Crisis Management

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Crisis Management

  1. 1. Crisis Management William L. Scherlis [email_address] Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science
  2. 2. Crisis Management <ul><li>An Application Case Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is Crisis Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis Management technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis Management challenges for software technology research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. “Software Swat” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Composition on demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Managing rapid change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Code-ification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Quality: analysis, assurance, validation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Human interface </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Dimensions of Crisis Management (CM) <ul><li>Context Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct phases of activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparedness/Mitigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broad spectrum of players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FEMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State, Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversity of artifacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports and documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications channels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dimensions of Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependent organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal/state/local, NGOs, utilities, private sector supplies, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of organizations potentially involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide variation in access to IT resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational structure varies by phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C 2 during response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situation awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federation during planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperation and metadata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactional during recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People under stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human-systems interaction </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. CM Technologies <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable communications </li></ul><ul><li>Information integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-source data analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical info </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modeling and simulation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Instant bureaucracy” </li></ul><ul><li>Situation awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>E-Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Forward deployment” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-certification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Citizen single point-of-access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authentication and trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens, responders, suppliers, organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconfigurable authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information escrow </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. Software Swat Teams Key Software Research Issues <ul><li>Elements of a “Software Swat” capability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid assembly of reliable teams, components, and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The aggressive iterative process: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements elicitation and analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline technologies modeling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual system design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns of integration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation and assembly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis, testing, and assurance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early deployment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement and re-release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No new bugs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid response to unanticipated needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest on principles of predictability of evolvable processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictable outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustment of features, quality, performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 2. Composition on demand Key Software Research Issues <ul><li>Composition: rapid system assembly and adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid integration of subsystems/components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overcome diverse kinds of incompatibilities with Software Architecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use component attributes to enable predictable integration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seek compositionality : Predict properties of systems from properties of components. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Without compositionality, the entire system must be retested </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze/assure component properties just once. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid information integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reconcile/adapt similar data models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Program understanding to capture/express data design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information assurance despite rapid assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emply diverse techniques to adapt components for “safe” use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sandbox, wrap, transform, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 3. Managing Rapid Change Key Software Research Issues <ul><li>Composition: rapid system assembly and adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable geographically dispersed teams to collaborate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example : Oklahoma City rapid software integration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information sharing (and access control) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination of effort (i.e., concurrency control) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid adaptation of components and assemblies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With predictable results: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use analyses to predict the effects of change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use specifications to avoid full re-analysis and testing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use manipulations to facilitate functional change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid early deployment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iterate and update while in use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( Also important for operational e-commerce sites ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements in components, integration, user interface, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilate new releases from component suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 4. Quality: Analysis, Assurance, Validation Key Software Research Issues <ul><li>Quality: Getting the important things right </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing security-vs-responsiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now: High security usually means highly constrained functionality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation of integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata about quality, sourcing, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trace conclusions/results to sources and retain audit trail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compositionality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “good-enough” test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Units, Order-of -magnitude, Reasonableness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models and simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop explicit domain models to frame specifications and assurance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit code-ified domain models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis management exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The usual mode of operation for crisis responders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include the IT dimension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augmented reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling  Reality </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 5. Creating the Discipline Key Software Research Issues <ul><li>Code-ification of new domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture using domain-specific language and domain-specific tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FEMA business rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information policy: privacy, access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situation awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences of access changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business rule interactions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 6. Crisis Management User Interfaces Key Software Research Issues <ul><li>Human interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid creation of new human interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CM teams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software engineering teams </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse information and transaction needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse information and transaction needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Crisis Management <ul><li>An Application Case Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is Crisis Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis Management technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis Management challenges for software technology research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. “Software Swat” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Composition on demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Managing rapid change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Code-ification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Quality: Analysis, assurance, validation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Human interface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success in Crisis Management depends increasingly on a solid foundation of software technologies </li></ul></ul>

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