The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) Decision-Making, Planning and Organization of ESDP Field Missions - Updated Interactive Guide - ZIF - Berlin, December 2007 All photographs in this presentation by courtesy of the Council of the European Union Update In June 2007, the European Council decided to establish the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) , which is supposed to serve as a civilian equivalent to the EU Military Staff and to provide assistance and support to CIVCOM in the planning and implementation of civilian ESDP operations. The CPCC has been incorporated into this presentation. Furthermore, the Interactive Mission Map has been completely revised and updated, and hyperlinks to the mission websites have been included. Center for International Peace Operations
This presentation covers the decision-making and planning process from the first formal discussions on potential action until the launch of an ESDP mission. The process is divided into three major phases :
Phase 1 - Development of a Crisis Management Concept
Phase 2 - Development of Strategic Options
Phase 3 - Concrete Operational Planning
The process as presented is a model for ESDP operations with military, police and civilian components . Should any of these components not be present in an operation, certain steps in the planning process may be left out. However, the Council decisions on Crisis Management Concept, Joint Action, Operation Plan, and on the launch of the operation are indispensable – they form the basis of the three phases.
It should be noted that the presentation gives a simplified view of ESDP structures, leaving out less important steps or ongoing interaction, e.g. with the European Commission (EC). In practice, steps shown here may be contracted, inverted or completely left out on a case-by case basis.
By mouse-clicking the process evolves gradually, providing information on every step of the decision-making process. For more information on the different institutions within ESDP, please click on the i-buttons located in the right-hand corner of each box. If your computer is connected to the internet, you can also use the hyperlinks integrated in the information texts, leading to EU-websites, treaties or Council decisions.
Please note that the on-screen presentation of bodies involved in the process does not reflect any hierarchical order among these bodies. There is, however, a functional distinction between and .
All institutions dealt with are located in EU‘s so-called “Second Pillar“ , the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), where decisions are made exclusively at intergovernmental level. First-Pillar-bodies affiliated to the EC that deal with foreign policy, such as the humanitarian aid department ECHO or the External Relations Commissioner‘s Secretariat, are not covered in detail.
How to use this presentation? policy-making bodies advisory bodies click here to jump to Interactive Mission Map at the end of the presentation Click to continue… All photographs in this presentation by courtesy of the Council of the European Union or the Audiovisual Service of the European Commission Audiovisual Service, European Commission
The Pillars of the European Union (based on the Treaty of Maastricht)
Based on the Treaties which
European Coal and Steal
Community (treaty expired
European Union Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) ( Treaty of Maastricht 1992, amended by the following treaties ) including the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) (initiated by the Cologne European Council 1999) Intergovernmental Decision- Making (Council) Justice & Home Affairs ( Treaty of Maastricht 1992, amended by the Treaty of Amsterdam 1997) Intergovernmental Decision- Making (Council) Introduction: Overview of the European Union Click to continue… 1. Pillar 2. Pillar 3. Pillar
Policy Planning & Early Warning Unit Council General Secretariat Joint Situation Centre (SITCEN) Introduction: Overview of Second-Pillar-Bodies (simplified) European Council (Summit of the Heads of State and Government) Click to continue… EU Military Staff (EUMS) Civ. Planning & Conduct Capability (CPCC) Secretary General/High Representative Political and Security Committee (PSC) Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (CIVCOM) EU Military Committee (EUMC) Committee of the Permanent Representatives (COREPER) Council of the European Union policy-making body advisory body
Secretariat (supported by the CPCC) develops & presents a draft Crisis Management Concept (CMC) based on the conclusions of a Fact Finding Mission Identification of a crisis - close interaction between the SG/HR and his advisory bodies PSC discusses the draft CMC and requests advice on civilian and military aspects PSC agrees on CMC and presents it to COREPER/Council, pointing out specifics and different options COREPER discusses the CMC. Decisions in COREPER are almost always confirmed by the Council. Council approves Crisis Management Concept PSC concludes that EU action is appropriate and assigns SG/HR and the Secretariat to work out a Crisis Management Concept (CMC) Secretary General/High Representative Policy Unit SITCEN Secretariat Political and Security Committee (PSC) CIVCOM EU Military Committee COREPER Council of the European Union
PSC evaluates all strategic options, taking into account the Commission‘s view. Then PSC forwards its draft decision on MSO, PSO and CSO to COREPER/ Council. CIVCOM forwards PSO‘s & and MSO‘s to PSC PSC requests CIVCOM to develop Police Strategic Options (PSO) & other Civilian Strategic Options (CSO) PSC requests EUMC to develop Military Strategic Options (MSO) The Council assigns PSC to develop strategic options on the basis of the CMC. EUMS prioritises MSO‘s, reviews military capabilities and gives advice to EUMC EUMC forwards MSO‘s to PSC The Council formally decides on a Joint Action which codifies the mandate, its objectives, financial arrangements etc. This decision also entails whether the military component of the mission will use NATO assets (Berlin Plus) or rely exclusively on EU-capabilities. The mission‘s chain of command as well as the modalities for the setup of a military OHQ depend on this decision. CIVCOM cooperates with the CPCC to develop and prioritise PSO‘s & CSO‘s Political and Security Committee (PSC) COREPER Council of the European Union CIVCOM EU Military Committee CPCC EU Military Staff Commission presents its accompanying measures
EUMC presents the military CONOPS and provides advice and recommendations, comprising an evaluation of EUMS CIVCOM presents the police and civilian CONOPS and provides advice and recommendations The Council tasks PSC to initiate operational planning PSC provides the political/ strategic guidance needed by EUMC to work out an Initiating Military Directive (IMD) which gives basic instructions to the appointed Operation Commander (OpCdr) EUMC presents the draft IMD (worked out by the EUMS) PSC approves the Initiating Military Directive (IMD) OpCdr Operation Commander and his military headquarter (OHQ) develop a draft military CONOPS Military Planning Stage Civilian Planning Stage PSC requests operational planning on a range of police and civilian measures a) CONOPS – Concept of Operations CPCC develops draft police & civilian CONOPS Council approves the CONOPS PSC agrees on police, civilian, and military CONOPS and submits them to the Council Note: Occasionally the formulation of a police/civilian CONOPS has been initiated or even completed before the Council has formally agreed on a Joint Action (Phase 2). The results of this operational planning then form the basis of the mandate integrated in the Joint Action . COREPER Council of the European Union Political and Security Committee (PSC) EU Military Committee CIVCOM CPCC
Upon request of the PSC the Operation Commander supported by EUMS works out a draft military OPLAN including Rules of Engagement. Furthermore the process of force generation is initiated. Council agrees on final OPLANs CIVCOM presents the police and civilian OPLAN EUMC presents the military OPLAN Launch of Operation Establishment of CoC‘s – Committees of Contributors, responsible for supervision and support of the mission‘s military and/or civilian component b) OPLAN – Operation Plan OpCdr Upon request of the PSC the police and/or civilian H ead o f M ission supported by the CPCC work out a draft OPLAN . Furthermore the process of force generation is initiated. Military Planning Stage Civilian Planning Stage OpCdr presents draft military OPLAN to EUMC Pol HoM/Civ HoM present draft police and civilian OPLAN to CIVCOM PSC agrees on a police/civilian and a military OPLAN and submits them to the Council The Council tasks PSC to develop the final Operation Plan Note: As the legal basis for any operation, the EU and the host nation sign a “ Status of Forces Agreement” (SOFA) for the military component and/or a “ Status of Mission Agreement” (SOMA) for the civilian component, both usually preceded by a “Letter of Intent”. However, in most cases the SOFA/SOMA is signed only after the operation has started, or even towards its end. COREPER Council of the European Union Political and Security Committee (PSC) Pol HoM Civ HoM CIVCOM EU Military Committee EU Military Staff CPCC
Past and Current ESDP Operations (04/09) ONGOING MISSIONS COMPLETED MISSIONS Click here to fade in/out details ARTEMIS AMM EU Supp. to AMIS II EUPOL PROXIMA CONCORDIA EUPAT EUPOL RD Congo EUSEC RD Congo EUFOR RD Congo EUPOL COPPS EU BAM Rafah EUFOR Tchad/RCA EUPOL Afghanistan EUJUST LEX EU BAM Moldova EUPT Kosovo ICO/EUSR EULEX EU SSR Guinea Bissao EUFOR – ALTHEA EUPM EUMM EUJUST THEMIS EUMM Georgia EU NAVFOR EUPM: European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herze-govina (since 1/03) EUFOR – ALTHEA: EU Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 12/04) EUPOL RD Congo: EU Police Mission in DRC (since 4/05 – previously EUPOL RD Kinshasa) EUJUST LEX: EU Integrated Rule of Law Mission for Iraq (since 7/05) EUSEC DR Congo: EU mission to provide advice and assistance for security sector reform in the DRC (since 7/05) EU BAM Rafah: EU Border Assistance Mission at Rafah Crossing Point in the Palestinian Territories (since 11/05) EU BAM Moldova: Border Assistance Mission at Moldovan/Ukrainian border (since 12/05) EUPOL COPPS: EU Police Mission in the Palestinian Territories (since 1/06) EUPOL Afghanistan: EU Police Mission in Afghanistan (since 6/07) EULEX Kosovo: EU Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (since 02/08) ICO/EUSR: International Civilian Office/European Special Representative in Kosovo (since 02/08) EU SSR Guinea Bissao: EU Mission is Support of Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissao (since 06/08) EUMM Georgia: EU Monitoring Mission to Georgia (since 09/08) EU NAVFOR Somalia/Operation Atalanta: EU Naval Force off the Somali Coast (since 12/08) CONCORDIA: EU Military Operation in Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (3/03 – 12/03) ARTEMIS: EU Military Operation in Democratic Republic of the Congo (6/03 – 9/03) EUPOL PROXIMA: EU Police Mission in Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (12/03 – 12/05) EUJUST THEMIS: EU Rule of Law Mission to Georgia (7/04 – 7/05) AMM: Aceh Monitoring Mission (8/05 – 12/06) EUFOR RD Congo: EU Military Operation in the DRC (6/06 – 11/06) EUMM: EU Monitoring Mission (Western Balkans; 01/2001-12/2007) EU supporting action to the African Union mission in Darfur AMIS II (8/05-12/07) EUPAT: EU Police Advisory Team in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (12/05 – 06/06) EUPT Kosovo: EU Planning Team in Kosovo (4/07- 06/08) EUFOR Tchad/RCA: EU Force in Eastern Tchad & North Eastern CAR (10/07-03/09) EU BAM EUMM COMPLETED MISSIONS ONGOING MISSIONS Click here to finish
Mr. Javier Solana Madariaga , since 18. October 1999
Appointed by the Cologne European Council , June 1999
June 2004: Appointed for a second 5-year-term by the European Council
Mr. Solana is intended to become the first EU Foreign Minister when/if the
Constitutional Treaty for Europe enters into force
Main Tasks and capabilities:
Highest official and representative of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
Announces EU Special Representatives, heads EU‘s diplomatic delegations, influences policy development
The post of High Representative for CFSP was added to that of Secretary-General of the Council in the Amsterdam Treaty in 1997. Until then the Secretary General had been a senior official of the EU, whose task was to prepare the meetings of the European Council and to assist the Presidency ( Treaty on European Union , Article 18.3).
The importance of the SG/HR massively increased once former NATO-SG Javier Solana was appointed on 18 October 1999. The functions and tasks of the SG/HR were not precisely regulated in the revised EU-Treaty, so it was up to the first officeholder to define his role. Delegating the preparatory assignments of his post mostly to the deputy SG, Solana could focus completely on CFSP and became the most important politician within EU to deal with foreign affairs. The initiation and establishment of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) – amongst others by integrating structures and resources of the Western European Union (WEU) – was crucially promoted by Solana, additionally taking the office of Secretary-General of the WEU in November 1999.
The CFSP is the intergovernmental “ Second Pillar“ of the European Union and the SG/HR is completely dependent on the consensus of the member states. Whenever the EU-members were able to agree on a common position in foreign policy – e.g. in terms of the Balkans or the Middle East –Solana could act as a powerful negotiator and could thereby boost the importance of his post. In June 2003 the European Council of Thessaloniki asked the SG/HR to develop a European Security Strategy (ESS) , which was presented to and adopted by the Brussels European Council in December 2003. The ESS forms a comprehensive strategic framework for CFSP.
Secretary-General/High Representative (SG/HR) Homepage of Javier Solana
Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit (Policy Unit)
“ Solana´s eyes and ears“
Set up on account of declaration No. 6 annexed to the 1997 Amsterdam Treaty , naming the following tasks:
“ Monitoring and analysing developments in areas relevant to the CFSP”
“ Providing assessments of the Union's foreign and security policy interests and identifying areas where the CFSP could focus in future”
“ Providing timely assessments and early warning of events or situations which may have significant repercussions for the Union's foreign and security policy, including potential political crises”
“ Producing, at the request of either the Council or the Presidency or on its own initiative, argued policy options papers to be presented under the responsibility of the Presidency as a contribution to policy formulation in the Council, and which may contain analyses, recommendations and strategies for the CFSP”
Divided into eight task forces: - European Security and Defence Policy, Western Balkans/Central Europe; - Early Warning/Conflict Prevention/Terrorism; - Horizontal Questions; - Latin America; - Russia/Ukraine/Transatlantic/Baltic States; - Asia; - Mediterranean/Middle East/Africa; - Administration/Security and Situation Centre/Crisis Cell
Officially located at the Council General Secretariat (DG-E), with staff drawn from the member states, the Secretariat and the Commission, but reports directly to the Secretary-General/High Representative
Access to the political reporting from Commission delegations and information provided by ECHO ( Humanitarian Aid Department of the European Commission)
Set up on 1 January 2003 by the Policy Unit to coincide with the start of the European Union Police Mission (EUPM) in Bosnia
Located in the Council General Secretariat
SITCEN was established to bring together the expertise of civilian and military staff from the Policy Unit and the military Situation Centre
Its main task is to monitor developments in crisis regions and to provide risk assessments for the Secretary-General/High Representative , the PSC and the EUMC . The External Relations (RELEX) Commissioner receives some information as well.
SITCEN is also intended to improve the cooperation on the field of intelligence cooperation between member states. For that purpose and for setting up a secure communications network, SITCEN also includes intelligence officers.
With the launch of ESDP, the CFSP-unit inside Council General Secretariat was enlarged to Directorate-General E (DG-E) , dealing with External Relations (one of nine DG´s altogether)
Among other 2nd Pillar bodies, DG-E deals with planning and concrete execution of CFSP/ESDP-missions
It is divided into nine Directorates:
III Multilateral Economic Affairs
IV Transatlantic Relations, UN and Human Rights
V Mediterranean Basin, Middle East, Africa, Asia
VI Western Balkans Region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia
VII European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)
VIII Defence Aspects
IX Civilian Crisis Management and Co-ordination (including a Crisis Response Co-ordination Team – CRCT)
Note: The newly-established CPCC has taken over Directorate IX’s operational planning and conduct tasks in order to strengthen the EU’s civilian crisis response capabilites within ESDP. Directorate IX will continue to deal with horizontal issues (concepts, capabilities, training, etc.) of civilian ESDP and will also remain in charge of the pol-civ aspects of crisis-management, including the preparation of the Crisis Management Concept (CMC)
Certain shortfalls in the civilian crisis management capacity were identified when conducting the first civilian mission, EUPM. Thus the Council decided to build up a “Planning and Mission Support Capability“ in November 2003 , in order to improve the recruitment of mission staff, planning and provide support to ongoing missions.
Furthermore a Civilian and Military Planning Cell was created within the EUMS/Council Secretariat to enhance coherence of civilian and military instruments and conduct strategic planning. The CivMilCell is operable since summer 2005.
Set up as a permanent board of high officials/ambassadors by
the Helsinki European Council in December 1999 and approved by the
Nice European Council a year later
Legal basis: Articel 25, Consolidated Treaty on European Union , defining the
“ monitor the international situation in the areas covered by the CFSP and contribute to the definition of policies by delivering opinions to the Council“
“ exercise, under the responsibility of the Council, political control and strategic direction of crisis management operations.“
“ for the duration of a crisis management operation, as determined by the Council, to take the relevant decisions concerning the political control and strategic direction of the operation“
PSC meets at least twice weekly in ambassadorial formation in Brussels and less frequently as a board of the political directors
Supplemented by one delegate of the Commission
The PSC develops resolutions regarding the CFSP/ESDP, but does not finally decide
PSC-members are in close contact with their foreign ministries and represent their governments’ position in the PSC
In case of a crisis the Secretary-General/High Representative can take the chair in the PSC
see Council decisions to establish PSC, EUMC and EUMS
Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (CIVCOM)
CIVCOM was set up as a standing advisory body by Council decision of 22 May 2000 and convened for the first time on 16 June 2000
CIVCOM formally reports to COREPER , but provides advice and expertise on civilian crisis management mainly to the PSC
Its staff consists of one representative of each member-state plus one delegate of the Commission
As codified in the guidelines for the work of CIVCOM (annex of the document of adoption), its tasks are
to assist the PSC and other council bodies by “acquiring a comprehensive view of the means available to the EU and to Member States to respond to a crisis“
to improve EU´s crisis management capability, e.g. by developing and implementing lessons learned/ common standards and best-practice, helping to ensure a higher degree of coherence in EU-strategies, helping to improve co-ordination of resources and exchange of information in the EU etc.
Furthermore, CIVCOM helps to achieve the civilian headline goals (currently the “ Civilian Headline Goal 2008 “), decided in the Council
The newly-established Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) provides essential planning assistance and support to CIVCOM, which also closely co-operates with DG-E of the Council General Secretariat , especially Directorate IX
EUMS is the planning and supporting body for the EUMC and has over 130 military personnel
Assigned to conduct early warning, assessment of a crisis and certain response capabilities and to develop Military Strategic Options
Although EUMS assists the EUMC, it is a department of the Council General Secretariat and is directly attached to the High Representative . Its staff participates in the Joint Situation Centre (SITCEN)
EUMS has five divisions:
Policy and Plans
Operations and Exercises
Logistics and Resources
Communications and Information Systems
The civilian-military (CivMil) Cell within the EU Military Staff provides a joint civ-mil planning capability, bringing together CPCC and military planners under the functional authority of the Civilian Operations Commander, thereby ensuring enhanced civ-mil co-operation from the planning phase
see Council decisions to establish PSC, EUMC and EUMS
C ommittee of the Permanent Representatives (COREPER)
Co mité des Re présentants Per manents
COREPER is the preparatory body for the ministerial Council meetings and consists of the member states‘ highest ranked ambassadors (heads of mission). COREPER covers the full scope of EU business.
COREPER was set up in 1958, its obligations are described in the Council´s rules of procedure . Its current legal basis is Article 207 of the EC Treaty .
As codified in Article 207 of the EC Treaty, COREPER‘s main task is to “…be responsible for preparing the work of the Council and for carrying out the tasks assigned to it by the Council“.
COREPER meets in two formations:
COREPER I: Deputy Permanent Representatives, e.g. dealing with economic, social, health or agricultural issues, mostly meeting twice a week (on Wednesday, additionally on Friday)
COREPER II: Permanent Representatives, largely dealing with CFSP and ESDP as well as financial and judicial issues, meeting at least once a week (on Thursday)
COREPER coordinates and oversees the work of some 250 committees and working groups which prepare the political issues of the Council’s agenda
Less important topics are mostly decided on by COREPER without being issued again in the Council. Due to the fact that members of COREPER are in constant and close contact with their home governments, COREPER‘s decisions in terms of CFSP and ESDP are usually simply confirmed by the General Affairs and External Relations Council.
Council of the European Union – General Affairs and External Relations Council
Final decision-making body for CFSP/ESDP
The Council of the European Union (‘Council of Ministers’)
is the leading legislative and decision-making body within the EU
The GAERC is the foreign ministers‘ formation of the Council
Legal basis: Title V Treaty on European Union , Article 7 ff. EC Treaty
GAERC is chaired by the Presidency’s foreign minister and meets on a monthly basis
Since 2002 the GAERC has convened in separate sessions for general affairs and external relations. In the latter case the Secretary-General/High Representative for CFSP also takes part at Council meetings. On certain occasions member states‘ defence ministers also attend, as well as Commission delegates.
Regarding the Common Foreign Security Policy, GAERC’s main tasks are to
define and to implement the CFSP, based on guidelines set by the Heads of State and Government at the EU Summits
agree on joint actions, regulations, directives, decisions, common positions, recommendations or opinions
The Council’s agenda is prepared by COREPER . Issues that COREPER has already agreed on are usually formally approved by the GAERC, which only dwells on select topics at the highest intergovernmental level.
Unanimity: Decisions in the field of CFSP and ESDP have to be taken by consensus (as codified in Article 23 TEU ). Member states have the option of a constructive abstention, obligating them to give a formal explanation on their reasons. A decision is blocked if more than one third of the member states abstains from voting or any state vetoes the decision.
Website of the Council
Overview of Second-Pillar-Bodies (simplified) Click to continue… Policy Planning & Early Warning Unit Council General Secretariat Joint Situation Centre (SITCEN) European Council (Summit of the Heads of State and Government) EU Military Staff (EUMS) Civ. Planning & Conduct Capability (CPCC) Secretary General/High Representative Political and Security Committee (PSC) Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (CIVCOM) EU Military Committee (EUMC) Committee of the Permanent Representatives (COREPER) Council of the European Union policy-making body advisory body
Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC)
New civilian equivalent to the EU Military Staff (EUMS)
On 18 June 2007, the EU Council of Ministers agreed on a new chain of command for civilian ESDP operations amid a growing demand for civilian crisis management operations
The CPCC is responsible for the planning and conduct of civilian ESDP operations, and is headed by a Civilian Operations Commander who exercises command and control at the strategic level of civilian ESDP operations
The CPCC staff is divided into
an Operations Unit
a Mission Support Unit
The CPCC draws on expertise and staff from the Secretariat’s Civilian Crisis Management Directorate, D-GE IX .
After the take-over of mission planning and conduct by the CPCC, the Crisis Management Directorate (DG-E IX‘s) remains tasked with political and strategic guidance functions
The CPCC is placed under the political control and strategic direction of the Political and Security Committee (PSC) and the overall authority of the Secretary-General/High Representative
It will provide planning and support assistance to CIVCOM, similar to EUMS’s assistance to the EUMC