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Mg soil ferterlizer

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    Mg soil   ferterlizer Mg soil ferterlizer Presentation Transcript

    • Soil Composition & Ferterlizers
      Northridge Garden Guild
      June 29, 2010
      Materials are a condensed version of information provided by the USU extension service
    • Soil Composition
      Jerry L. Goodspeed
      Utah State University Extension
    • USDA NRCS
      Soil – what’s in it?
    • Why is soil important?
      Like humans, plants thrive in a healthy environment
      Good soil provides nutrients, oxygen and water to plants without stress
      Weak plants are more susceptible to disease and insects
    • Components of Soil (by volume)
      (Transpiration
      and nutrient transport)
      (Primary soil particles
      and nutrients for plants)
      (Soil structure and
      nutrients for plants)
      (Oxygen to roots)
    • Different soil profiles
      What does your soil look like?
    • Topsoil-subsoil Characteristics
      -high organic matter
      -low salts
      -high nutrients
      “Topsoil”
      -low organic matter
      -high clay and/
      or lime
      -high salts
      -high pH
      “Subsoil”
    • Individual Soil Properties
    • Soil Texture
      The Percentage of sand, silt and clay in the soil
    • The Effect of Particle Size
      Sand particles
      Clay particles
      Air flow
      Water flow
    • Determining Soil Texture
      By feel
      Soil test
      jar method
      Fill a 1-quart jar ¼ full of soil
      Fill the jar ¾ full of water
      Shake very well to suspend soil
      Place on a flat surface and allow soil to settle
    • Clay
      Silt
      Sand
    • Texture Effects on Soil’s Physical Properties
      Textureavailable waterAerationDrainageCompaction
      Sand
      Loam
      Silt loam
      Clay loam
      Clay
    • Treating Soil Texture “Problems”
      Too much sand?
      You are lucky
      Adjust irrigation accordingly
      Select drought tolerant plants
      Too much clay?
      Good luck!
      Select plants tolerant of poor drainage, lack of oxygen
      Either case: induce soil structure
    • Introduction of Organic Matter
      The combination of sand, silt and clay combined with organic matter creates secondary particles called aggregates
    • Compaction
      Destroys soil structure
      Seals off soil surface
      Water runs off instead of into soil – drought results
      Air can’t enter or escape soil -
      suffocation
      Roots can’t penetrate the soil
      Stress – plants die
    • Soil Compaction
    • Preventing Compaction
      Grates, bricks, sidewalks in high-use areas
    • Treating compaction
      Eliminate the cause:
      Fence, hedge, signs
      Add organic matter to soil
      Aerate or till the soil
    • Aeration
      Hollow Tine Aerator
      “Instant air spaces” for water and oxygen
      movement into the plant root zone
    • Soil Drainage
    • Poor Drainage Problem
      Prevent compaction?
      Add organic matter
      Install subsurface drainage system
      Provide drainage ditches
      Develop raised beds
      Use precise water management
    • Excessive Drainage Problem
      Very sandy soil
      Consider sunken beds
      Add extra organic matter
      Precise water management
    • Amending Soil with Organic Matter
      Benefits:
      Improves drainage
      Improves water-holding capacity
      Reduces compaction
      Provides nutrients to plants
      Improves soil “tilth”
      (ease of tillage, working with a soil)
      Lowers soil pH
    • How much organic matter should I add?
      How much is already there?
      Native Utah soils ~ 0.25 to 2.0%
      Ideal soils 5-10%
      Are you satisfied with the current condition of your soil?
      Add some organic matter to maintain soil conditions
      Should I add sand to my clay soil?
    • Adding/Preserving Organic Matter
      Grow plants
      Mulch around perennials
      Add extra organic matter to gardens and other annual planting areas
    • Sources of Organic Matter
      Wood Residues
      Chips/sawdust/bark materials
      Add 1 to 2 lbs of nitrogen per 100 lbs of material
      Grass clippings or green residues
      Can’t go wrong with these
      Allow to dry
      Composts and animal manure
      • Watch for salts and weed seeds
    • How much Organic Matter Should I add?
      Single application
      One inch per year for normal applications in annual areas(new site needs significant improvement)
      1 inch of material = 3 cubic yards spread over a 1,000 square foot area
    • Summary
      Understand what you have
      Figure out what you need
      Texture
      Compaction
      Drainage
    • Fertilizers
      Basic Master Gardener
      Training
      Jerry L. Goodspeed
      Utah State University
      Extension
    • 16 Essential nutrients
      Macronutrients (large quantities):
      oxygennitrogen phosphorus
      hydrogenpotassium sulfur
      carbon calcium magnesium
      Micronutrients (small quantities):
      zinciron
      copper manganese
      chlorine molybdenum
      boron
      nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium
    • Sources of nutrients
      Inorganic/Synthetic fertilizers
      Organic Fertilizers
      Manures composts, and other organic materials
      Green manures (legumes and others)
    • Fertilizer label
      Three numbers always appear on the label
      1. % Nitrogen (N)
      2. % Phosphorus (P)
      3. % Potassium (K)
    • Just A few N-P-K labels out there
      34-0-0
      21-0-0
      29-3-4
      26-3-3
      28-4-4
      25-3-5
      20-2-4
      26-3-3
      25-3-5
      32-3-5
      24-6-12
      16-4-8
      16-16-16
      12-12-12
      22-4-11
      22-4-14
      20-27-5
      18-5-9
      5-10-10
      9-17-9
    • Selecting a fertilizer
      What nutrients are needed?
      Soil test
      What ratio of nutrients are needed?
      Nitrogen alone or a “complete” fertilizer?
      Established landscapes need nitrogen annually; few landscapes need other nutrients
      Are extras needed?
      cost factor: extras increase cost
    • Soil testing
    • Soil testing…
      …prior to planting: ensures good success – especially in new landscapes
      …diagnose problems
      …every 2 to 3 years to monitor soil environment
    • Soil sampling
      Sample areas with different soils
      6-inch depth in turf
      12-inch depth around woody vegetation and in gardens
      Combine 4 to 6 sub-samples from the area for each sample submitted
    • Soil Test Report
    • Methods of application
      Broadcast – evenly distributed on surface
      Banding – applied in a narrow band on surface or in furrow opened adjacent to plant row
      Foliar – applied in liquid form
    • Spreaders
    • Organic nutrient sources
      Much lower concentration of nutrients
      Example: 2-2-2 for composts
      Good sources of organic matter
      May need to supplement with inorganic nitrogen fertilizer
    • Green manures
      Plants grown for the sole purpose of “storing” nutrients or producing nutrients (nitrogen) and organic matter for later use in the garden
      Examples:
      Legumes (peas, beans, vetch, alfalfa)
      Small grains (rye, oats, barley, wheat)
    • Other considerations
      Combine inorganic and organic nutrients
      Practice crop rotation in garden
      Return as much organic matter as possible to annual planting areas
    • Soil pH and Iron Chlorosis
    • Soil pH
      Soil pH: the degree of acidity or alkalinity of soil
      The pH scale:
      2 4 6 8 10 12
      Neutral
      (7.0)
      acidic
      alkaline
    • Causes of iron chlorosis
      High lime soils
      Buffer pH in 7.8-8.0+ range
      Planting acid-loving plants in Utah
      “Aggravating factors”
      Cold soils
      Over-irrigation
      Soil compaction
      Over-fertilization
      Other stresses
    • Major pH problem:iron chlorosis
    • Solutions to iron chlorosis problem
      Select iron efficient plants
      Treat with iron
      Change soil pH?
    • pH tolerant = iron efficient plants
    • Soil salinity
    • Soil salinity = soluble salts in soil
      Salts inhibit plant growth
      Salts cause “chemical drought”
      Visual diagnosis: salt crusting/salt burn
      Soil test diagnosis:
      Electrical conductivity (EC)
      EC > 2 deciSiemens/meter is a saline soil for horticulture uses
    • Examples
    • Sources of salts
      Residual salts in new development areas
      Irrigation water
      natural sources
      water softeners
      Deicing salts (road throw and sidewalks)
      Over-application of fertilizers and/or manures and composts
    • Solutions to salt problems
      Control the source:
      water, fertilizer, manure runoff, other?
      Clean up the problem:
      Remove salts by leaching with water