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    Action programme for crisis management Action programme for crisis management Document Transcript

    • Action Programme for Crisis Management at Växjö University (latest revision 26th January 2009, revision by Maria Gruvstad) The current version of this document can be found at: www.vxu.se/intranet/kris
    • 1. Background and theoretical basis ............................................................... 2 1.1 Background .......................................................................................................................................... 2 1.2 The theoretical basis of crisis management.......................................................................................... 2 1.2.1 Definition of the concept of crisis.................................................................................................... 2 1.2.2 Characteristics of traumatic crises ................................................................................................. 3 1.2.3 Crisis phases ................................................................................................................................... 3 2. What constitutes a crisis at Växjö University? ........................................... 5 2.1 Individual fatalities and other cases of death ....................................................................................... 5 2.1.1 Information...................................................................................................................................... 6 2.1.2 Memorial service............................................................................................................................. 6 2.1.3 Follow-up ........................................................................................................................................ 7 2.2 Major fires, accidents, threats or violent situations.............................................................................. 7 3. Internal crisis organisation.......................................................................... 8 3.1 Crisis management organisation (for an outline with names- see appendix 1) ................................... 9 3.2 Description of functions in the crisis management organisation.......................................................... 10 3.2.1 Management.................................................................................................................................. 10 3.2.2 Information group ......................................................................................................................... 10 3.2.3 Operational group........................................................................................................................ 10 3.2.4 Information filters ......................................................................................................................... 11 3.2.5 Analysis ......................................................................................................................................... 11 3.3 Information in a crisis situation.......................................................................................................... 11 3.4 Assembling the crisis management group.......................................................................................... 12 3.5 Crisis group........................................................................................................................................ 13 3.5.1 Support provided immediately following an incident................................................................... 13 3.5.2 Follow-up / debriefing................................................................................................................... 13 4. External organisation in cases of major disasters ..................................... 14 5. Miscellaneous............................................................................................ 14 Appendix 1 – Crisis management organisation – outline including names of officers................................................................................................................. 16 Appendix 2 – Checklist for dealing with threats and violent situations ............. 17 Appendix 3 – Checklist- Routines in cases of fatalities...................................... 17 List of sources ..................................................................................................... 17 1
    • 1. Background and theoretical basis 1.1 Background At Växjö University, a document has been in existence since 1993 which has given guidance in the management of crisis situations. The document’s title can be loosely translated as ‘Action readiness in crisis situations’ and relates to situations involving an employee or student fatality/death /death. The document also sets out the theoretical points of departure for what constitutes a crisis, a practical guide to crisis management as well as an overview of the crisis group’s composition. Over the past few decades, Swedish society has been affected by several major disasters, which have thrown into spotlight the need for a thorough and more extensive plan of action for the management of crisis situations. Any work place can be affected, either directly or indirectly and it is important that employees are aware that their employer has a responsibility for managing these situations in the best way possible. In addition there are aspects of the working environment such as security and safety which need to be incorporated into a plan of action of this type. With this plan of action, of which the first version appeared in 2001, Växjö University seeks to emphasize the importance of the professional management of crisis situations of various types. The programme contains both theoretical points of departure and practical guidance for crisis management work in various situations. 1.2 The theoretical basis of crisis management 1.2.1 Definition of the concept of crisis A crisis exists when we are faced with such incidents, events or problems which we cannot naturally solve using our internal (existing) resources. We may feel pressured and emotionally affected or alternatively experience a confused state of mind. A crisis does not necessarily involve the loss of life. It could also mean that one has become unemployed, or seriously ill etc. Any unforeseen incident which deeply affects people can result in a crisis. One makes the distinction between developmental crises, life crises and traumatic crises. Here we will chiefly concern ourselves with traumatic crises. 2
    • 1.2.2 Characteristics of traumatic crises The incident affects us suddenly, unexpectantly or unpredictably. In this respect, a traumatic crisis differs from a life crisis or when someone passes on following a long illness. The incident is outside our control. We often look for a cause-effect connection despite the fact that in some cases there is no such connection. We may find it difficult to accept that the incident has happened by chance without the possibility of being able to influence the course of events in some way. The incident can constitute a threat to our existence, our identity, dignity and security. We can become conscious of our own vulnerability and can therefore need help in having the strength to go on with life. We perhaps cannot manage to live with the strong feelings of insecurity which arise in the situation. A person can change considerably following involvement in a traumatic event; one looks upon life in a completely different way. The incident can involve major life changes. It could involve considerable human suffering and the effects can sometimes be outside our control. In cases of coming into contact with a person who has undergone a crisis, it is important to ask oneself: what incident has brought on the crisis what the crisis may mean for the person involved what life phase he / she is in what the social circumstances surrounding the person are These factors are all significant in terms of the effects which the crisis has for the individual and what type of treatment is most suitable. 1.2.3 Crisis phases Reactions in connection with a crisis to a large extent follow a very similar pattern in all human beings even if individual situations can vary somewhat with regards for example to their seriousness and manner of expression. The four phases are: Shock phase This can last from a few hours up to several days. The person concerned can appear to be emotionally detached, disorientated, apathetic or hyperactive. Physical symptoms can also occur such as vomiting, shaking, perspiration and shivering. Treatment: It is important to communicate security, emotional warmth, support and the feeling of being taken care of, especially in the form of body contact. Provide emotional first aid. The initiative should be taken 3
    • by individuals in the immediate surroundings who should show respect for the affected person’s feelings as well as accepting their reactions. Reaction phase This can last from approximately a week up to several months. More intensive reactions of various kinds can be noted, such as aggressiveness, increasingly desperate actions, rootless and unplanned behaviour and self-contempt. Sleeping problems, nightmares, feelings of guilt, fatigue etc can also occur. Individuals can also experience a lack of faith in or need for the treatment / assistance with which they have been provided. Treatment: it is important to be an active and patient listener, providing advice and information. Debriefing and dialogue sessions with the individual are important. It is important to work through feelings of guilt and to break isolation. Dejected and despairing individuals often evoke a desire to help among many people but also a feeling of unease and a need to distance oneself from the situation. On many such occasions it may be thought that one has nothing to give. Sometimes one can hear ‘there’s no point talking about that’ or ‘there’s no point getting involved when nothing can be done about it’. One fails to see that the most important thing one can do as a boss, supervisor or workmate is to listen to and put up with someone who as a result of their experience has become so unrealistic and demanding. Processing stage This stage can last for several years. It is characterized by a greater willingness to understand what has happened and the reaction to the incident. Treatment: It is important that people in close proximity to the individual have patience. Professional help and crisis therapy may be needed. It is important to have the opportunity to get over memories, sensory impressions and fantasies and by doing so being able to describe feelings and thoughts in words. New-orientation phase The individual’s self identity may have changed significantly. This phase has no ending but instead leads to the beginning of new phases of life. The person goes on with their life after what has happened but is not prevented from continuing along the path of personal development. Disruptions during any of the crisis phases described above can have consequences which may be long-term. Crisis reactions which have not been fully confronted can lead to negative consequences in future crisis situations and at other difficult periods in life. Getting stuck in the reaction phase can lead to the development of PTSD (post traumatic stress 4
    • disorder) involving serious reactions and symptoms which won’t go away. From experience it is known that many individuals who have been subjected to traumatic events can find themselves stuck in any one of the above phases, leading in turn to the conclusion that confronting the effects of a crisis is extremely important. 2. What constitutes a crisis at Växjö University? The most important point to note here is that we are dealing with situations which we cannot manage on the basis of our everyday routines or action strategies. These situations affect us more deeply and can arouse feelings such as fear, terror, despair and grief. Crisis situations can either be limited in extent where only a few people are directly affected or alternatively be of disaster proportions involving considerably more people. In both types of situation there are people who are directly affected, individuals indirectly affected who consequently become emotionally or practically involved together with people with the task of managing various parts of the practical crisis management work. It is difficult to define and delimit what exactly constitutes a crisis situation. It is important that the basic points in this action plan are applied as appropriate. This plan of action retains a section which previously defined routines for fatalities involving employees or students, followed by a section specifically devoted to routines in cases of major fires or accidents, threats or violent situations. With regards to larger scale disasters, there is also a shorter outline of the crisis management organisation in the surrounding community, which is the organisation mode actively called upon in cases of disaster. In such situations, our crisis readiness and coordination will be organised internally in order to manage the consequences for individuals at the workplace. 2.1 Individual fatalities and other cases of death Växjö University has for the past few years had a properly functioning action readiness plan for situations involving a student or employee fatality/death. This readiness builds on the same theoretical perspectives on the definition of crises as described above and involves routines which have been seen to work well in practice. The following points are based to a large extent on this document. The basis for the model is the readiness to accept, leave room and provide opportunities for individuals and groups to get over their feelings and come to terms with their reactions. It is also important to gather individuals together to honour the memory of the deceased person in an as respectful and worthy manner as possible. Detailed instructions can be found in appendix 3- Checklist- routines in 5
    • cases of fatalities’. An abbreviated version of the main points contained in the routines is set out below. 2.1.1 Information Information about what has happened must be spread to the individuals concerned as quickly as possible. This is important to avoid situations where knowledge of what has happened is spread by rumour or in some other way, where there is no way of dealing with the reactions. It is therefore important that anyone learning of a fatality/death should immediately contact someone in the crisis group who will then take measures for initiating the routines and ensuring that information is spread via the proper channels. Flying flags as a mark of respect As a mark of respect and also with the purpose of disseminating information, flags will be flown at half mast in connection with the notification of fatality/death. Flags will be flown at the University and also at the Student Union- Tufvan. In connection with the flying of flags at half mast, candles should also be lit and an information notice put up at the reception and also in the student union. Spreading of information In the case of a fatality/death involving an employee, a message will be sent via email to everyone within the department / unit concerned as well as notification put up on the department’s / unit’s message board. Abbreviated information will also be sent to all employees via the Förstärkaren web-based information service. In cases of a fatality/death involving a student, the school / department concerned and immediate student group will be informed first. Contact with the student union The student union will be informed in order to answer questions and also to be able to act in accordance with the routines for situations of this nature. Assembly for those concerned A short assembly / gathering will be organised in order to provide further information and the opportunity for reflection. 2.1.2 Memorial service In order to provide those concerned with the opportunity to express their feelings relating to what happened, a memorial service will be arranged as quickly as possible. The memorial service is open for all individuals concerned. It is important that the memorial service is held in close proximity to what happened. A representative from the University’s senior management and / or the school / department / unit will participate in the 6
    • memorial service, which is documented for the surviving relatives of the deceased. Form and contents The memorial service should be kept simple, lasting ideally 30-45 minutes. We try to find a suitable place at the University and will arrange a white cloth on a table with candles and flowers. Subdued lighting is to be preferred. We will also play a number of pieces of music, mixing this with poems and words of remembrance. If someone wants to say a few words of remembrance, they are free to do so but there is no requirement for it. One can instead choose to contact a priest for participation in the memorial service. If a head of department, colleague or fellow student wants to say something or read a poem, there will obviously be a suitable opportunity to do so. Poems and music Suggestions for choices of poem and music are available from the Student Welfare Office and also from the personnel department. It is important to emphasize that the choice of music and poems does not have to follow conventional rules but should always be an expression of the feelings of the individuals organizing the service. If relatives or workmates / fellow students have suggestions or thoughts more in line with the deceased’s own music taste or choice of literature, this can give the memorial service a more personal touch even if this choice involves a departure from traditional music / poetry associated with mourning. 2.1.3 Follow-up Events of this nature can evoke powerful feelings and emotions, both related to the incident itself but also to past experiences. Strong feelings relating to existential matters and feelings of guilt are often aroused in situations like this. It is important to remember that reactions sometimes come a long time after the incident. The crisis group includes the readiness to organize counselling sessions either on an individual or group basis. The University will send a wreath or flowers to the funeral as well as sending documentation from the memorial service to the relatives. 2.2 Major fires, accidents, threats or violent situations Växjö University can also be affected by a major fire or accident, threat(s) or violent situations. With regards to risk-preventative measures, the responsibilities of the employer are set out in the document AFS 1993:2 (‘Violence and threats in working environments’). These responsibilities include surveys of risks format of work place / information in such a way as to minimize risks 7
    • proposal of security routines and training of staff concerned The Risk Management Ordinance (1995:1300) also states that every public authority ‘should take suitable measures to limit the risks involved and prevent damage, injury or losses’. With regards to concrete situations which may arise, it is this plan of action which should be used. The basis for the definition of crisis reactions, section 1.2 describes how people react in crisis situations, while section 2, 3 and 4 describe the internal and external organisations to be mobilised in crisis situations. It can be reassuring to have a checklist close to hand which can give clear and unequivocal instructions concerning the combating of threats. Appendix 2 contains a checklist with instructions for dealing with threats and violent situations. 3. Internal crisis organisation A crisis management group is in existence at Växjö University which is activated immediately in cases of major crisis situations concerning the university’s staff and / or students. An outline of the crisis management organisation can be found under point 3.1 and an outline including names is contained in appendix 1. The outline is always maintained although staff composition may change over time. The information contained below concerns major crisis situations. In cases of individual fatalities or smaller scale crisis situations, see point 2.1. The University’s crisis management organisation has the responsibility for leading and managing work in a crisis situation. The crisis management organisation involves the following functions: Management, Information, Operative group(s), Information filters and Analysis. The responsibility of the management covers: pooling and surveying of resources distribution of work tasks moving on from the crisis follow-up of measures taken Internal and external information is of importance as well as an analysis of what happened. The crisis management group activated in a crisis situation will take up position at a shared location where the work of dealing with the crisis can be most easily overseen. An information filter will be established to deal with incoming questions and signals, referring 8
    • them to the crisis management’s operative, information-spreading and leadership sub-components. 3.1 Crisis management organisation (for an outline with names- see appendix 1) MANAGEMENT permanent deputy vice-chancellor pro vice- chancellor dean university’s chief 2 heads executive from the chancellory ANALYSIS 2 people appointed by the management OPERATIONAL GROUP 1 person from the crisis group Student union employee INFORMATION- Head of Personnel and / or GROUP Head of Estate Management Head of Information + In some cases Heads of staff from the Schools / Departments / Units Information Unit in cases of major crisis situations, further resource persons INFORMATION FILTER 2 to 3 people in the filter 2 deputies 9
    • 3.2 Description of functions in the crisis management organisation 3.2.1 Management As the person with the ultimate responsibility for daily operations at Växjö University, the Vice-chancellor is responsible for this plan of action and the proper functioning of the crisis management organisation. The Vice- chancellor is the person who, together with the University’s chief executive, makes up the leadership of the crisis management organisation. The Vice-chancellor and chief executive decide on the degree of mobilisation involved in other parts of the crisis management organisation. They decide whether or when the heads of school/ department / unit concerned should be incorporated into the operational group of the crisis management organisation. To ensure that someone from the management is always in place, two deputies will be appointed to each person. 3.2.2 Information group In crisis situations it is of the utmost importance that information initiatives both externally and internally function properly. Contact with mass media and information to the surrounding community should be managed solely by the head of information or other person who they appoint. The information group has the overarching responsibility for the management and coordination of information dissemination both externally and internally- not only in the organisation but also in the crisis management room. External information – For example press conferences, contact with radio stations, TV, newspapers etc. Internal information – Information meetings for employees or students, web information. Information in the crisis management room – Keeping a log book, making sure that others in the room are kept informed about the situation as it develops, organising regular 'stops' to facilitate the exchange of information in the room. 3.2.3 Operational group The operational group fields questions relating to premises involved, technical service, personnel and students. In crisis situations, there are many questions raised concerning employees. The head of personnel is responsible for coordinating the special tasks of the individual personnel consultants in the developing situation. Questions can relate to insurance, protective measures for survivors, help with the arrangement of funerals, leave of absence etc. 10
    • With regards to premises and technical service provision in all areas, the head of estate management is the coordinator with an overview of and expertise in the resources available and their limitations. The head of personnel and the head of estate management are also included within the management group as deputies for the university chief executive. One employed representative from the student union will also participate in the crisis management’s operative group. This is a person with a thorough knowledge of the student union’s organisation and routines and who can ensure continuity in the ongoing work. It is important that this person unlike elected student representatives continues in their job from year to year, building up in their role as an employee the knowledge and expertise to be able to react in a crisis situation. The student union chairman is thus the person acting as a link between the crisis group and the student fraternity organisations, committees, student clubs, societies and student bars. Heads of schools / departments / units have a basic employer’s responsibility and are therefore obvious participants in a situation concerning their respective staff groups. The nature of the situation itself determines if the head of school / department / unit is needed most of all in the direct crisis management leadership or in the crisis management work out in the University as a whole. 3.2.4 Information filters In order for the crisis management organisation to function properly in conjunction with major disasters, it is necessary to set up an information filter. This filter consists of two or three people with a thorough knowledge of the organisation who will answer telephone calls and relay messages to the right person. 3.2.5 Analysis While the crisis group is active it is important that someone or alternatively a couple of people are detached from operative responsibility to obtain instead an overview of the organisation as a whole and to be able to oversee and develop strategies in the ongoing work. 3.3 Information in a crisis situation In connection with a crisis or disaster situation it is important to ensure that information channels are clear and that the responsibility for information initiatives is transparent. The Vice-chancellor has the ultimate responsibility in this respect and relays items of information in consultation with the head of information and the University chief executive to other people concerned. Individual employees or students do 11
    • not have any responsibility to provide information or answer questions but should instead refer to the person responsible for information in the crisis management organisation. The head of information has the main responsibility for disseminating information to mass media and the surrounding community. Previous experience has shown that regular press conferences have an important role to play in this respect. Internal information meetings will be held at regular intervals. The University’s website plays a central role and the information department is responsible together with the IT officer in the crisis management organisation for ensuring that information can be obtained via this route. The police are responsible for informing relatives of people involved in accidents. 3.4 Assembling the crisis management group It is everyone’s responsibility to act and inform the crisis management organisation’s leadership when crisis situations arise. The person who first learns of the incident should have the following questions in mind: What has happened? Who is it ringing / reporting? Where has the incident taken place? When did it happen? If anyone injured or dead? If so, how many? Is anyone missing? Are there any names of the people involved? What measures have been taken? Who has been informed? What is happening right now? The leadership- the Vice-chancellor and / or University chief executive (or their deputies in accordance with the outline in appendix 1) will decide on if and when the crisis management organisation should be mobilised and to what extent. Telephone numbers to everyone in the crisis management organisation are contained in a special document. The crisis management organisation will be assembled in the places specified in the crisis folder. The place of assembly will be equipped with analogue telephones together with connection points for computers and projectors. In close proximity to this area, there will be provision of computers to enable the Ladok and Primula databases to be accessed. 12
    • 3.5 Crisis group There is also a crisis group at Växjö University which, if needed wholly or partly can be incorporated into the crisis management organisation’s operative group. The crisis group contains people who can provide emotional and practical first aid and professional help in the form of consultations and debriefing in addition to individual support sessions if the need arises. The group is also responsible for the management of the routines which are currently in place in connection with sudden fatalities. The crisis group consists of: Development consultants – Maria Gruvstad and Lena Rask Student guidance counsellors – Maria Larsson, Kristina Ekegren, Göran Larsson and Henrietta Hofer Student nurse – Åsa Andtskär 3.5.1 Support provided immediately following an incident Immediately following the incident it is important to provide emotional and practical first aid. This work task is primarily in the hands of the crisis group but there are others who need to know what this first aid can consist of. First aid can take the form of: provision of practical care and treatment, through the provision of rest, warmth, a friendly ear, care and attention and water / liquid sustainance showing understanding and acceptance allowing the person(s) affected to talk about their experience of what has happened. shielding the person(s) affected from exposure to further stress, mass media attention and the general public 3.5.2 Follow-up / debriefing Follow-up should be carried out as simply as possible without the involvement of the leadership. This can also take the form of professional consultations and debriefing. Such expertise is already present within the crisis group. This is a method for going through experiences and impressions from traumatic situations. The purpose is to mitigate and prevent risks for longer-term psychological effects of a traumatic incident. The crisis group will be responsible for long-term follow-up of incidents. 13
    • 4. External organisation in cases of major disasters In cases of major disasters affecting employees and / or students at Växjö University, community crisis management systems will be activated. By cases of major disasters it is meant in this context that a significant number of people have been affected and that the crisis management group at the University has made the assessment that it will be necessary to ask for additional assistance. Community crisis management systems are founded on a number of basic cornerstones. One such cornerstone involves cooperation between public sector authorities and organisations, companies and volunteer groups. Another cornerstone is made up of the following so-called basic principles: Responsibility principle- that the person / body responsible for daily operations under normal circumstances is also responsible in a crisis situation. Similarity principle- that the daily running of an organisation and localisation will be the same during a crisis if at all possible. Proximity principle-that a crisis should primarily be dealt with on the site of the incident involving the most closely affected and accountable people A third cornerstone takes up sector and area responsibility ie that each sector of the community should have a specific responsibility and that this should be a geographical coordination of the crisis. More information relating to community coordination of crisis management can be found by following the link to the national website for crisis information: http://www.krisinformation.se/web/StartPage.aspx?id=10937 If the University’s crisis management assesses the need to ask for help in a crisis situation, the telephone exchange of Växjö Municipality can be contacted during the daytime on 0470-410 00 and throughout the night via SOS Alarm, telephone 0470-76 60 00. Växjö Municipality’s crisis readiness and crisis management organisation are described on the municipality’s website: http://www.vaxjo.se/vaxjo_templates/Page.aspx?id=488 5. Miscellaneous To ensure continuity in the organisation described in the programme, it is necessary to establish a crisis management administration, a group which has the task of: 14
    • • continually reviewing the staffing and make-up of the crisis group • continually arranging training initiatives • being responsible for ensuring that information about the crisis management organisation is kept up-to-date. • otherwise ensuring that the crisis management organisation can work on the basis of the programme The group consists of the following people: Lena Fritzén Pro Vice-chancellor Allan Fransson Estates and Services Department Maria Gruvstad Personnel Department Lena Rask Personnel Department 15
    • Appendix 1 – Crisis management organisation – outline including names of officers MANAGEMENT permanent deputy Johan Sterte Lena Fritzén Bo Jonsson Lars-Olof Nilsson Inger Thörnqvist Christel Olsson ANALYSIS 2 representatives OPERATIONAL GROUP appointed by the management A representative from the crisis group – Åsa Andtskär/Göran Larsson/Maria Larsson/Kristina Ekegren/Henrietta Hofer/ Lena Rask/ Maria Gruvstad Jonas Bäckström Inger Thörnqvist and / or Christel Olsson INFORMATION In some cases Heads of Schools / Head of information + Departments / Units persons appointed by the Head of information in cases of major crisis situations, further resource persons INFORMATION FILTER permanent: Ing-Marie Genar Malin Blom deputy: Ywonne Fransson 16
    • Appendix 2 – Checklist for dealing with threats and violent situations A few simple rules-of-thumb for avoiding provocation or being provoked in threat situations. • Try to keep calm! More often than not the attack is not personally motivated – rather you happen to be in the way of the aggressor or represent something which has brought on the expression of anger. • Listen actively! The aggressor will be positively surprised to meet someone interested in their problem and willing to listen. • Give the space! The aggressor needs space. Don’t go too close and avoid questions which can be interpreted as personal until you feel sure that you have been accepted. • Create a breathing space! This can be achieved by moving to a suitable place where you can speak to each other undisturbed. Make sure that others know where you are. • Take the other person seriously! Show respect for the person’s emotional expression. • Make use of your professional knowledge! Rely on your own expertise and intuition • Avoid issuing threats! You will thus avoid escalating the conflict. • Focus on the matter in hand! Avoid making personal remarks, especially those which might insult your counterpart. Avoid- winner-loser situations! Try to keep a discussion going where neither party feels like a winner or loser but instead as a participant in the solution of a problem. Appendix 3 – Checklist- Routines in cases of fatalities See specific appendix on the website where crisis management documents have been collected. List of sources Cullberg, Johan, (1986) Kris och utveckling, Natur och Kultur AFS 1993:2 Våld och hot i arbetsmiljön Förordning (1995:1300) om statliga myndigheters riskhantering Previa Hot och våld i arbetsmiljön Krisinformation.se (http://www.krisinformation.se/web/StartPage.aspx?id=10937 ) 17