Disaster management in India

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Disaster management in India

  1. 1. Disaster management in India Anand Patwardhan IIT-Bombay
  2. 2. Why? <ul><li>Climate change is likely to be perceived through experience of extreme weather events </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, response to climate change will perhaps happen through adaptation to climate hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Important to characterize the institutional mechanisms and structures in place for responding to natural (and climate-related) disasters </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mortality due to natural hazards 1990 - 2000
  4. 4. Average annual impacts from natural hazards <ul><li>Mortality: 3600 </li></ul><ul><li>Crop area: 1.42 million hectares </li></ul><ul><li>Property (houses): 2.36 million dwellings </li></ul>
  5. 5. Exposure to natural hazards <ul><li>40 million hectares flood prone (5% of area) </li></ul><ul><li>54% area exposed to seismic activity </li></ul><ul><li>East coast of India and Gujarat (West coast) exposed to cyclone risk </li></ul><ul><li>A preliminary assessment of exposure to major hazard categories has been done in 1996-1998 (as a part of IDNDR) by the Building Materials Technology Promotion Council of the Ministry of Urban Development. Check: http://www.bmtpc.org/disaster. htm </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to put this information in a GIS format </li></ul>
  6. 8. Disaster management <ul><li>Climate hazards within overall context of disaster management </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory responsibility of state governments </li></ul><ul><li>Central government provides logistic and financial support </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate response mechanism at national level </li></ul><ul><li>State level responses vary </li></ul><ul><li>National coordinating body: National Disaster Management Cell (NDMC), Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture ( http://www.ndmindia.nic.in/ ) </li></ul>
  7. 9. GOVERNMENT OF INDIA : NODAL MINISTRIES / DEPARTMENT FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT DISASTERS NODAL MINISTRIES Natural Disasters Agriculture Air Accidents Civil Aviation Civil Strife Home Affairs Railway Accidents Railways Chemical Disasters Environment Biological Disasters Health & family Welfare Nuclear Accident Atomic Energy
  8. 10. National response mechanism
  9. 11. MANAGEMENT MECHANISM * Integrated Administrative Machinery * National Contingency Action Plan - identify initiatives by various agencies * Department of Agriculture & Cooperation - the Nodal Department * Central Relief Commissioner - Chief Nodal Officer at National level * State/District Contingency Plans and Relief Manuals
  10. 12. Natural Disaster Response- Government of India <ul><li>National Crisis Management Committee(NCMC) under Cabinet Secretary </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis Management Group(CMG) under Central Relief Commissioner </li></ul><ul><li>Group of Ministers, Group of Secretaries and High Level Committees-Need base </li></ul>
  11. 13. GOI Departments for Disaster Response <ul><li>Armed Forces-Ministry of Defence </li></ul><ul><li>Central Para Military Forces- Ministry of Home Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>International Response- Ministry of External Affairs </li></ul>
  12. 14. GOI Departments for Disaster Response <ul><li>Ministries/Departments : </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Development, Drinking Water Supply Power, Telecom , Health, Urban Development </li></ul><ul><li>Food & Public Distribution, Shipping </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Transport, Railways, Civil Aviation </li></ul><ul><li>Women & Child Development </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources, Animal Husbandry </li></ul><ul><li>India Meteorological Department(IMD) </li></ul>
  13. 15. DISASTER MANAGEMENT POLICY- SALIENT FEATURES * Recognition of linkages between natural disasters and development * Connecting of specific programmes like DPAP, DDP, NWDPRA and Wasteland Development Programme for managing natural disasters * Emphasis on forecasting and warning using advanced technology
  14. 16. CENTRAL SECTOR SCHEME FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT - SALIENT FEATURES * Human resource Development * Setting up of National Centre for Disaster Management (NCDM) * Setting up of Disaster Management Faculties in States * Programmes for Community Participation and Public Awareness * Observing National Disaster Reduction Day * Activities to achieve the goals and objectives of IDNDR/ISDR
  15. 17. External Assistance -Policy <ul><li>No formal appeal for external assistance made for relief </li></ul><ul><li>External assistance,if offered as solidarity accepted with gratitude </li></ul><ul><li>Gujarat earthquake- international response overwhelming </li></ul><ul><li>Bi-lateral agreements suggested by some countries for emergency response </li></ul>
  16. 18. DISASTER RESPONSE ARRANGEMENTS IN THE STATES <ul><li>STATE CABINET </li></ul><ul><li>STATES CRISIS MANAGEMENT GROUP: HEADED BY CHIEF SECRETARY. </li></ul><ul><li>INSTITUTION OF RELIEF COMMISSIONERS IN STATES </li></ul><ul><li>STATES/DISTRICTS CONTINGENCY PLAN S / RELIEF CODES. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Example: AP cyclone hazard mitigation project outcomes <ul><li>Hazard mitigation studies (international consultants) </li></ul><ul><li>IMD early warning capacity through Doppler radar </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure creation and restoration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods – drains & embankments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Road restoration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storm shelters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity transmission and distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What about system / process capabilities? </li></ul>
  18. 20. Observations <ul><li>Recognition of linkage between natural hazards and development </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting developmental programs (DPAP, NWDB) to disaster management </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting and warning (technology use) </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foodgrain availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparedness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptive capacity by creating a management system </li></ul><ul><li>However, focus still on relief; recovery and adaptive capacity not thought through </li></ul>
  19. 21. Underlying questions <ul><li>How can we evaluate the portfolio of disaster management projects to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess implications of climate change for project benefits? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess implications of project for reducing vulnerability to climate change? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Related question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we incrementally adjust project design or implementation to enhance climate change related benefits? </li></ul></ul>

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