Crisis Management Guidelines - FINAL 10 31 2007


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Crisis Management Guidelines - FINAL 10 31 2007

  1. 1. Crisis Management Guidelines: A Planning Resource to Assist Member Centres Prepare for, Manage and Recover from a Potential Crisis CRISIS MANAGEMENT CRISIS RESPONSE PRE-READINESS POST-CRISIS ANALYSIS This document was produced by Children’s Mental Health Ontario in collaboration with Clément and Associates 2007
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The work of the Member Services Committee was greatly assisted by André Clément’s leadership and the support and guidance of an advisory panel of experts in the field. The document was enriched by the knowledge, wisdom and practical experience of the following individuals: • Barrie Evans, Vanier Children’s Centre • Kathy Newton, Kinark Child and Family Services • Sandra Watt, Lutherwood The Committee is indebted to a voluntary group of critical readers, who provided provocative feed- back during the initial stages of this document. They are as follows: • Gisell Bergen, Lynwood Hall Child and Family Centre • Terry Bouchard, Maryvale Adolescent and Family Services • Patricia England, Patricia Centre for Children and Youth • Linda Langston, Niagara Child and Youth Services • Joanne Pariseau, Blue Hills Child and Family Centre • Heather Sproule, Central Toronto Youth Services The Committee is also very grateful for the feedback obtained during the summer months from those centres that contributed their valuable time to review a near final edition of the guidelines. In addition, this work could not have been completed without the important contributions, support and guidance from the Member Services Committee members: • Valerie Dunham (Chair), Aisling Discoveries Child and Family Centre • Jane Dawes (Co-chair), Kinark Child and Family Services • Christopher Collins, CMHO Board Member • Bob Engel, Oolagen Community Services • Helena Milewicz, Griffin Centre • Sue Nicholson, Child and Family Centre • Nigel Sones, Business Agent CWA/Canada Local 30248, Communications Workers of America 3
  3. 3. FOREWARD Developing a crisis plan is integral to the safe operations of any centre. It is during a time of crisis that individuals will turn to their crisis plan and rely on their pre-readiness to carry them through the event. In an effort to assist its members to prepare for, manage and recover from a potential crisis, the Children’s Mental Health Ontario (CMHO) Member Services Committee, in consultation with Clé- ment and Associates, developed the following guidelines as a planning resource. It is important to clarify at this stage that the guidelines refer to a crisis that may affect an entire organization; they are not directed at the day-to-day therapeutic crisis management that is a regular aspect of the work in a children’s mental health centre. The intent of these guidelines is to provide children’s mental health centres with the key concepts and critical components necessary for good crisis planning. These guidelines were developed as a starting point to: • Stimulate thinking about crisis preparedness • Encourage member centres to develop an effective, efficient and timely response for handling potential crises • Assist member centres in complying with CMHO’s Safety and Risk Management Accreditation Standards While risk management encompasses many varied identifiable threats to the day-to-day functions of an organization, for the purposes of this project, deliberate attention was paid to crisis planning as one component of risk management. Crisis planning assists members in dealing with a crisis situation and is comprised of pre-planning, risk mitigation and post-analysis. As a result, these guidelines are organized in three sections as follows: • Crisis Management Pre-Readiness • Crisis Response • Post-Crisis Analysis It is hoped these guidelines are broad enough to respect the autonomy of the various centres that make up CMHO’s membership and specific enough to meet the unique needs of each centre. With this in mind, and being cautious to not produce a narrow prescriptive text, templates of policies and procedures were not included. As no two centres are alike, it is hoped that each centre will draw upon the sample Crisis Manage- ment Outline located in Appendix A, tailoring their crisis plan according to its size, region and capac- ity. A list of emergency preparedness resources can be found in Appendix B. Examples of resources include relevant websites, legislation, municipal and regional contact information, as well as an Emer- gency Preparedness Guide for People with Disabilities/Special Needs. These guidelines can be used in many ways. For example, as a resource to consult when needed, as a framework to develop a crisis management plan, and as a tool to review and revise current plans. This document identifies the key elements to include in a crisis plan and provides members with the important first steps in developing a crisis plan. Frances Ruffolo Project Manager 5
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 9 Purpose of the Guidelines 9 Key Elements 9 Definition of a Crisis 10 Examples of Crises 10 Managing Crises 11 SECTION 1: CRISIS MANAGEMENT PRE-READINESS 13 Pre-Planning 13 Staff Relations 13 Near-Miss Program 14 Crisis Management Team 15 Communications Plan 17 Media Relations 17 Emergency Plans 18 Policies and Procedures 18 Training 18 Readiness Audits 19 Community Protocols 19 Resources 19 SECTION 2: CRISIS RESPONSE 21 SECTON 3: POST-CRISIS ANALYSIS 23 APPENDIX A 25 Sample Crisis Management Outline 27 APPENDIX B 31 Resources 33 Relevant Websites 33 Relevant Legislation 35 Local and Regional Emergency Contacts 37 Other Resources 37 7
  5. 5. The intent of these guidelines is to provide centres with a ‘starting point’ from which to develop a framework to plan for and deal with anticipated crises. They are also intended to assist children’s mental health centres comply with and meet CMHO’s Safety and Risk Management Accreditation Standards. Using the template at the end of this document as a frame, a centre may apply part or all of these guidelines according to what it perceives necessary to manage risk to clients, to staff and to the organization. 8
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION In recognition of the importance of providing support to its member centres, the Children’s Mental Health Ontario (CMHO) Member Services Committee, in consultation with Clément & Associates, has developed a set of guidelines to help centres plan for and manage crises. Purpose of the Guidelines The intent of these guidelines is to provide centres with a ‘starting point’ from which to develop a framework to plan for and deal with anticipated crises. They are also intended to assist children’s mental health centres comply with and meet CMHO’s Safety and Risk Management Accreditation Standards. The guidelines are comprised of three sections. The first section contains pre-readiness material. The second section presents information on crisis management. The third section describes a post-crisis analysis identifying key activities to assist in recovery and follow-up. A centre’s response to a crisis is in part determined by the planning and processes in place prior to an actual crisis occurring. Pre-readiness planning will guide a centre’s actions during a crisis and will enable it to respond to and manage a crisis effectively. A centre may apply part or all of these guidelines according to what it perceives necessary to manage risk to clients, to staff and to the organization. Managing crises requires an actual com- mitment to a culture of readiness. The extent to which it wishes to be ready will depend on its programs and their clients, its location, its resources and budget, the organization’s previous ex- perience with crises and the personal experiences of its decision-makers. These guidelines com- plement the professional judgment that must be exercised by staff and the training they should receive in preparing them for their crisis management roles. Under normal circumstances centres are managed in a climate of democratic and participatory decision-making. Managing a crisis, however, requires a shift to a more hierarchical, command-and-control process that centralizes its decision- making to a select few. Key Elements While managing a crisis, a centre should focus on the following concerns: • The safety and care of its clients • The safety and well being of its employees • The integrity and reputation of the centre as an organization 9
  7. 7. Definition of a Crisis A centre should have a clear and standardized understanding of what constitutes a ‘crisis’. For the purpose of these guidelines, a ‘crisis’ may be defined as an event that includes any or all of the following conditions: • It occurs suddenly • The event was not predicted • It escalates in severity • The event demands immediate attention • It interrupts normal operations • The event creates significant stress and anxiety for those involved or affected • It threatens the well-being or the reputation of the organization and its Board of Directors • It significantly alters how the centre operates or is perceived thereafter Examples of Crises • Events perpetrated by a single client or non-client, for example, homicide, assault, criminal activity • Events occurring with a child, family or employee, such as loss of life • Events organized by a group, that has political or other ideological views, is disruptive or violent and engages in such activities as violent work action, terrorism • Environmental disasters such as hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, toxic spills and forest fire evacuations • Medical or health disasters such as SARS and other pandemics • Organizational transitions such as layoffs, reorganizations, mergers, acquisitions, strikes • Unexpected/unplanned program cancellations and their associated financial loss • Infrastructure failures related to regional or internal power or utility disruptions such as, local or regional power outage, HVAC problems In addition to establishing a clear definition of a crisis, the centre should determine how a state of crisis is declared and delegate the authority, to a specific individual within the organization, to declare a crisis. 10
  8. 8. Managing Crises How to Use These Guidelines Children’s mental health centres occasionally face crises that require an organization to take immediate, coordinated and skilled action to ad- dress the critical safety needs of staff and clients, and in some cases, These guidelines provide you with a to preserve public confidence in the organization. framework from which to develop Successfully managing a crisis may depend upon a centre’s: your own crisis management docu- ment. • Crisis Management Pre-Readiness • Crisis Response Using the Crisis Management Outline • Post-Crisis Analysis found in Appendix A, you can use the information found within this docu- ment to develop and refine your own set of guidelines should your centre be faced with a sudden or stressful situation. The wording, strategies and sugges- tions included in this document may be used directly by you, should it be applicable to your centre. These guidelines should also be used as a way to begin conversation within your centre to ensure that you are best prepared to manage a crisis. Developing a comprehensive emergency plan which incorporates the above points is essential. The following section outlines the necessary steps involved in developing such a plan. 11
  9. 9. 1) CRISIS MANAGEMENT PRE-READINESS Every centre is committed to the care and safety of its clients and staff with policies and procedures to manage the daily functioning of the centre and to prevent crises. Despite these measures, centres must accept the probability that a crisis can occur and ready itself to manage that crisis. The following factors could be considered as a centre readies itself to deal with a crisis situation. Pre-Planning Crisis resources need to be readily accessible. Many of these will be available through the normal course of administrative planning while others require extra preparation. The following outlines some of the re- sources that should be prepared and kept up-to-date: • A securely stored centre directory that lists crisis response staff, Board Members, and other key people (e.g., volunteers) with up-to-date emergency contact information • A similar inventory for all contact persons who are party to the community protocols a centre may develop with other community services and emergency organizations • Identification of staff and clients requiring assistance during emergency evacuations (see the Emergency Preparedness Guide for People with Disabilities or Special Needs located in Appendix B). • Accessible backup of key databases, software, financial files, etc. that are secured in locked fire- proof or off-site containers • A current inventory of physical assets Staff Relations As management develops the readiness program it should ensure its bargaining unit or non-unionized em- ployees are engaged in the developmental process through ongoing communications. A crisis presents the risk of supplanting the normal rights of employees. While management continues to respect the rights defined by the Employment Standards Act, the Occupational Health and Safety Act, the Human Rights Code and the centre’s Collective Agreement, it should be clearly understood by management and labour that the immediacy of the crisis may temporarily supersede these rights by delaying action on their prescribed protocols. A prior agreement or understanding established with a bargaining unit to avoid grievances could describe the following: • The centre’s crisis management program • Management’s role and expectations in the event of a crisis • Extra duties to be assigned to bargaining unit staff • Compensation for those extra duties • When and how employees might be ‘locked in’ to ensure the care and safety of clients • How complaints or grievances will be addressed 13
  10. 10. Near-Miss Program A crisis may be narrowly avoided by exceptional circumstance. A centre can enhance its state of readi- ness by learning from these ‘near-misses’. Such lessons could include: • The precedent factors or conditions that allowed the near-miss to occur • A description of the near-miss • A description of how a crisis was avoided • A risk assessment evaluating the potential for the event to recur • The steps the centre will take to effectively manage or eliminate the identified risks To convert near-misses into learning opportunities a centre could establish a ‘Near-Miss Program’ that would: • Create a culture of openness in which errors/risks are acknowledged and reported without blame • Create a climate of continuous quality improvement where all staff play an active role in improving work processes • Document and evaluate near misses • Identify systemic factors contributing to near-misses • Convey this information to management and/or the Board of Directors • Ensure the information is addressed by management or the Board of Directors to minimize a recur- rence 14
  11. 11. Crisis Management Team To address a crisis, a centre centralizes its decision-making. This is done in an effort to ensure the effec- tive coordination of centre resources in immediately responding to the emerging needs of clients, staff and the organization. Once a crisis is declared, and depending on the complexities and size of the centre, this decision-making could be delegated to a crisis management team for the duration of the crisis. Establishing the centre’s crisis management team beforehand eliminates one important decision that would otherwise be made at the onset of a crisis. The centre could establish terms of reference that de- scribe the: a) Person in command b) Team’s membership c) Team’s purpose, roles and responsibilities d) Method of operation e) Team’s authority f) Team’s accountability a) Person in Command The person in command should be empowered to make decisions as required to effectively respond to the emerging developments of the crisis. All decisions including the delegation of specific tasks could be concentrated with the person in command with the proviso that team members are engaged in assisting with the decision-making. It is important to specify designates for the person in command to clearly delineate who is in command during the leader’s absence. b) Team’s Membership The size and complexities of the organization will influence the make-up of a crisis management team. The team could consist of the managers or lead persons who are normally responsible for the daily op- eration of the centre’s various departments. Potential members could include persons charged with clini- cal programming, human resources, finances, communications, information technology and administra- tive support. Other members may supplement these representatives by bringing special skills such as media relations or labour relations to the table. Given the significant impact of a crisis, it may be advisable to include the Board President or another Director of the Board who will be regularly apprised of developments and assist with obtaining Board approvals, if required, for the duration of a crisis. 15
  12. 12. c) Team’s Purpose, Roles and Responsibilities From the centre’s definition of a ‘crisis’, the team’s purpose could be defined to describe the scope of its responsibilities and the conditions under which it operates. The roles and responsibilities of the individual team members could be described to indicate how each would address the crisis in relation to their positions within the organization and as members of the crisis management team. d) Method of Operation This could describe where the team meets and how it: • Is convened • Makes decisions • Follows through • Monitors developments • Records its actions e) Team’s Authority A general statement could be crafted indicating the range of authority the team assumes and more spe- cifically what authority is assumed by each team member. f) Team Accountability The real world continues as a crisis unfolds and the team will be held accountable for the decisions it makes. Sooner or later, the person in command will report to the Board of Directors and other authorities such as the centre’s funding Ministry. It may be advisable to describe when such reports will be submit- ted, what the reports contain and how the reports are to be submitted. 16
  13. 13. Communications Plan Managing a crisis will require timely, accurate and controlled communications within and external to the centre. Developing an effective crisis communications plan is vital to the continued operation of the or- ganization (see Appendix B for a Crisis Communications Plan developed by the Canadian Centre for Emergency Preparedness). A crisis communications plan should account for the following: • That the information conveyed to the crisis management team is complete and accurate • That the crisis management team is kept apprised of all possible internal and external factors re- quired to assess the crisis and take remedial action • That staff, clients, their families and the Board of Directors are informed of developments • That directives are properly conveyed and executed • That the centre communicates, through a designated person, with other community services, its funding Ministry/Ministries and the media Media Relations The media can assist or undermine a centre’s efforts to manage a crisis effectively. It would be beneficial to accept the need to share pertinent information with the media in a manner that elicits the media’s support. Trying to hide an event or its consequences may either be impractical or deleterious to the pro- tection of a centre’s public image since a publicly funded centre should expect to be held accountable to public scrutiny. A media strategy should: • Identify who communicates with the media • Provide the spokesperson with media training • Prepare a media kit outlining appropriate steps to be taken While caution is advisable when communicating with the media, protective concerns to control the cen- tre’s liabilities should not prohibit the centre’s media communications. It is almost never advisable to re- fuse to speak with the media, but it will often be necessary to control some information. A balance will be required to exercise diligence in avoiding issues of liability and protecting privacy while meeting the needs of working with the media to progress through to a satisfactory conclusion of the crisis. At the onset of a crisis, a centre should advise CMHO of the situation. CMHO can assist with key mes- sages, help on location if possible, and when necessary refer a media consultant. In rare circumstances, legal advice may be appropriate and CMHO can provide assistance with finding counsel. It would also be beneficial to develop and maintain positive relations with the local media prior to facing a crisis. This could be achieved by: • Establishing contact with known media personnel • Ensuring media personnel know the centre’s ‘go to’ person • Sharing a fact sheet about the centre to provide supportive ‘key messages’ 17
  14. 14. Emergency Plans While the occurrence and outcomes of crises cannot be predicted, a children’s mental health centre is ex- pected to be prepared for certain types of emergencies. CMHO’s Accreditation Standards require a centre to have written plans for emergencies and disasters which may include, but are not limited to, the following: • Evacuations resulting from fire, bomb threats and environmental factors related to storms, floods or exposure to toxic waste • Communicable disease or illness that may infect or threatens the safety of clients or staff • Group trauma suffered by clients or staff • Threats from clients beyond the control of staff or threats that emanate from outside the centre Effectively addressing an emergency by successfully executing a sound contingency plan may well pre- vent an event from becoming a crisis. However, these plans should be kept current through the annual reviews required of CMHO’s Accreditation Standards. Policies and Procedures In addition to the establishment of emergency plans, a centre should implement policies and procedures to inform the organization about its crisis management program, clarify respective roles, standardize the required responses and provide base knowledge from which a centre’s readiness can be enhanced. While a Board of Directors may not be involved in all aspects of a centre’s operations, it would be advis- able to clarify the Board’s role during a crisis. A proposed outline to assist with the development of these policies and procedures is presented in Appendix A. Training Providing crisis management training to the crisis management team can prepare them for their roles and enhance their abilities by: • Ensuring they understand the team’s terms of reference, individual roles and expectations • Teaching them to appropriately assess and respond to a crisis • Familiarizing them with the relevant policies and procedures • Engaging them in team building activities (particularly when they do not normally function as a decision-making group) • Preparing them to work with command-control protocols • Training them to communicate with the media 18
  15. 15. The team and the centre could benefit from training on the relevant procedures and contingency plans by the regular provision of: • Mandatory crisis management workshops for all or select staff • Role playing • Crisis management simulations (drills) This training could also be supported by the centre maintaining: • A library of crisis management resources such as documents, videos, electronic simulations/ exercises • An internal crisis management certification process Readiness Audits Policies and procedures supporting the effective operation of a crisis management program are only as effective as they are applied. It is essential to evaluate a centre’s state of readiness by conducting peri- odic and comprehensive audits of its compliance with its own policies and procedures. Readiness audits should account for the following: • Process and format to be applied • Frequency of audits • Means of addressing shortfalls Community Protocols There may be times when a centre requires the assistance of other community services like police, fire or emergency medical services to address safety and control issues. During these times, community agen- cies could assist by assuming the children’s mental health centre’s services should it be unable to main- tain its normal service levels. A crisis may also be triggered by external environmental factors that affect an entire region and require a coordinated response from several community agencies. Developing and maintaining current protocols with these agencies and services may ensure the centre’s inclusion in local, regional and pro- vincial emergency plans (see Appendix B for local and regional community contact information). Resources Children’s Mental Health Ontario will support centres involved in a crisis by assisting with the identifica- tion of and access to specialized resources. 19
  16. 16. 2) CRISIS RESPONSE Having attained an effective state of readiness, a centre may then respond to a crisis as needed. The fol- lowing action steps are recommended with the understanding that the person in command may at any time override the expected sequence in response to unexpected turns of events. Once an event meets the conditions of a crisis: 1) The designated person: a) Validates and assesses the emerging facts b) Declares a state of crisis c) Communicates his or her decision to all appropriate persons 2) Senior management: a) Shifts to a mode of command decision-making b) Operates under the authorities assumed by the crisis management team 3) The person in command: a) Assembles the crisis management team b) Assesses, in order of priority: i. The need for police, fire, emergency medical services ii. The nature and severity of the crisis iii. The immediate needs of clients and staff iv. Contacts CMHO c) Sets priorities d) Ensures actions are immediately initiated e) Follows pre-established methods of recording significant activities and events 21
  17. 17. 4) The crisis management team: a) Analyzes the impact of the crisis on the organization by considering: i. Resource requirements ii. Legal requirements and liabilities iii. The organization’s public image b) Ensures recurring progress reports on initial actions and if necessary: i. Establishes a command centre ii. Obtains legal advice iii. Engages a media specialist as required c) Re-assesses the crisis to establish: i. Emerging priorities ii. A crisis management workplan outlining required actions by designating responsible parties, and timelines d) Applies a pre-determined internal communications strategy to: i. Inform staff, clients, their families, the Board of Directors and other key stakeholders of developments ii. Include all other subsequent activity in the crisis management workplan e) Applies a pre-determined external communications strategy to: i. Complete a scripted release of information for the media ii. Obtain the required approvals iii. Release the information to the media via the centre’s spokesperson who could be the centre’s CEO iv. Include all other pre-emptive media activity in the crisis management workplan v. Inform the Ministry/Funders vi. Inform other agencies and stakeholders as appropriate vii. Review progress on the crisis management workplan on an hourly, daily or weekly basis as the severity of the crisis diminishes f) Declares the crisis to be over and communicates this: i. Internally to the organization via procedures outlined above in section d) ii. Externally via procedures outlined above in section e) Getting back to normal business once the crisis subsides will not occur naturally. A centre should deliberately undertake the ensuing measures to address the aftermath. 22
  18. 18. 3) POST-CRISIS ANALYSIS Prior to a crisis coming to a close, a centre should initiate measures to ensure a continuation of service, stabilize its clients and staff and invoke closure on the crisis. Once a crisis has passed, or at the earliest opportunity, the centre can initiate a debriefing process that: 1) Identifies those who may need therapeutic debriefing; this should include staff, children, families and caregivers 2) Assesses the merits and disadvantages of trauma counselling for those identified 3) Provides trauma counselling if appropriate As the crisis subsides and is declared over, the crisis management team: 1) Clarifies the facts of the crisis 2) Informs the key stakeholders 3) Analyzes gaps and shortfalls to prevent future occurrences 4) Rebuilds the work unit or organization 5) Helps the organization and stakeholders achieve closure 23
  19. 19. APPENDIX A Sample Crisis Management Outline The following template provides centres with a frame from which to create their own crisis management plan. The preceding infor- mation can be used as a guide to help develop policies and procedures to support the implementation of this plan. Proposed policies and procedures may be adjusted as warranted or as resources permit. 25
  20. 20. Sample Crisis Management Outline INTRODUCTION POLICY Provide a description of, purpose for, and commitment to, a centre’s crisis management program PROCEDURES Definition of Crisis Examples of Crises Managing Crises Crisis Management Pre-Readiness Crisis Response Post-Crisis Analysis 1) CRISIS MANAGEMENT PRE-READINESS POLICY Describe the centre’s commitment to readiness PROCEDURES Pre-Planning Staff Relations Near-Miss Program Crisis Management Team Communications Plan Media Relations Emergency Plans Policies and Procedures Training Readiness Audits Community Protocols Resources 2) CRISIS RESPONSE POLICY Purpose for and application of the procedures PROCEDURES Declaring a State of Crisis Shift to Command Decision-Making Mode Person in Command Initial Assessment Setting Priorities Immediate Action Documentation/Recording Crisis Management Team Impact Analysis Progress Reports Re-assessments Internal Communications External Communications Ending a State of Crisis 27
  21. 21. 3) POST-CRISIS ANALYSIS POLICY Purpose for and application of the procedures PROCEDURES Post Traumatic Stress Debrief Identify Individuals Identify Merits and Disadvantages of Trauma Counselling Trauma Counselling Management / Organizational Debrief Clarify the Facts Inform Key Stakeholders Address Gaps and Shortfalls Recovery Closure 29
  22. 22. APPENDIX B Resources 31
  23. 23. RESOURCES Relevant Websites Canada Communicable Disease Report Canadian Centre for Emergency Preparedness (click on ‘templates and documents’ for free copies of templates) Canadian Red Cross Centres for Disease Control and Prevention Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response Emergency Management Ontario Health Canada Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction Pan American Health Organization Public Health Agency of Canada Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada Public Safety Canada 33
  24. 24. Safe Canada National Organization on Disability (U.S.) World Health Organization Relevant Legislation Employment Standards Act, 2000 Human Rights Code, 1990 Labour Relations Act, 1995 Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1990 Workplace Safety and Insurance Act, 1997 35
  25. 25. Local and Regional Emergency Preparedness Contacts Ontario Regional Area Municipal Portals (OnRAMP) OnRAMP has five portals covering the five regional areas of Ontario covered by the Ministry’s Municipal Ser- vices Offices. Find regional, time-sensitive information on emergency management (including local and re- gional contact information) 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing - Emergency Management Other Resources Canadian Centre for Emergency Preparedness (Crisis Communication Plan) Canadian Red Cross (Disaster Management) Centres for Disease Control and Prevention Emergency Preparedness and Response - Trauma and Disaster Mental Health Resources – Emergency Preparedness Guide for People with Disabilities/Special Needs Influenza Pandemic: Continuity Planning Guide for Canadian Businesses 37