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  • Key leadership begins at the top Plan for the consequences - not for the crisis!
  • Prevention/Mitigation : Decrease the likelihood that emergencies will occur and the take steps to minimize loss of life, harm and property damage Preparedness : defined in the next slide Response : Execute the Emergency Operations Plan, including ICS, ensure student care, resource management, and effective communications Recovery : Restore the learning environment; Monitor and assist the healing (emotional triage, Psychological First Aid, etc,.)
  • Results from Hazard/Vulnerability assessments and other steps taken in the prevention/mitigation phase inform the steps to be taken in the Preparedness Phase. Much of this phase is about: Location location location… and relationships, relationships relationships If we don't do this phase well, the next 2 are unlikely to go well either. Then the stakes are very high.
  • These components are central to success in the preparedness phase and beyond. This is the phase that give us solid, best effort/good faith track record to stand on should we need to defend our policies and decisions in the response and recovery phases.
  • Relationships, relationships, relationships Depending on how we approach this phase, we can generate a lot of good student, parent, and community support for our safety initiatives and emergency management strategies.
  • We must not forget to have procedures that address off-site issues (field trips, away games etc) And The fact that members of the public, including adults with special needs, may be using school facilities when an emergency occurs. Communicating and coordinating these procedures with first response agencies (police, fire, EMS etc) is key.
  • Parent - child reunification plan and supplies to execute plan Emergency contact information (#s etc)
  • High visibility vests work too. These are important "props" that help maintain group control Other ideas depending on location/resources: Communication devices ($$) Class signage to help organize the student care area Garbage bags (cheap moderately effective rain suit and/or a space blanket or two Small pack for supplies etc.,.
  • Talking Points: Schools may want to consider joining their local emergency planning council (LEPC) or other similar local planning group. Schools should also be fully aware of any public or non-profit agency's plans to use the school as a facility (e.g. mass inoculation / shelter).
  • Three deep line of succession for most key roles in the ICS is ideal. Record keeping is key for tracking decisions, expenses, overtime and other critical issues and can help with reimbursements and minimizing stress on staff.
  • Talking Notes: One perspective is to see ICS as the common point through which schools, emergency response agencies, parents, media etc., Utilize resources, manage student/staff care, direct response, share information etc. ICS links the needs of all of these groups and provides a framework by which solutions are implemented or delivered.
  • NIMS requires that all responses to domestic incidents utilize a common management structure, the Incident Command System. ICS represents organizational "best practices" and has become the standard for incident management across the country. Understanding ICS helps build the cultural bridge between schools and emergency response agencies. You say tomato,.. I say tomaaato. It helps get us on the same page, speaking the same language. FEAR NOT - Your school probably is already modeling a process similar to ICS. You already respond to emergencies in a way similar to ICS. Tweaking your crisis response team structure slightly may change it into ICS, help you meet NIMS, and improve coordination with emergency response agencies.
  • ICS has several features that make it well suited for managing crises. ICS is interdisciplinary and organizationally flexible to meet the needs of incidents of any kind, size or level of complexity. Using ICS, personnel from a variety of agencies can meld rapidly into a common management structure. ICS helps all responders communicate and get what they need when they need it. ICS prescribes that there is one person in charge of an incident. This is the Incident Commander. Maintaining adequate span of control is the ICS structure is critical. Effective span of control may vary from three to seven, and a ratio of one supervisor to five subordinates. Use of common terminology is a critical element in ICS
  • ICS has several features that make it well suited for managing crises. ICS is interdisciplinary and organizationally flexible to meet the needs of incidents of any kind, size or level of complexity. Using ICS, personnel from a variety of agencies can meld rapidly into a common management structure. ICS helps all responders communicate and get what they need when they need it.
  • Ultimate command during an incident resides with the Incident Commander and Incident Command Team. The command team includes positions for key activities that are not covered in the General Staff functional roles. The Public Information Officer, also known as a PIO, is responsible for interfacing with the public and media and/or other agencies with incident-related information. The PIO develops accurate and complete information on the incident's cause, size, and current situation. The IC must approve the release of all incident-related information. The Safety Officer monitors incident operations and advises the IC on all matters relating to operational safety, including the health and safety of school staff and students and/or emergency responder personnel. The Liaison Officer is the point of contract for representatives of other agencies involved in an emergency. When a school-related incident involves outside agencies as the IC, the School Liaison is typically the district superintendent or school principal—ensuring that schools are represented on the IC Team is critical. Must be done in advance in coordination with community first responders. The Operations Section is responsible for all activities focused on reduction of the immediate hazard, saving lives and property and restoration of normal operations. The Planning Section collects, evaluates, and disseminates incident situation information and intelligence to the IC. The Logistics Section is responsible for all support requirements needed to facilitate effective and efficient emergency management, including ordering resources (supplies), equipment, food services, medical services (including inoculations). A Finance/Administration section is established when the incident involves finance and other support services. Not all incidents will require the Finance/Administrative Section.
  • Talking Notes: You may have a Liaison Officer and a School Liaison Officer as described in the previous slide.
  • Talking Point: The role of incident commander may transition from the school/school district to a first responder depending the nature of the incident. This is an important lesson to convey to school staff so that they understand the transition of command from one person to another. The principal then becomes part of the Incident Command Staff
  • Notice that not all four functional branches were deployed in this incident. There was no need to establish the Finance/Administration branch.
  • Careful consideration should be given not only to assigning staff to ICS roles based on skill sets and with thought of their authority - but you also need to consider personality type. An emergency or crisis is not a typical day. Who responds well under pressure? Does someone become OCD on details but they are good with numbers? Assign them to finance/admin. Part of ICS is streamlining responsibilities - creating a " manageable sphere of control " School teachers/officials are multi-task masters , it is how they survive each day. Yet in a crisis situation, we want to minimize the tendency toward becoming multi-task maniacs . A robust, well thought out ICS structure gives people specific tasks to they can perform those tasks well, in control. If we multi-task too much in an emergency, people and property will be at risk.
  • Talking Point: Talking Point: Remember - the media can be a great asset in an emergency if you trust them, and they trust you, and you know how to work together. JoAnn Jordan said: The media are like alligators, you don't like them, but you do need to feed them regularly. If, God forbid, an event takes on national importance and national media come on scene, hang on. All bets are off.
  • Talking Point: Communication with parents should take into consideration the special needs of parents including language and physical challenges, such as hearing impairment. For those parents whose students have IEPs (Individualized Education Plans) and/or special needs, schools should pay careful attention to communicating with parents in advance about the schools emergency procedures and how these procedures are responsive to the needs of these students. Schools should consider involving such parents in collaboration for solutions to unique issues in this arena.
  • This map serves as an example of one way you could lay out your "site" Of course this is highly dependent to the location and the type of emergency: Qs for audience: Why are the locations designated the way they are? PIO = we want media away from the scene, in a space that can be controlled, but in a place where they can still get some "distance" shots of the action. Treatment / Triage Area = accessible by vehicle/ambulance via parking lot Command Post = near most of the action but quickly accessible to response agencies arriving Staging Area = close to Command Post but not interfering Student Assembly area = out of view of arriving parents (who will run there if they can see their students) and out of view of the triage area (in order to decrease anxiety) Parent Check in = convenient, hopefully reasonable traffic flow, but not in direct view of student area Reunion Area = far enough away from check in so that parents burn some energy getting there, thus buying staff/runners time to go collect the students. Reunion area ideally staffed with some counselors and private areas.
  • Table Tops should be stress free Functional exercises up the ante but are far from a full scale. A full scale can be a significant undertaking but is priceless as a learning opportunity. "After-Action Reviews" are critical in processing the event and learning from one another. In order to be most effective, Tabletops, functional exercises, and full-scale exercises should incorporate emergency response agencies. Similarly, the capacity of these agencies should be tested - not only the schools. These should be just as much a learning exercise for the agencies as they are for the schools. We all have a lot to learn from one another.
  • Talking Point: Remember to drill under different conditions; create barriers and challenges for participants to test ability to react and adapt.
  • Initial reactions only Solicit quick decisions / response All suggestions valid and respected
  • Has the district office been called? Is ICS activated? Who is incident commander? What about the traumatized visitor? What about the victim's younger brother? Are students on their cell phones calling home?
  • Are teachers reporting back their class accountability / status? How much information should / can be given to teachers at this time? Who is doing this? When police arrived - did the IC change? Did a briefing occur? How? What kind of info shared?
  • Examples from schools who experienced cluster suicides: Millard Public Schools, NE Annette Island, AK Sealey Independent, TX Pojoaque Valley, NM Fresno Unified, CA
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    1. 1. Preparedness Emergency Management for Schools training February 22, 2007, Philadelphia, PA Julie Collins Operations and Management Consultant Manager Florida Department of Education Matt Taylor Associate Director, University of Montana Montana Safe Schools Center U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools 400 Maryland Avenue, SW / Washington, DC 20202
    2. 2. Overview of Session <ul><li>Define the Preparedness Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key components of Preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss emergency procedures and emergency plans </li></ul><ul><li>Review Incident Command System </li></ul><ul><li>Review coordination and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss training and exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Practice a tabletop activity </li></ul>
    3. 3. Key Messages <ul><li>The Preparedness Phase includes coordinating effective plans with community partners </li></ul><ul><li>Plans must address multiple hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying roles and responsibilities in advance is critical--Incident Command System </li></ul><ul><li>Developing communication plans in advance--consider staff, parent/guardian, and media needs </li></ul><ul><li>Training all staff and students on emergency plans and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Using exercises to identify gaps and weaknesses in plans and to reinforce training </li></ul>
    4. 4. Phases of Emergency Management Prevention-Mitigation Preparedness Response Recovery
    5. 5. What is the Preparedness Phase? <ul><li>The Preparedness phase is designed to prepare the school community for potential emergencies by coordinating with community partners through the development of policies and protocols, incident command systems, training, and exercises </li></ul><ul><li>The Preparedness phase links to the phases of emergency management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention-Mitigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GOAL: Facilitate a rapid, coordinated, and effective </li></ul><ul><li>response in the event of an emergency </li></ul>
    6. 6. Preparedness: Key Components <ul><li>Identifying needs and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing crisis policies, procedures, and plans </li></ul><ul><li>Developing crisis response structure (Incident Command System) </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying roles and responsibilities, including lines of authority and emergency priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating communication </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting exercises </li></ul>
    7. 7. Emergency Management Plan Development <ul><li>Incorporate data from vulnerability assessment conducted during Prevention-Mitigation phase </li></ul><ul><li>Identify gaps and weaknesses in current plans </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate all four phases into emergency plans </li></ul><ul><li>Involve community stakeholders (fire, law enforcement, public health, mental health, local government, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate emergency plans with state and local plans </li></ul>
    8. 8. Emergency Management Plan Development <ul><li>Elements to be addressed in an emergency management plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis response policies and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command and control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent reunification plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency equipment (i.e., &quot;Go-Kits&quot;, first aid supplies) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Emergency Management Plan Development <ul><li>Plans should address multiple hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Plans need to include emergency procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lockdown: Use when there is an immediate threat of violence in, or immediately around, the school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evacuation: Use when locations outside of the school are safer than inside the school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter-in-place: Use when students and staff must remain indoors for a period of time for such events such as chemical, biological, and radiological incidents or terrorist attack </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergency procedures need to incorporate procedures for individuals with special needs </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and acquire emergency supplies or &quot;Go-Kits&quot; </li></ul>
    10. 10. Sample Go Kit List: Administration <ul><li>Clipboard with lists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students with special needs and description of needs (i.e. medical issues, prescription medicines, dietary needs), marked confidential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School emergency procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident Commander checklist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whistle and hat for leadership identification </li></ul><ul><li>Flashlight (shake model) </li></ul><ul><li>Utility turnoff procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency communication device </li></ul><ul><li>First aid kit with instructions </li></ul>
    11. 11. Sample Go-Kit List: Classroom <ul><li>Clipboard with lists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students with special needs and description of needs (i.e. medical issues, prescription medicines, dietary needs), marked confidential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School emergency procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Buddy Teachers&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whistle and hat for teacher identification </li></ul><ul><li>First aid kit with instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Student activities (such as playing cards, checkers, inflatable ball) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Command and Coordination <ul><li>Pre-incident planning with community partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop memorandum of understanding (MOUs) or mutual aid agreements with community partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate with state and local emergency management agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share information with first responders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School District/School Incident Command System (ICS) Teams and key contacts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School District/School emergency management plans and procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building floor plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evacuation locations and routes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information about community hazards </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Command and Coordination <ul><li>Business Continuity Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Succession planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record retention and safe-keeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-negotiated contracts </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Incident Command System <ul><li>Incident Command System (ICS) is a management system designed to enable effective and efficient domestic incident management by integrating a combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures and communications operating within a common organizational structure. </li></ul><ul><li>ICS is organized around five functional areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistics, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance / administration. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. ICS: Background <ul><li>Developed over 30 years ago in the aftermath of catastrophic wildfires in California </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous agencies responded to the fires with little coordination or communication </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, Congress directed the U.S. Forest Service to improve the effectiveness of interagency coordination </li></ul><ul><li>By mid-1970s, the U.S. Forest Service and several California agencies developed and field tested the Incident Command System </li></ul><ul><li>By 1981, ICS used widely in Southern California in response to fire and non-fire incidents </li></ul><ul><li>In March 2004, ICS was included as a mandate in the National Incident Management System </li></ul>
    17. 17. ICS: Principles <ul><li>Emergencies require certain tasks or functions to be performed </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of the incident determines level of activation and response </li></ul><ul><li>Expandable and collapsible </li></ul><ul><li>One incident commander: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May vary for different types of incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May change during incident response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident command responsibility should be determined in advance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clear, pre-determined reporting lines </li></ul><ul><li>Span of supervisory control does not exceed 3-7 subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Uses common terminology </li></ul>
    18. 18. ICS: Common Terminology <ul><li>Ability to communicate in a crisis is essential </li></ul><ul><li>ICS requires use of common terminology including standard titles for facilities and positions </li></ul><ul><li>ICS uses plain English, not codes </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncommon Terminology &quot;Response Branch, this is HazMat1. We are 10-24&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Terminology &quot;Response Branch, this is HazMat1. We have completed our assignment&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncommon Terminology &quot;Teachers and students, this is a Code Yellow&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Terminology &quot;Teachers and students, this is a lock-down&quot; </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. ICS Common Terminology <ul><li>Incident Command Post is the location from where the Incident Commander (IC) oversees all incident operations. Only one ICP is created (regardless of whether there is a single or unified structure). </li></ul><ul><li>Staging Areas are temporary locations at an incident where personnel and resources await tactical assignments. Resources (human and otherwise) in this area are always readily available. </li></ul><ul><li>A Base is the location where logistical operations are coordinated. This may be part of the command post. Resources at the Base are out-of-service and not to be used elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>All &quot;resources&quot; must check into the Base or Staging Area. </li></ul>
    20. 20. ICS: Roles <ul><li>Incident Commander </li></ul><ul><li>Incident Command Staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Information Officer (PIO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Officer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liaison Officer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School Liaison </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations Section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning Section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistics Section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance/Administration Section </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. ICS: Roles Safety Officer Liaison Officer Public Information Officer Finance & Administration Logistics Planning Incident Commander Operations
    22. 22. ICS: Scenario <ul><li>A student reports to a teacher that he witnessed another student carrying a weapon. </li></ul>
    23. 23. ICS: Activation Teacher = Incident Commander The teacher reports the incident to the principal. The principal determines the nature of the emergency and decides to activate the Incident Command System. He or she becomes the Incident Commander. At the moment the student reports the issue, the teachers is the Incident Commander. Principal = Incident Commander
    24. 24. ICS: Scalability <ul><li>The principal places the school in lockdown and calls 911 and the district office. The police arrive on the scene and the officer in charge takes over as the Incident Commander. The principal assists the police response. </li></ul>Police Officer = Incident Commander Principal = Unified Command Staff
    25. 25. ICS: Scalability <ul><li>The Incident Commander designates another police officer as the Operations Section Chief, who in turn assembles a strike team to locate the student with the weapon. </li></ul><ul><li>While the school is in lockdown, a student suffers an asthma attack. The teacher must render aid until the school nurse can assist. </li></ul>Incident Commander (Police Officer) Unified Command Staff (Principal and key staff) Operations Police Strike Team School Nurse
    26. 26. ICS: Scalability <ul><li>Since the duration of the incident may be prolonged, the Incident Commander activates the assistant principal as Planning Section Chief to plan for possible scenarios with regard to student care and long-term needs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Incident Commander requests that the school's Information Officer prepare a statement for the media. </li></ul>Incident Commander (Police Officer) Unified Command Staff (Principal and key staff) Public Information Officer Planning Operations Police Strike Team School Nurse
    27. 27. ICS: Scalability <ul><li>The police investigate the incident and arrest the student. The school is closed for the day to complete the investigation. Parents are notified that students will be evacuated to a local elementary school to be picked up. </li></ul>Incident Commander (Police Officer) Unified Command Staff (Principal and key staff) Public Information Officer Logistics Transportation Planning Operations Police Strike Team School Nurse Reunification Team
    28. 28. Sample School Based ICS Public Information Officer Liaison Officer Safety Officer Student Supervision Search and Rescue Health Services/First Aid Operations Facility and Materials Documentation/Recorder Planning Food Services Transportation Logistics Personnel Insurance Claims Finance & Administration Incident Commander and Incident Command Team Student/Parent Reunification
    29. 29. Establishing an ICS <ul><li>Assess staff skills </li></ul><ul><li>Create lines of succession/ backups for all key positions </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key roles to be carried out </li></ul><ul><li>Identify staff for ICS Team to address each key function </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate with community partners to identify roles and lines of responsibility in the event of an emergency </li></ul>
    30. 30. Communication Considerations <ul><li>Public information is critical to emergency management </li></ul><ul><li>It is critical to establish protocols for communicating timely and consistent information to the public during emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Develop communication protocols in advance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop agreements with community agencies about the release of information and designation of the PIO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop template letters that can be used in a crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication considerations should include parents/guardians, school staff, and the media </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Communication Considerations: Parents <ul><li>Provide information on emergency response procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reunification procedures: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly articulate parent expectations (i.e., bring photo id, students released to parent/guardian or other pre-authorized emergency contact, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translate information as necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency notification systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify media partners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School webpage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic phone/email notification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate redundancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Update parent and emergency contact information periodically </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize importance of family preparedness </li></ul>
    32. 32. Communication Considerations: School Staff <ul><li>Use plain language to communicate during an emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Establish system to verify information before responding </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a system for staff and student accountability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for up-to-date class rosters and student emergency information: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information on medical conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Custody issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a plan to identify students who are not accounted for </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop a plan and training for substitutes </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a plan for building visitors </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a communication plan for lock-down situations </li></ul><ul><li>Consider emergency plans for after-school activities (i.e., sporting events, dances, graduations, etc.) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Communication Considerations: Media <ul><li>Assign a trained Public Information Officer to handle media inquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Identify media staging areas </li></ul><ul><li>Establish policies and procedures for dealing with media requests/inquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate media releases with community partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that messages are consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that information released is consistent with state and Federal privacy laws (i.e., FERPA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limit media exposure to students </li></ul>
    34. 34. - School Bldg A Command Post Treatment Area Student Assembly Area Parking Lot Parent/student reunion Reunion Staging/ Storage Check in Bldg B PIO Base Sample Site Layout
    35. 35. Training and Exercises <ul><li>Training and exercises, such as drills and tabletop exercises, are invaluable tools for preparing staff and testing crisis plans </li></ul><ul><li>Training and exercises should reinforce concepts in the school/school district crisis plan </li></ul><ul><li>Training should be conducted regularly </li></ul>
    36. 36. Training for District & School Staff <ul><li>Train all staff on emergency response procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Provide additional training to school personnel based upon their role in an emergency response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident command team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School emergency response team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Front office staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facility managers/maintenance staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other non-instructional staff (food service workers, front office staff/secretaries, volunteers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider training with community partners </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver training at faculty meetings and in-service sessions or through the web or email messages </li></ul>
    37. 37. Exercises <ul><li>Types of Exercises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation Meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tabletops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Exercises (i.e., exercise on portion of response, such as communication, evacuation, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-scale Exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After Action Reviews (debriefs) are critical after exercises. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Types of Exercises ORIENTATION &quot;Getting Everyone on Board&quot; DRILLS &quot;Single Agency&quot; TABLETOP &quot;Group Discussion&quot; FUNCTIONAL &quot;Stressful Simulated Events&quot; FULL-SCALE &quot;Resources Deployed&quot;
    39. 39. Conducting Drills <ul><ul><li>Practice a variety of different scenarios based upon risks in the school and community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice a variety of different response procedures, such as lockdown, shelter-in-place, evacuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate information about drills in advance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate and document results/lessons learned in an after-action report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include community partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drill under different conditions </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Resources <ul><li>ERCM TA Center's, &quot;Emergency Exercises&quot; newsletter </li></ul><ul><li>FEMA's &quot;The Comprehensive Exercise Curriculum&quot; </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The Virginia Educator's Guide for Planning and Conducting School Emergency Drills </li></ul>
    41. 41. Preparedness Summary <ul><li>Coordinate with community partners to build effective plans </li></ul><ul><li>Address multiple hazards in plan </li></ul><ul><li>Identify roles and responsibilities in advance--Incident Command System </li></ul><ul><li>Develop communication plans in advance; consider needs of school staff, parents/guardians, alternative languages, and media </li></ul><ul><li>Train all staff and students on emergency plans and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Use exercises as effective ways to identify gaps and weaknesses in plans and to reinforce training that has been provided </li></ul>
    42. 42. Tabletop Activity
    43. 43. Location <ul><li>Brentwood High School (fictitious) </li></ul><ul><li>Brentwood City population - 125,000 </li></ul><ul><li>No active Local Emergency Planning Council (LEPC) </li></ul><ul><li>Brentwood High - 1,200 students </li></ul><ul><li>School lost their 2 SROs last year due to funding issues and police dept staff reallocations. </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-April, weather mild </li></ul>
    44. 44. Scenario <ul><li>Sometime shortly after lunch a visitor who had just parked in the school parking lot and was walking to the school heard a gunshot - then shortly after, heard another. </li></ul><ul><li>As he ran to the school, he witnessed a popular student slumped over the wheel of her car, apparently dead, with a single gunshot wound to the head. The visitor recognized the popular student/athlete, knew her name, but did not know her personally. </li></ul><ul><li>The traumatized visitor ran to the school office and reported a possible murder/suicide. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Additional Context <ul><li>The &quot;danger zone&quot; appears to be limited to the school parking lot. </li></ul><ul><li>No other witnesses appear to be present. No additional injuries are reported. </li></ul><ul><li>The student was not known to have a history of mental illness. </li></ul><ul><li>The student has one younger brother who attends school in the district. </li></ul><ul><li>2 students committed suicide 2 years ago and the school/district was scrutinized/criticized for their &quot;lack of response&quot; and because of the high levels of reported bullying at the school. Both of the victims had repeatedly been bullied. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Problem Statement <ul><li>A student has either been murdered or committed suicide on school grounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: How to we ensure the safety of other students / staff and prepare for the community response? What immediate actions should the school take? </li></ul><ul><li>Small group discussions. </li></ul>
    47. 47. What Actions Have Been Taken? <ul><li>The office staff called 911 and alerted the Assistant Principal (the principal was out of town, traveling with the basketball team to the state tournament). </li></ul><ul><li>The Asst. Principal made the decision to place the school in lockdown. </li></ul><ul><li>She made the call over the intercom announcing the school was going into lockdown and asked for teachers to check their email for further notification. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Messages <ul><li>911 dispatch informs school that EMS should arrive on scene w/in 10 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>City police are en route. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Additional Questions <ul><li>Was the decision to go into lockdown a good one? </li></ul><ul><li>Should someone go out onto the scene? </li></ul><ul><li>Why email? </li></ul><ul><li>What information should the office convey teachers? </li></ul><ul><li>What information should the teachers convey to students? </li></ul>
    50. 50. Additional Information <ul><li>10 minutes into lockdown and after receiving update email from office, one of the English teachers messages back saying she is concerned about a female student (different from the one in the parking lot) who did not show up for class. The incident in the parking lot reminds the teacher of the suicides two years ago. The teacher reports that the student of concern had been depressed, likely had access to weapons and was possibly suicidal. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 nd female student had been in classes during the a.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Police have been on scene for 5 minutes. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Additional Questions <ul><li>Does this information impact your current response actions in any way? </li></ul><ul><li>What communications need to be occurring within the school, to the district? </li></ul><ul><li>What ICS functions are being employed? </li></ul><ul><li>Who would be performing these functions? </li></ul><ul><li>Does lockdown complicate ICS roles? </li></ul>
    52. 52. Message <ul><li>15 minutes after lockdown was initiated, a gunshot is heard near the location of the school auditorium stage. One of the nearby classroom teachers picks up the phone and frantically calls this information into the office. </li></ul><ul><li>What now? </li></ul><ul><li>What is going through the minds of the teachers, of the students? </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion… </li></ul>
    53. 53. Message <ul><li>Upon police investigation of the auditorium, the second female student (the one mentioned earlier by the English teacher) is found behind the stage, dead, of an apparent self inflicted gunshot wound. </li></ul>
    54. 54. Additional Questions <ul><li>How does this second death change your response procedures? </li></ul><ul><li>How long will you remain in lockdown and who will cancel it? </li></ul><ul><li>What will you do for the rest of the day? </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you handle media that is now on scene outside the school? </li></ul>
    55. 55. Additional Questions <ul><li>How are you utilizing ICS? </li></ul><ul><li>How will it change over time? </li></ul><ul><li>What will be your short term mental health recovery / psychological first aid plan? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you respond to parents? </li></ul>
    56. 56. Final questions <ul><li>What if these events were a double suicide versus a murder-suicide? </li></ul><ul><li>What will be your mid-long term mental health recovery plans? </li></ul><ul><li>How should we plan for the anniversary? </li></ul>
    57. 57. THANK YOU For More Information Contact Julie Collins: Matt Taylor: ERCM TA Center: 888-991-3726 or