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  • 1. The European Union’s Crisis Management System Conflict Research Society Annual Conference 2008 “ Conflict and Complexity” University of Kent at Canterbury, UK 2-3 September 2008 Natália F. de O. Marques Leal University of Kent at Canterbury (UK)
  • 2. Introduction
    • EU’s security role
    • Concepts
    • CM origins and development
    • CM operational record
    • CM structures
    • Decision-making procedures
    • Conc.  A lot still to be done but progressive attempts to endow the EU with the necessary means to achieve its ambitions
  • 3. EU’s (desired) role in the global arena
    • “ This is a world of new dangers but also of new opportunities. The European Union has the potential to make a major contribution, both in dealing with the threats and in helping realise the opportunities. An active and capable European Union would make an impact on a global scale. In doing so, it would contribute to an effective multilateral system leading to a fairer, safer and more united world.” (ESS, 2003: 14)
    • EU’s ambition to ‘export peace and security beyond its borders’ (Europa)
  • 4. EU’s & CM (Surveys)
    • Worldviews 2002:
      • Europe should play a more active role in world affairs (even though Europeans were mainly concerned with domestic issues).
      • Favoured economic and political tools over military instruments (in spite of the willingness to use force in certain circumstances).
    • Transatlantic Trends 2006 :
      • 46% of Europeans felt that “the EU should strengthen its military power to play a larger role in the world.”
    • The External Image of the European Union (2007):
      • “ the EU is often associated with peace-making processes and security concerns” + crisis management approach one of its elements of distinctiveness (even though EU not widely known outside its borders)
  • 5. List of available CP instruments
    • EU’s CP toolbox includes “development co-operation and external assistance, trade policy instruments, social and environmental policies, diplomatic instruments and political dialogue, co-operation with international partners and NGOs, as well as the new instruments in the field of crisis management [inc. civilian and/or military missions ].” + Enlargement!
    • ( http:// )
  • 6. CM & CP and the conflict cycle
    • Conflict Prevention (CP)
    • the EU’s actions (both short and long-term) “to address the conflict dynamics by addressing structural root-causes of conflict as well as the expressions of violence. [In this sense,] Conflict prevention activities can and should be designed before a conflict (preventing the outbreak), during a conflict (preventing its spread) and after (preventing its re-emergence).” (European Commission)
    • versus Crisis (or conflict) Management (CM)
        • activities that take place after initial prevention has failed and a conflict has already erupted in order to contain both its vertical and horizontal escalation
        • short-term security concerns
    • The EU’s pillared-structure (focus on ESDP; 2nd pillar)
  • 7. From Peace Within to Peace Beyond
    • ‘ Never again’ postulate; 1951 (Paris Summit) : ECSC
    • Conflict prevention as the driving force of the EU integration process
    • Internal concern versus external projection/‘model to export’
    •  The establishment of CFSP (1993) and birth of ESDP (1999)
    • End of Cold War + Yugoslavian conflict
    • UN - Agenda for Peace (1992)
    • OSCE - Charter of Paris for a New Europe & Conflict Prevention Center
    • NATO - new strategic concept & enlargements
    • WEU / Council of Europe
    • OAU - Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, and Settlement (1993)
  • 8. EU CM: Origins and Evolution (1)
    • 1991/3: TEU  CFSP: “… eventual framing of a common defence policy ”
    • 1997/99: Amsterdam Treaty  “… progressive framing of a common defence policy ” + Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit (PPEWU)
    • 1998: French-British Summit at St. Malo:
    • “ the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises”
    • 1999: June (Cologne European Council) – establishment of ESDP
  • 9. EU CM: Origins and Evolution (2) 1999
    • June – ESDP + Nomination of Javier Solana
    • December – Helsinki European Council:
    • “ cooperating voluntarily in EU-led operations, Member States must be able, by 2003, to deploy within 60 days and sustain for at least 1 year military forces of up to 50,000–60,000 persons capable of the full range of Petersberg tasks .”
    • Petersberg Tasks = “humanitarian and rescue tasks, peacekeeping tasks and tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking” (TEU)
    • (NATO) April – Berlin Plus Arrangements:
    • NATO MS “… stand ready to define and adopt the necessary arrangements for ready access by the European Union to the collective assets and capabilities of the Alliance, for operations in which the Alliance as a whole is not engaged militarily as an Alliance. (…)”
  • 10. EU CM: Origins and Evolution (3)
    • 2000: June (Stª Maria da Feira) – priority areas for civilian missions = police, strengthening of the rule of law, strengthening civilian administration, and civil protection
    • 2001: Adoption of the EU Programme for the Prevention of Violent Conflicts (Götenborg)
    • 2003: December – A Secure Europe in a Better World , the European Security Strategy
    • 2004: [EU-25] May/June – (military) Headline Goal 2010
    • + Dec. – Civilian Headline Goal 2008
    • 2005: European Gendarmerie Force
    • 2007: new Civilian Headline Goal 2010 + Treaty of Lisbon
  • 11. EU Crisis Management Operations EUPOL Afghanistan (EU Police Mission in Afghanistan) C 17.06.2007 – 30.05.2010 EUSEC DR Congo (EU Security Sector Reform Mission in D.R. Congo) C/M 8.06.2005 – 30.06.2009 EUFOR-Althea (EU Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina) M 2.12.2004 – (open) EUJUST Themis (EU Rule of Law Mission in Georgia) C  16.7.2004 – 14.7.2005 EUPM I, II & III (EU Police Mission in Bosnia & Herzegovina) C 1.01.2003 – 31.12.2009 AMM (Aceh Monitoring Mission) C  15.9.2005 – 15.12.2006 Artemis ( EU Military Operation in Democratic Republic of Congo) M 12.06.2003 – 1.09.2003 EUPOL Proxima (EU Police Mission in the FYROMacedonia) C  15.12.2003 – 14.12.2005 EU SSR Guinea-Bissau (EU mission in support of Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissau) C/M 26.02/01.05.2008 – 01.05.2009? EULEX Kosovo (European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo) C  16.02.2008 – 2010? EUFOR TCHAD/RCA (EU Military Operation in Eastern Chad and North Eastern Central African Republic) M  25.01.2008 – ? EUPOL RDCongo ( EU Police Mission and its interface with Justice Sector, DRC) C 1.07.2007 – 30.06.2009 EUFOR DR Congo (EU Military Operation in Support of MONUC during elections in DRCongo) M  12.06.2006 – 30.11.2006 EUPT Kosovo (EU Planning Team in Kosovo) C  10.04.2006–31.03.2008? EUPOL COPPS (EU Police Mission in the Palestinian Territories) C 1.1.2006 – 31.12.2009 EUPAT (EU Police Advisory Team in the FYROMacedonia) C  15.12.2005 – 14.6.2007? EUBAM Rafah (EU Border Assistance Mission at Rafah Crossing Point in the Palestinian Territories) C  30.11.2005 – 24.11.2008* EUJUST LEX (EU Integrated Rule of Law Mission for Iraq) C 1.07.2005 – 30.06.2009 Concordia ( EU Military Operation in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) M 31.03.2003 – 15.12.2003
  • 12.  
  • 13. EU Crisis Management Operations (2)
    • 2003: January – 1 st ESDP civilian mission (EUPM to BiH) + March – 1 st EU-led military operation in Europe (Concordia to FYROM) + May – 1 st EU-led military operation outside of Europe (Operation Artemis to Burnia, DRCongo)
    • = 18 missions (12 civilian + 6 military), 11 ongoing
  • 14. Community & Other CM and CP Activities
    • 2001: Feb.– Establishment of a Rapid Reaction Mechanism (RRM) + August – 1 st deployment of the RRM (Macedonia)
    • 2005: EUBAM Moldova/Ukraine
    • Region and Country Strategy Papers (RSP/CSP) - development and external aid policy
    • Peace-building initiatives
    • SSR & DDR programmes
    • Cross-cutting issues: SALW, landmines, drugs, conflict diamonds + management natural resources
    • Early warning capacity + financial mechanisms
    • Work with other organisations (UN, AU)
    • 2007: Peace-building Partnerships (PbP)
  • 15.
    • Communitarian vs. intergovernmental
    • CM (and CP) not restricted to one single pillar but spreads across all of them
    • ≠ institutions, ≠ decision-making and financing procedures
    EU’s complex pillared-structure 1 st pillar EC 2 nd Pillar CFSP (inc. ESDP) 3 rd pillar ‘ JHA’
  • 16. European Union European Commission (President) European Council Council Secretary- General/ HR for CFSP Commissioner for External Relations Private Office SG/HR Directorate-General E External and Politico-Military Affairs Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit Military Staff Directorate VIII Defence Aspects Directorate IX Civilian Crisis Management Directorate-General External Relations Directorate A Crisis Platform - Policy Co-ord. CFSP Deputy Director-General DGA-1 Council of Ministers (GAERC) Permanent Representatives (COREPER) Political and Security Committee (PSC) Civilian Crisis Management Committee Military Committee Deputy Director- General DGA-3 Deputy Director- General DGA-2 EU Presidency
  • 17. Commission CM Structures Commissioner for External Relations Directorate-General External Relations (DG RELEX) Directorate A Crisis Platform - Policy Co-ordination in CFSP Deputy Director-General DGA-1 (CFSP, Multilateral Relations, North America, East Asia, NZ, EEA, EFTA) Deputy Director-General DGA-3 (Asia and Latin America) Deputy Director-General DGA-2 (ENP, Eastern Europe, Southern Caucasus and Central Asia, Middle East and South Mediterranean) Unit A2 Crisis Management and Conflict Prevention Unit A3 CFSP and Rapid Reaction Mechanism Unit A4 Security Policy
  • 18. European Council (Heads of State and Government + President EC) Council of Ministers (GAERC) Permanent Representatives Committee (COREPER) Political and Security Committee (PSC) Civilian Crisis Management Committee (CIVCOM) Military Committee (EUMC) EU Presidency Politico-Military Group (PMG) Military Staff (EUMS) Council Secretariat (next slide)
  • 19. Council Structures
    • European Council ( Heads of State and Government + President EC) : highest level of political and strategic decision
    • GAERC/ERC (Foreign Affairs Ministers+EC) : decisions on external relations, incl. CFSP, ESDP, trade and development cooperation + ensure coherence across EU’s external action
    • COREPER (Ambassadors & deputies+EC) : prepares Council work and decisions
  • 20. Council ESDP Structures (2000/01)
    • PSC - Political and Security Committee (Ambassadors & deputies) : monitors international situation in CFSP areas + contributes to the definition of policies + monitors the implementation of agreed policies + exercises political control & strategic direction of CM operations
    • CIVCOM – Committee for the Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (MS diplomats/officials and experts) : reports to PSC and delivers opinions on civilian aspects of ESDP
    • EUMC – Military Committee (MS Chiefs of Staff) : supreme military body within the Council of the EU / forum for military consultation and cooperation between the EU MS in the field of CP and CM
  • 21. Council Secretary General/ HR for CFSP Private Office SG/HR Directorate-General E External and Politico-Military Affairs Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit (PPEWU) Military Staff (inc. Civil-Military Cell) Joint Situation Centre (SITCEN) Directorate VIII Defence Aspects Directorate IX Civilian C.M. Police Unit Civil Aspects of Crisis Management Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) EU Satellite Centre (SATCEN) European Institute for Security Studies (ISS) Deputy Secretary-General
  • 22.
    • HR/SG: assists the Council in foreign policy matters, through contributing to the formulation, preparation and implementation of European policy decisions
    • DGE VIII – Defence Affairs
    • DGE IX – Civilian Crisis Management
    • SG/HR Private Office – formulates policy on CFSP matters + other tasks
    • PPEWU – Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit
    • EUMS – Military Staff (seconded military and civilian experts) : performs early warning, situation assessment and strategic planning of Petersberg tasks […] and all EU-led operations
    • CPCC (Council officials and seconded experts) - effective planning and conduct of civilian ESDP crisis management operations, as well as the proper implementation of all mission-related tasks
    Council Secretariat Structures
  • 23. Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) Civilian Operations Commander Chief of Staff Mission Support Conduct of Operations Concepts Finance Procurement Logistics, Security / CIS Human Resources Europe / Balkans Africa Asia/ Middle East EUPM EULEX Kosovo EU AMIS EUPOL RD Congo Guinea Bissau EUBAM Rafah EUPOL COPPS EUJST LEX EUPOL Afghanistan
  • 24. Conclusion (1)
    • High ambitions vs. no specific structures
    • Considerable evolution since 1999, at a surprising pace (structures + operations + capabilities)
    • Intergovernmental character of ESDP shields it from internal political crises within the EU
  • 25. Conclusion (2)
    • Internal rivalries (inter- and intra-pillar)
    • Civilian versus military structures
    • The Secretariat’s power
    • Most decisions taken by national officials – lack of democratic legitimacy?
    • Coherence and consistency; ‘capability-expectation gap’ vs. Growing expectations
    • Treaty of Lisbon