analyses should be commissioned So that work can begin as soon as possible, the service and consultation mechanisms put into operation. Some unit should initially be financed primarily out of gov- kind of institutionally secured funds for activities in ernment funds. The funds could also be made directly this area would also be desirable. These should amount available by the German parliament, the Bundestag. In to a minimum of DM5 million per year. the medium term, a broader funding-basis should be s In the third phase, the service unit should go on to aimed at, encompassing all those who use the unit or assume warning and signalling functions and should derive benefit from its activities. This means primarily be systematically linked into the early-warning struc- civil society, business, and independent foundations. tures that will so far have been created within the We work on the assumption that the ‘Early-Warning framework of the EU. At the same time, studies should and Dialogue Unit’ can be developed in three phases be carried out to see how co-operation with the other (see also table ‘Development of an Infrastructure for bodies working for the peaceful prevention and man- Peaceful Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management agement of crisis might be optimized, and what role in Germany’): might be assigned here to a ‘Federal Foundation for s In the first phase (up to the end of 2000), the prime Peace’ or ‘Foundation for Peace-building’ (see box task should be to create the information basis for the ‘The Concept of ‘Service Units’and Its Further Devel- contact and interface function and to improve support opment’). for existing early-warning units and processes of dia- logue. The Concept of ‘Service Units’and Its Further Development We recommend that the infrastructure for crisis prevention and In the third phase of expansion of the infrastructure, a decision peaceful conflict management be expanded, both in state institu- should be taken as to which form of organization will perform the tions and in civil society. This must be done with due respect for relevant services most effectively and efficiently in the long term. the criteria of cost effectiveness, subsidiarity, task-sharing, and Account must be taken here of the institutionalization that is cur- learning from experience. The new infrastructure therefore needs rently in prospect in neighbouring areas of activity. This mainly organizational forms that help ensure these criteria are fulfilled. concerns the creation, now under discussion within the ambit of For reasons of operational efficiency, various services within the the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, of a ‘Federal Foun- three areas of infrastructure named by us should, in each case, be dation for Peace’ (Bundestiftung Frieden) designed to put support performed by a special unit. These services include: fostering of for peace and conflict research on a sound material footing. When contacts/networking/exchange; collating learning experiences the foundation is created, care should be taken to ensure that (institutional memory); quality assurance/training; and various support for early warning, for the evaluation of training projects special tasks in the particular area of operation. and conflict intervention, and for applied conflict research are ac- corded appropriate status. In the area of practical peace-building, We propose the creation of three ‘service units’ to fulfil these the creation of an independent ‘Foundation for Peace-building’ in functions. In terms of their organizing bodies, structure, and re- the form of a public-private partnership also suggests itself as a sourcing, they should be designed in such a way that, from their possibility, given that this would be the only way of securing the position at the interface between state and non-state actors, they considerable funds needed for setting up lasting peace constituen- are able to do justice to the needs of both sectors. Their creation cies.The ‘Peace-building and Networking Unit’ could be integrated should be gradual, and should be systematically geared to into this foundation. requirements in the three infrastructure areas. The actual form of organization should be worked out jointly by participants and In all the areas of activity, services should gradually be developed financial providers and should be checked and adjusted in the in line with the supply and demand situation at the European and light of the experiences that are gathered. Initially, four ‘starter’ international levels. Thus, it would seem sensible for any founda- forms are possible: first, association with, and second, integration tion for peace-building that is created to be opened up from the into, an existing body with a similar work-profile; thirdly, the outset to applications from peace constituencies in crisis regions. formation of an association of several existing bodies that would And in the case of the expansion of the public-private ‘Academy for provide the relevant services on a task-sharing basis; and fourthly, International Peace Missions’, the obvious course would seem to be the creation of a new body. to develop it further into an ‘OSCE Academy’, as a way of underpin- ning this organization’s weak substructures. Finally, it would seem sensible for the joint services in the training sector to be brought together, incorporating also the Civil Peace Service.
  • 10. u10 Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation Criteria for a Civil Peace Service For some years, there has been discussion as to how ies should exercise their responsibilities on a partnership a Civil Peace Service (Ziviler Friedensdienst—ZFD) basis, without giving precedence to any one participat- might aid conflict management in developing countries ing organization. The Konsortium Ziviler Friedens- and countries undergoing transformation. The current dienst—to which the Forum ZFD, the AGDF, and the deliberations about government support for these kinds Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Dienste (AgdD) belong—of- of initiatives were prompted by the coalition agreement fers a basic framework for this process of co-ordination. of October 1998, and the goals set out in this. Since then, 5. The Civil Peace Service can only become fully effec- there has been an intensive and sometimes factious de- tive if it is multilayered in structure. It derives much of bate about the form such a service should take. In our its legitimacy and scope for action from direct contacts view, the following criteria should be taken into consid- between different actors in civil society. For this reason, eration in any decision about this: its organizational management should not be left solely 1. At the core of the deliberations should be efforts to in the hands of a government institution; it should be en- support local pro-peace forces in crisis regions at the trusted to an institution composed of governmental and grass roots and at middle-ranking social leadership non-governmental providers, on a public-private part- level, through co-operation with trained individuals nership basis. Here again, the Konsortium Ziviler from abroad. This means sending individuals to work on Friedensdienst offers a basic framework. projects that have been developed in conjunction with 6. The efforts of the German Federal Ministry for Eco- partner organizations in these regions. nomic Co-operation and Development to integrate crisis 2. One particularly urgent task is for experienced devel- prevention and conflict management into its country opment personnel with regional knowledge to be pro- strategies are innovative and very much to be wel- vided with skills in crisis analysis and conflict manage- comed. They should be viewed as an important compo- ment and to be given ongoing training and back-up in nent in the work of the Civil Peace Service. That said, it their work. This task can be performed through a co-op- does not seem sensible to bind all the members of the erative arrangement between the five officially recog- Civil Peace Service to these country strategies as their nized development services (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Ent- sole frame of reference. Co-ordinated action is more wicklungshilfe, Dienste in Übersee, Eirene, Weltfrie- likely to be achieved here through intensive dialogue densdienst, and Christliche Fachkräfte) and the and task-sharing than through subsumption to govern- German Development Service (Deutscher Entwick- ment objectives. lungsdienst—DED). 7. For the pilot phase, it seems advisable initially to fo- 3. Beyond this, there is a special contribution that peace cus the format of the Civil Peace Service on a particular work can make—namely, support local forces in their geographical locus and/or a particular area of operation. activities, placing a special emphasis on civil-rights and This arrangement would offer the greatest possibility of reconciliation work. Most of the organizations working getting a range of people engaged in model activity in in this area are members of the Forum Ziviler Friedens- selected areas of conflict. dienst (Forum ZFD) and the Aktionsgemeinschaft The Civil Peace Service is a particularly visible instru- Dienst für den Frieden (Action Community Service for ment that can be used symbolically to demonstrate the Peace—AGDF). The work-profiles of these organiza- importance of peaceful approaches to conflict manage- tions have a number of points in common with emanci- ment. It should therefore be systematically developed in patory styles of development co-operation. However, to areas of activity that are particularly suited to it. But the seek to integrate the new potential entirely into the de- complex apparatus of peaceful conflict management velopment framework would be to misjudge it. Many of must not be reduced to the mere government-funded dis- the activities concerned must deliberately stay outside patch of personnel to the regions in question. There are the context of state institutions if they are to remain flex- other important schemes besides that of the Civil Peace ible, independent, and credible. Service: independent projects run by non-governmental 4. Given their many points in common, groups and in- organizations, by church bodies, and by independent stitutions working in development, peace, and human foundations working in the field of crisis prevention and rights ought to develop their training programmes in conflict transformation at various levels of society in re- close collaboration with one another, so that it is possi- gions of crisis. Because of their different approaches, ble to organize such programmes at short notice across there are good reasons for according all these initiatives the different providers. A special role can be played here importance and appropriate support. by the DED, the Forum ZFD, and the AGDF. These bod-
  • 11. Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation 11o III. Peace Constituencies and Civil Peace Service 1. The Significance of Internal 1. The creation of peace constituencies should aim to and External Actors promote models based on constructive conflict manage- ment, respect, fairness, balance of interests, and civic cul- One fatal consequence of many conflicts that are highly ture, rather than encouraging ‘sweetness and light’ solu- escalated and have either been pursued violently over a tions or exclusive approaches. lengthy period of time or have become ‘bogged down’, is the formation of internal milieus and structures whose 2. Support for peace constituencies should also encom- members have an interest in seeing the prevailing state of pass the establishment of the rule of law and ‘good affairs prolonged. These groups include: first and fore- governance’ at central-government level, and the democ- most the direct ‘winners’ of the militarized situation, in ratization of municipal and regional administrations. the army and the various militias; the ‘security services’ of various stamp; the dealers in, and producers of, arms; 3. The development and promotion of interest-groups of the political hard-liners; the beneficiaries of redistribu- multi-ethnic or multi-religious composition—be they tions of land, capital, and political posts. They all profit womens’, young peoples’, or professional associations, for at least as long as the advantages they derive do not trade unions, businesses, or human-rights NGOs—is of appear permanently assured. In a broader sense, this cate- crucial importance. Such groups should be supported in gory also includes those who profit from the war econ- their function as bridges—particularly by foreign part- omy. As a counter to these kinds of ‘war constituencies’, ners doing the same kind of work. we need to create and support ‘peace constituencies’—in other words, as extensive a network as possible of social 4. Forums and institutions in which conflicts can be dis- and political forces of all kinds that have an interest in cussed openly and dealt with jointly deserve particular at- crisis prevention and peaceful forms of conflict settle- tention. They should do more to incorporate experiences ment. from other crisis regions. Below the party-political/par- In deeply divided, shattered societies, forces working liamentary level, such bodies include: bi-communal ad- for peace need encouragement, support, and solidarity ministrative bodies; assemblies of ‘elders’; round tables from outside to be able to effect any change. To this on contentious topics; ombudspersons/-institutions; extent, the term ‘peace constituencies’ also implies net- peace commissions; and self-help groups and self-gov- working and co-operation with external actors. These ernment structures. include, for example, all development bodies and human- itarian NGOs that have some influence on how outside 5. Extensive resources should be fed into educational resources are distributed within a country. Such organ- and cultural projects and into the media sector (this izations should design their operations in a way that bol- should also be done by development organizations). This sters the indigenous peace constituencies. The group of area covers: the development of teaching materials for external partners also includes foreign human-rights conflict and peace education and the provision of appro- NGOs, who are able to secure a greater international re- priate further training for teachers via bilingual schemes sponse to abuses highlighted by indigenous experts. It of instruction; the organization of multi-ethnic festivals also includes foreign peace activists who provide protec- and forums; intercultural exchange; and, lastly, the decen- tion for, or accompany, persons in danger, and conflict- tralization and liberalization of media structures and the management NGOs, who strengthen the organizations on training of journalists in ways that sensitize them to con- the ground through programmes of further training or by flict-related themes. channelling resources to them. Lastly, external actors can be asked to promote accords through a whole variety of 6. Specialized NGOs that concentrate on reconciliation, third-party initiatives. In this context, a Civil Peace Ser- trauma, and rehabilitation and are largely financed from vice can make an important contribution to getting devel- abroad are becoming increasingly active in post-war situ- opment work oriented towards peace; it can also put its ations. When resources are allocated and strategic plans own particular slant on the prevention and transformation are drawn up for reconstruction and rehabilitation pro- of violent conflicts (see box ‘Criteria for a Civil Peace jects, greater importance should be attached to the syner- Service’). getic link-up of these measures and to their permanent in- tegration on the ground. 7. In some post-war societies, the strong involvement of 2. Ten Guide-lines for Supporting humanitarian organizations, development agencies, and ‘Peace Constituencies’ independent foundations has meant that, within a short space of time, a civil-society infrastructure with a consid- Practical experiences in the creation and linking-up of erable weight of its own vis-á-vis the state has emerged, peace-oriented forces operating in internal conflicts can along with a new middle class of professional NGO ac- be summed up in ten guide-lines. These guide-lines tivists. This extremely supply-oriented ‘NGO market’ should be borne in mind in performing the urgently needs to be transformed by being geared more strongly to needed task of opening up this area of activity. needs on the ground.
  • 12. u12 Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation 8. As well as larger, strategically planned projects run by from specially created budget-items in government de- professional NGOs using full-time paid personnel, there partments (financing function). should be equal emphasis on a multiplicity of commu- k Peace-building is only in its infancy. There needs to be nity-oriented grassroots micro-projects, preferably away systematic encouragement of studies on ‘lessons from urban centres. learned’ and ‘best practices’, and of the development of professional and ethical standards—for example, in the 9. In the course of their work, humanitarian assistance form of ‘codes of conduct’ (professionalization func- and development policy ought to favour structures that tion). promote understanding. These include reconstruction projects, educational schemes, and leisure facilities in which members of the opposing faction are accepted as fellow human-beings, which rebuild confidence, and Recommendation: which offer the opportunity of shared experiences across ethnic boundaries. We recommend that a ‘Peace-building and Network- ing Unit’ be created, to work as a ‘service unit’ on a 10. The practice that has prevailed up to now of granting subsidiarity basis. The unit should be independent of support for projects of two to three years’ duration should government but established on a public-private part- be replaced by a scheme of more long-term material sup- nership basis. In the short term, it could be set up port lasting from five to ten years. In order, at the same within an existing non-governmental institution that time, to counter the risks stemming from NGO milieus, has a similar work-profile and enjoys broad accep- with their artificial basis and tendency to self-compla- tance, and it could later be developed into a separate cency, a culture of regular evaluation, self-reflection, and body. To begin with, the resources for this should come willingness to learn needs to be developed. mainly from the federal budget. In the medium term, however, efforts should be made to secure a broader fi- nancial basis involving civil society, independent foundations, and business. We propose a three-phase model for the unit’s creation: 3. ‘Peace-building and Networking Unit’ s In the first phase (up to 2000), the prime tasks will The initiation and promotion of peace constituencies be to process information, set up working contacts, should become a prime task for governmental and non- pass on experiences, and link into the international governmental actors concerned with crisis prevention and ‘state of the art’. By the end of this phase, needs and constructive conflict management in developing coun- existing resources in this area should have been identi- tries and countries undergoing transformation. For Civil fied (directory and survey function). Peace Service too, a crucial challenge poses itself here. In s On the basis of this, work should then begin, in a order to achieve the objective cited, there needs to be a second phase of 3 to 5 years, on the clearing-house and considerable degree of co-ordination, and a whole variety professionalization functions. In addition, information of resources need to be mobilized. A lot of groundwork should be made available about funding options pro- has already been done here by the German Platform for vided by other institutions. Peaceful Conflict Management. But the process needs to s In the third phase, the aim will be to set the funding be intensified, and should be monitored and supported by for peace constituencies on a sound footing. This will a ‘Peace-building and Networking Unit’. Four areas need involve, firstly, the creation of funds for selected areas to be taken into consideration here: of work and regions of crisis inadequately covered by k Steps need to be taken to identify those individuals and other bodies, and, secondly, the carefully directed use organizations who have skills and experience in crisis of resources to marshal forces in acute situations of cri- prevention and conflict management and also to find sis. These funds should contain a minimum of DM25 out what activities they are currently performing in million to DM30 million. One form of organization which regions of the world. This information should be that might be used to fulfil this function is a ‘Founda- made easily and immediately accessible, so that it can tion for Peace-building’. be used for early action. It will also help identify and rectify shortcomings on the supply-side (directory and survey function). k So that this information reaches the correct targets, so that queries can be dealt with and passed on, so that pro- posals can be co-ordinated, and so that the whole work- ing domain of peace constituencies is effectively repre- sented to the outside world, appropriate interface func- tions have to be performed (clearing-house function). k Material support for peace constituencies should be significantly increased. There ought to be transparent procedures for its allocation and it ought to come from a variety of sources—from development co-operation, humanitarian assistance, project-monies from independent foundations and other funding bodies, and
  • 13. Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation 13o IV. Training and Expert Pools Of crucial importance in crisis prevention and peaceful k German foreign policy should not just react to immedi- conflict management is the ‘human factor’. We therefore ate demands; it should also identify areas that have propose the creation of pools of experts and the promo- been neglected in previous missions and in which it tion of training for various tasks such as: international would like to introduce its own emphases. Tasks partic- missions (fact-finding, verification of peace-agreements, ularly suited to this are human-rights monitoring and election observation, etc.); development co-operation and support for the creation of structures based on the rule humanitarian assistance; peace work and human-rights of law. work. Recommendation: 1. Training for UN and OSCE Missions, Linking in with previous training experiences at na- Election Observation, and tional and international level, we suggest three guide- Human-Rights Monitoring lines for training in the fields of election observation, international missions, and human-rights monitoring: Over the last few years, it has become clear that there is a s Courses should have a multinational composition great need for qualified personnel for election observa- and be conducted in co-operation with foreign training tion and international peace missions operating under the bodies. This would mean that, right from the training aegis of the United Nations and the OSCE. In Germany, stage, intercultural competence would be strengthened there is a lack of trained personnel, and preparation for the and there would be scope for practical application. relevant operations is inadequate. This became particu- Training schemes developed in Germany should also larly clear during the search for suitable members for the involve indigenous specialists from the crisis regions. OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission (KVM) in autumn There should be some tie-in with relevant experiences 1998. As far as German foreign policy is concerned, three from the pilot project ‘Training in Peaceful Conflict areas can be discerned in which action is required: Management’ begun in 1997 in North Rhine-West- k First, there must be an improvement both in training for phalia. Also of relevance here is the observation that specific operations and in preparation for work in es- gender parity in course composition is conducive to tablished fields of action. One important area of activ- successful learning. ity in which assistance is frequently requested is elec- s The evaluation of training programmes and the toral observation and support. Up to now, election ob- process of testing them out in practice should be con- servers have generally only been provided with the ducted by independent institutions that are not also act- most basic of information—sometimes already out of ing as consultative bodies for the training providers. date—within the framework of very short courses run s The training must satisfy government demand for immediately before their departure. What is more, there personnel for international missions, but it should not is no attempt to convey specific knowledge about what be in a form too closely linked to government. In order can be done to prevent elections being manipulated. to ensure that the expertise and potential of civil soci- Co-ordination between observers from different coun- ety is not merely used selectively as a resource, but in- tries also urgently needs to be improved. Poor observa- tegrated fully into training, the provision and organiza- tion and appraisal of elections can play a part in bring- tion of the training should be structured from the outset ing elections in general, and the instrument of interna- as a public-private partnership. This also opens up tional election observation in particular, into disrepute. greater possibilities as regards recruitment of partici- Against this background, practical experience needs to pants for these kinds of training courses. be constantly reworked through external evaluation and processes of dialogue, and needs to be systemati- cally fed into the preparatory procedures for new mis- sions. k Secondly, staff must be trained for a host of different 2. Specialist Personnel for Development tasks associated with conflict management in multi-di- Co-operation, Humanitarian Assistance, mensional, long-term operations. As well as general and Peace and Human-Rights Work knowledge about the overall remit, rules of conduct, and legal framework for these operations, those in- Organizations working in the field of development co-op- volved need specific kinds of knowledge (for example, eration and humanitarian assistance are increasingly rec- that required for verifying agreements or for fact-find- ognizing the need to familiarize their specialist personnel ing). In addition, special communication skills need to in a more thoroughgoing way with local structures of con- be acquired for building bridges both between the vari- flict, to sensitize them to possibilities of conflict transfor- ous milieus and with local organizations and individu- mation, and to encourage them to engage in reflection als. This is the only way to get the activities of govern- about the effects of their own actions. In addition, it has mental, multilateral, and non-governmental organiza- become clear that the everyday work of specialist staff in tions intermeshed with one another. development co-operation and humanitarian assistance
  • 14. u14 Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation often also involves tasks related to human-rights monitor- isting bodies that prepare police and members of the Ger- ing, the promotion of democracy, and mediation in situa- man army for UN and OSCE missions; and the ‘Human tions of conflict. In order to do justice to these complex Rights and Democratization’ course at the University of requirements in the design and conduct of projects, spe- Bochum. cialist staff need specific preparation of a kind that the Because of the different training requirements—par- providers in this area have so far not made available in ticularly the difference between short programmes lasting sufficient measure. two to three weeks and long programmes lasting three to Moreover, many NGOs from the peace-work domain six months—the way the various programmes are inter- are now active in regions of conflict. The range of their meshed should be flexible. A sensible basis for an inter- activities is very broad: dissemination of information and changeable, transparent, multi-provider training set-up is encouragement of a critical public opinion; provision of to have clearly defined training modules that are recog- humanitarian, psycho-social, and medical care to war vic- nized by all parties and can be combined with one an- tims; support for deserters and conscientious objectors; other. In the short term, it would seem sensible to distin- observation and documentation of war crimes and hu- guish three categories here: introductory courses provid- man-rights violations; protection and accompaniment of ing basic knowledge; continuation courses providing persons in danger; support for communication and en- knowledge and skills for special requirements; and, fi- counter between people from opposing parties of con- nally, preparatory courses tailored to tasks in actual im- flicts; training sessions in youth, education, and cultural pending missions and regions. work, for the purposes of empowerment and political To ensure generally improved and co-ordinated plu- conscientization. Some focus on the role of the ‘neutral’ ralistic training and a systematic professionalization of or impartial third mediator; others see it as their task to individuals active in these areas, we believe that, at least empower disadvantaged parties to identify their interests in the medium term, a ‘Training and Expert Pools Unit’ is and develop options for action against exclusion and dis- needed. This would perform four functions: crimination. Women regularly number amongst the most k Co-ordinating the various modules and curricula of the disadvantaged persons in crisis regions. In many cases, different training providers, taking special account of this is true even within the structures of the local and in- international experiences (co-ordinating function). ternational organizations working on the ground. Care k Identifying and further developing training standards; must therefore be taken to ensure gender training is in- promoting the evaluation of training programmes; or- cluded in preparatory measures. ganizing the further training of trainers; providing In line with the idea of peace constituencies as de- trainers (further training function). scribed above, one of the central tasks of external special- k Supporting trained specialists through supervision pro- ists is to provide comprehensive back-up to local forces in grammes (supervision function). their work. Ways in which this can be done include, for k Creating a data bank of qualified persons across the example, supporting the formation of networks on the whole spectrum of activities of international missions ground, fostering and supporting processes of self-reflec- and of development, peace, human rights, and humani- tion and strategy development, passing on information tarian assistance; the data-bank must have clear rules about options for further training and options for learning for use that make it readily accessible to bodies that or- from the experiences gathered in other regions of crisis. ganize training or dispatch staff to other countries (ex- pert-pool function). 3. ‘Training and Expert Pools Unit’ The boundaries between the requirements for multilateral missions, humanitarian assistance, and work on develop- ment, peace, and human-rights are fluid. There are there- fore good grounds for intermeshing the training pro- grammes of different providers and for training personnel on a cross-provider basis. It makes sense to link into the experiences of existing organizations working at home and abroad. Such organizations include, for example, the International Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding Training Program (IPT), based in Schlaining in Austria, and the Responding to Conflict group in Britain. Examples in Germany include: those member-organizations of the German Platform for Peaceful Conflict Management who belong to its training discussion-group (Forum Ziviler Friedensdienst, Ökumenischer Dienst, Kurve Wustrow, Bund für Soziale Verteidigung, Modellvorhaben NRW, Werkstatt für gewaltfreie Aktion, Deutsche Evangelische Erwachsenenbildung); the members of the Action Com- munity Service for Peace (AGDF); the German Develop- ment Service (DED); the Technisches Hilfswerk; the ex-
  • 15. Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation 15o Recommendation: As in the other areas of activity, the infrastructure in ing institution that has acquired the relevant expertise, the area of specialist personnel should be developed has good contacts with training establishments at along three phases: home and abroad, and is perceived as an ‘honest bro- s In the first phase (up to 2000), existing training ap- ker’ at the interface between governmental and non- proaches in peace and human-rights work ought to be governmental actors. The necessary funds could be consolidated. In the field of development co-operation provided by state institutions and by the sponsors of and humanitarian assistance, options for further train- the existing training establishments. The training ing in conflict management should be created for expe- funded by the German Foreign Ministry could, in this rienced specialist personnel. A minimum of DM10 phase, be developed into an ‘Academy for Interna- million is required for this. In addition, the German tional Peace Missions’, to be set up jointly by govern- Foreign Ministry should join with experienced civil- mental and civil-society institutions. society organizations to set up a public-private pilot s In the third phase, an investigation should be car- project for training specialized staff for international ried out to see whether the ‘Training and Expert Pools missions. Unit’ and the Civil Peace Service training programme s In the second phase, lasting three to five years, should be combined into a new ‘Training Centre for there should, firstly, be a marked increase in the pro- Peaceful Conflict Management’. This institute should portion of foreign participants in the various training be a joint project of various governmental and non- courses. Secondly, the work of the various providers governmental institutions and should contain a strong should be made mutually transparent and should be co- international component. In parallel, the ‘Academy for ordinated. To perform this function, and also to per- International Peace Missions’ supported by the For- form the further-training, supervision, and expert-pool eign Ministry could be further developed into an functions, we propose the creation of a ‘Training and ‘OSCE Academy’. Expert Pools Unit’. This could be attached to an exist- V. The Next Steps In creating an ‘infrastructure for crisis prevention and k The ministries that deal with crisis prevention and con- peaceful conflict management’, Germany actors should flict management are called upon to involve civil-soci- gear themselves to the standards developed by the Anglo- ety experts and the foreign-policy experts from the Ger- Saxon and Scandinavian countries that have experience man Bundestag (members of parliament and their staff) in this area. But a German foreign-policy of civil bent to a greater extent in the elaboration of their plans. The must also have its own distinct emphases. To achieve this first steps that have been taken towards a dialogue be- requires a concerted effort by governmental and non-gov- tween the state and civil society are welcome and ernmental actors: should now be extended to practical fields of action and k The members of the German Bundestag are called upon work. to make the necessary funds available and to pass the k NGOs and academic institutions working in the area of laws needed to improve the framework conditions for peace policy should mesh together to a greater extent peaceful conflict management. In addition, parliament than previously to form practically oriented forums, should play an active role in shaping the new institu- and should organize more intensive exchanges of expe- tional infrastructure and should ensure that its compe- rience, in order to plug gaps in information, co-ordinate tences in regard to participation and control are pre- their strategies for action in particular crisis regions, served. and be able to enter more effectively into dialogue with k The German government is called upon to view crisis government actors. prevention and peaceful conflict management as a k The political parties are called upon to supply parlia- cross-sectoral task, and to create the political, institu- ment and government to a greater extent than previ- tional, and financial preconditions for its effective im- ously with expertise in the foreign-policy, security, and plementation. A scheme of co-ordination between the development domains, and to press for the speedy cre- ministries dealing with foreign policy and international ation of an effective infrastructure for peaceful conflict relations must be set in train. The German government management. should create a fund to offset the imbalance between current expenditure on military crisis-intervention and peaceful approaches to conflict management. Appro- priate draft budgets should be presented to parliament.
  • 16. Policy Paper 12 of the Development and Peace Foundation Authors: Tobias Debiel, Research Fellow at the Development and Peace Foundation in Bonn Dr. Martina Fischer, Senior Researcher at the Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management in Berlin Prof. Dr.Volker Matthies, Professor at the Institute for Political Science at the University of Hamburg Dr. Norbert Ropers,Director of the Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management in Berlin Co-signatories: Prof. Dr. Jörg Calließ, Director of Studies at the Protestant Academy of Loccum, Professor at the Technical University of Braunschweig Christine M. Merkel, Founding Vice-President of the international NGO Study Centre “El Taller” in Tunis, Head of Education Devision, German UNESCO Com- mission in Bonn Prof. Dr. Dieter Senghaas, University of Bremen, Chairman of the Advisory Board of the Development and Peace Foundation and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Berghof Foundation for Conflict Research The Development and Peace Foundation was founded in 1986 as a non-profit- making, cross-party organization. Its founding chairman was Willy Brandt. The work of the Foundation is based on three principles—global responsibility, an interdisciplinary perspective, and cross-party dialogue—as vouched for by the leading figures who chair the Foundation’s various forums: former Minister-Presi- dent of North-Rhine Westphalia, Dr Johannes Rau, chairs the Foundation’s Board of Trustees; the Deputy Chairmen are Professor Kurt H. Biedenkopf, Minister- President of the Free State of Saxony, Eberhard Diepgen, Governing Mayor of Berlin, and Dr Manfred Stolpe, Minister-President of Brandenburg. The Founda- tion’s Executive Committee is headed by Secretary of State Volker Kähne of the Berlin Senate Office, assisted by former Secretary of State Dr Klaus Dieter Leister and Professor Franz Nuscheler. The chairman of the Advisory Board is Professor Dieter Senghaas. The Executive Director is Dr Burkhard Könitzer. The Policy Paper series publishes the views of noted experts on urgent issues in Published by: world development. This is one of several ways in which the Development and Development and Peace Peace Foundation seeks to participate actively in the political debate about global Foundation/ issues, and to provide recommendations for political action. Policy Papers are oc- Stiftung Entwicklung casional publications. und Frieden (SEF) Gotenstr. 152 Selected Policy Paper titles D-53175 Bonn (Published both English and German unless otherwise stated. Current issue price DM 5.00) Tel.: (+49-228) 9 59 25-0 Fax: (+49-228) 9 59 25-99 11 Media Competence in the Age of Global Communication. In Search of a e-mail: Political Framework for the European Information Society, sef@bicc.uni-bonn.de Bernd-Peter Lange, March 1999 Website: http://bicc.uni-bonn.de/sef- 10 Getting Human Rights Enforced! Calls to Action on the 50th Anniversary english of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Hans-Joachim Heintze, November 1998 Editor: Tobias Debiel 9 A World Environment and Development Organization. Functions, Translated by Opportunities, Issues, Frank Biermann and Udo E. Simonis, June 1998 Margaret Clarke 8 From Nuremberg to Rome. Towards an International Criminial Court, ISSN 1437-2819 Benjamin B. Ferencz, May 1998 © Stiftung Entwicklung 7 Peace through Sanctions. Recommendations for German UN Policy, und Frieden Manfred Kulessa and Dorothee Starck, December 1997 June 1999 The views presented are not necessarily those of the publisher.