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Crisis Management

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  • 1. Crisis Management William L. Scherlis [email_address] Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science
  • 2. Crisis Management
    • An Application Case Study
      • What is Crisis Management
      • Crisis Management technologies
      • Crisis Management challenges for software technology research
        • 1. “Software Swat”
        • 2. Composition on demand
        • 3. Managing rapid change
        • 4. Code-ification
        • 5. Quality: analysis, assurance, validation
        • 6. Human interface
  • 3. Dimensions of Crisis Management (CM)
    • Context Dimensions
    • Distinct phases of activity
      • Planning
      • Preparedness/Mitigation
      • Response
      • Recovery
    • Broad spectrum of players
      • FEMA
      • State, Local
      • NGOs
      • Business
      • Citizens
    • Diversity of artifacts
      • Data inputs
      • Databases
      • Reports and documents
      • Applications
      • Communications channels
    • Dimensions of Challenge
    • Interdependent organizations
      • Federal/state/local, NGOs, utilities, private sector supplies, etc.
      • Thousands of organizations potentially involved
      • Wide variation in access to IT resources
    • Organizational structure varies by phase
      • C 2 during response
        • Situation awareness
        • Decision support
      • Federation during planning
        • Interoperation and metadata
      • Transactional during recovery
    • People under stress
      • Human-systems interaction
  • 4. CM Technologies
    • Examples
    • Reliable communications
    • Information integration
      • Multi-source data analysis
      • Variable quality
      • Geographical info
    • Modeling and simulation
    • “ Instant bureaucracy”
    • Situation awareness
    • Collaboration
    • E-Commerce
    • Supply chain creation
      • Inventory management
        • “ Forward deployment”
      • Business transactions
        • Pre-certification
    • Citizen single point-of-access
      • Information
      • Transactions
    • Authentication and trust
      • Citizens, responders, suppliers, organizations
      • Reconfigurable authorization
    • Information escrow
  • 5. 1. Software Swat Teams Key Software Research Issues
    • Elements of a “Software Swat” capability
      • Rapid assembly of reliable teams, components, and tools
        • The aggressive iterative process:
          • Requirements elicitation and analysis
          • Baseline technologies modeling
          • Contextual system design
          • Patterns of integration
          • Adaptation and assembly
          • Analysis, testing, and assurance
        • Early deployment
        • Continuous improvement and re-release
          • No new bugs
          • Rapid response to unanticipated needs
      • Rest on principles of predictability of evolvable processes
        • Predictable outcomes
        • Adjustment of features, quality, performance
  • 6. 2. Composition on demand Key Software Research Issues
    • Composition: rapid system assembly and adaptation
      • Rapid integration of subsystems/components
        • Overcome diverse kinds of incompatibilities with Software Architecture
        • Use component attributes to enable predictable integration
        • Seek compositionality : Predict properties of systems from properties of components.
          • Without compositionality, the entire system must be retested
          • Analyze/assure component properties just once.
      • Rapid information integration
        • Reconcile/adapt similar data models
        • Program understanding to capture/express data design
      • Provide information assurance despite rapid assembly
        • Emply diverse techniques to adapt components for “safe” use
          • Sandbox, wrap, transform, etc.
  • 7. 3. Managing Rapid Change Key Software Research Issues
    • Composition: rapid system assembly and adaptation
      • Enable geographically dispersed teams to collaborate
        • Example : Oklahoma City rapid software integration
        • Information sharing (and access control)
        • Information awareness
        • Coordination of effort (i.e., concurrency control)
      • Rapid adaptation of components and assemblies
        • With predictable results:
          • Use analyses to predict the effects of change
          • Use specifications to avoid full re-analysis and testing
          • Use manipulations to facilitate functional change
      • Continuous improvement
        • Rapid early deployment
        • Iterate and update while in use
        • ( Also important for operational e-commerce sites )
        • Improvements in components, integration, user interface, etc.
          • Assimilate new releases from component suppliers
  • 8. 4. Quality: Analysis, Assurance, Validation Key Software Research Issues
    • Quality: Getting the important things right
      • Managing security-vs-responsiveness
        • Now: High security usually means highly constrained functionality
      • Validation of integration
        • Metadata about quality, sourcing, etc.
        • Trace conclusions/results to sources and retain audit trail
        • Compositionality
        • The “good-enough” test
          • Units, Order-of -magnitude, Reasonableness
      • Models and simulations
        • Develop explicit domain models to frame specifications and assurance
        • Exploit code-ified domain models
      • Crisis management exercises
        • The usual mode of operation for crisis responders
        • Include the IT dimension
      • Augmented reality
        • Modeling  Reality
  • 9. 5. Creating the Discipline Key Software Research Issues
    • Code-ification of new domains
      • Capture using domain-specific language and domain-specific tools
      • Example domains
        • FEMA business rules
        • Information policy: privacy, access
        • Response processes
        • Situation awareness
      • Analysis
        • Consequences of access changes
        • Business rule interactions
  • 10. 6. Crisis Management User Interfaces Key Software Research Issues
    • Human interface
      • Rapid creation of new human interfaces
        • Responders
        • Citizens
        • Business
      • Collaboration
        • CM teams
          • Software engineering teams
        • Communities
      • Citizens
        • Under stress
        • Diverse information and transaction needs
      • Responders
        • Under stress
        • Diverse information and transaction needs
  • 11. Crisis Management
    • An Application Case Study
      • What is Crisis Management
      • Crisis Management technologies
      • Crisis Management challenges for software technology research
        • 1. “Software Swat”
        • 2. Composition on demand
        • 3. Managing rapid change
        • 4. Code-ification
        • 5. Quality: Analysis, assurance, validation
        • 6. Human interface
      • Success in Crisis Management depends increasingly on a solid foundation of software technologies