Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Mg soil   ferterlizer
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Mg soil ferterlizer

1,375

Published on

fertilizer

fertilizer

0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,375
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
139
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Soil Composition & Ferterlizers<br />Northridge Garden Guild<br />June 29, 2010<br />Materials are a condensed version of information provided by the USU extension service<br />
  • 2. Soil Composition<br />Jerry L. Goodspeed<br />Utah State University Extension<br />
  • 3. USDA NRCS<br />Soil – what’s in it?<br />
  • 4. Why is soil important?<br />Like humans, plants thrive in a healthy environment<br />Good soil provides nutrients, oxygen and water to plants without stress<br />Weak plants are more susceptible to disease and insects<br />
  • 5. Components of Soil (by volume)<br />(Transpiration<br />and nutrient transport)<br />(Primary soil particles<br />and nutrients for plants)<br />(Soil structure and<br />nutrients for plants)<br />(Oxygen to roots)<br />
  • 6. Different soil profiles<br />What does your soil look like? <br />
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. Topsoil-subsoil Characteristics<br />-high organic matter<br />-low salts<br />-high nutrients<br />“Topsoil”<br />-low organic matter<br />-high clay and/<br /> or lime<br />-high salts<br />-high pH<br />“Subsoil”<br />
  • 10.
  • 11. Individual Soil Properties<br />
  • 12. Soil Texture<br />The Percentage of sand, silt and clay in the soil<br />
  • 13. The Effect of Particle Size<br />Sand particles<br />Clay particles<br />Air flow<br />Water flow<br />
  • 14. Determining Soil Texture<br />By feel<br />Soil test<br />jar method<br />Fill a 1-quart jar ¼ full of soil<br />Fill the jar ¾ full of water<br />Shake very well to suspend soil<br />Place on a flat surface and allow soil to settle<br />
  • 15. Clay<br />Silt<br />Sand<br />
  • 16.
  • 17. Texture Effects on Soil’s Physical Properties<br />Textureavailable waterAerationDrainageCompaction<br />Sand<br />Loam<br />Silt loam<br />Clay loam<br />Clay<br />
  • 18. Treating Soil Texture “Problems”<br />Too much sand?<br />You are lucky<br />Adjust irrigation accordingly<br />Select drought tolerant plants<br />Too much clay?<br />Good luck!<br />Select plants tolerant of poor drainage, lack of oxygen<br />Either case: induce soil structure<br />
  • 19. Introduction of Organic Matter<br />The combination of sand, silt and clay combined with organic matter creates secondary particles called aggregates<br />
  • 20. Compaction<br />Destroys soil structure<br />Seals off soil surface<br />Water runs off instead of into soil – drought results<br />Air can’t enter or escape soil - <br /> suffocation<br />Roots can’t penetrate the soil<br />Stress – plants die<br />
  • 21. Soil Compaction<br />
  • 22. Preventing Compaction<br />Grates, bricks, sidewalks in high-use areas<br />
  • 23. Treating compaction<br />Eliminate the cause:<br />Fence, hedge, signs<br />Add organic matter to soil<br />Aerate or till the soil<br />
  • 24. Aeration<br />Hollow Tine Aerator<br />“Instant air spaces” for water and oxygen <br />movement into the plant root zone<br />
  • 25. Soil Drainage<br />
  • 26. Poor Drainage Problem<br />Prevent compaction?<br />Add organic matter<br />Install subsurface drainage system <br />Provide drainage ditches<br />Develop raised beds<br />Use precise water management<br />
  • 27. Excessive Drainage Problem<br />Very sandy soil<br />Consider sunken beds<br />Add extra organic matter<br />Precise water management<br />
  • 28. Amending Soil with Organic Matter<br />Benefits:<br />Improves drainage<br />Improves water-holding capacity<br />Reduces compaction<br />Provides nutrients to plants<br />Improves soil “tilth” <br /> (ease of tillage, working with a soil)<br />Lowers soil pH<br />
  • 29. How much organic matter should I add?<br />How much is already there?<br />Native Utah soils ~ 0.25 to 2.0%<br />Ideal soils 5-10%<br />Are you satisfied with the current condition of your soil?<br />Add some organic matter to maintain soil conditions<br />Should I add sand to my clay soil?<br />
  • 30. Adding/Preserving Organic Matter<br />Grow plants<br />Mulch around perennials<br />Add extra organic matter to gardens and other annual planting areas<br />
  • 31. Sources of Organic Matter<br />Wood Residues<br />Chips/sawdust/bark materials <br />Add 1 to 2 lbs of nitrogen per 100 lbs of material<br />Grass clippings or green residues<br />Can’t go wrong with these<br />Allow to dry<br />Composts and animal manure<br /><ul><li>Watch for salts and weed seeds</li></li></ul><li>How much Organic Matter Should I add?<br />Single application<br />One inch per year for normal applications in annual areas(new site needs significant improvement)<br />1 inch of material = 3 cubic yards spread over a 1,000 square foot area<br />
  • 32. Summary <br />Understand what you have<br />Figure out what you need<br />Texture<br />Compaction<br />Drainage<br />
  • 33. Fertilizers<br />Basic Master Gardener<br /> Training<br />Jerry L. Goodspeed<br />Utah State University<br />Extension<br />
  • 34. 16 Essential nutrients<br />Macronutrients (large quantities):<br />oxygennitrogen phosphorus<br />hydrogenpotassium sulfur<br />carbon calcium magnesium<br />Micronutrients (small quantities): <br />zinciron<br /> copper manganese<br /> chlorine molybdenum<br /> boron <br /> nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium <br />
  • 35. Sources of nutrients<br />Inorganic/Synthetic fertilizers<br />Organic Fertilizers<br />Manures composts, and other organic materials<br />Green manures (legumes and others)<br />
  • 36. Fertilizer label <br />Three numbers always appear on the label<br /> 1. % Nitrogen (N)<br /> 2. % Phosphorus (P)<br /> 3. % Potassium (K) <br />
  • 37. Just A few N-P-K labels out there<br />34-0-0<br />21-0-0<br />29-3-4<br />26-3-3<br />28-4-4<br />25-3-5<br />20-2-4<br />26-3-3<br />25-3-5<br />32-3-5<br />24-6-12<br />16-4-8<br />16-16-16<br />12-12-12<br />22-4-11<br />22-4-14<br />20-27-5<br />18-5-9<br />5-10-10<br />9-17-9<br />
  • 38. Selecting a fertilizer<br />What nutrients are needed?<br />Soil test<br />What ratio of nutrients are needed?<br />Nitrogen alone or a “complete” fertilizer?<br />Established landscapes need nitrogen annually; few landscapes need other nutrients<br />Are extras needed?<br />cost factor: extras increase cost<br />
  • 39. Soil testing<br />
  • 40. Soil testing…<br />…prior to planting: ensures good success – especially in new landscapes<br />…diagnose problems<br />…every 2 to 3 years to monitor soil environment<br />
  • 41. Soil sampling<br />Sample areas with different soils<br />6-inch depth in turf<br />12-inch depth around woody vegetation and in gardens<br />Combine 4 to 6 sub-samples from the area for each sample submitted<br />
  • 42. Soil Test Report<br />
  • 43. Methods of application<br />Broadcast – evenly distributed on surface<br />Banding – applied in a narrow band on surface or in furrow opened adjacent to plant row<br />Foliar – applied in liquid form<br />
  • 44. Spreaders<br />
  • 45. Organic nutrient sources<br />Much lower concentration of nutrients<br />Example: 2-2-2 for composts<br />Good sources of organic matter<br />May need to supplement with inorganic nitrogen fertilizer<br />
  • 46. Green manures<br />Plants grown for the sole purpose of “storing” nutrients or producing nutrients (nitrogen) and organic matter for later use in the garden<br />Examples:<br />Legumes (peas, beans, vetch, alfalfa)<br />Small grains (rye, oats, barley, wheat)<br />
  • 47. Other considerations<br />Combine inorganic and organic nutrients <br />Practice crop rotation in garden<br />Return as much organic matter as possible to annual planting areas<br />
  • 48. Soil pH and Iron Chlorosis<br />
  • 49. Soil pH<br />Soil pH: the degree of acidity or alkalinity of soil<br />The pH scale:<br /> 2 4 6 8 10 12<br />Neutral<br /> (7.0)<br />acidic<br />alkaline<br />
  • 50. Causes of iron chlorosis<br />High lime soils <br />Buffer pH in 7.8-8.0+ range<br />Planting acid-loving plants in Utah<br />“Aggravating factors”<br />Cold soils<br />Over-irrigation<br />Soil compaction<br />Over-fertilization<br />Other stresses<br />
  • 51. Major pH problem:iron chlorosis<br />
  • 52. Solutions to iron chlorosis problem<br />Select iron efficient plants<br />Treat with iron<br />Change soil pH?<br />
  • 53. pH tolerant = iron efficient plants<br />
  • 54. Soil salinity<br />
  • 55. Soil salinity = soluble salts in soil<br />Salts inhibit plant growth<br />Salts cause “chemical drought” <br />Visual diagnosis: salt crusting/salt burn<br />Soil test diagnosis:<br />Electrical conductivity (EC) <br />EC > 2 deciSiemens/meter is a saline soil for horticulture uses<br />
  • 56. Examples<br />
  • 57. Sources of salts<br />Residual salts in new development areas<br />Irrigation water<br />natural sources<br />water softeners<br />Deicing salts (road throw and sidewalks)<br />Over-application of fertilizers and/or manures and composts<br />
  • 58. Solutions to salt problems<br />Control the source:<br />water, fertilizer, manure runoff, other?<br />Clean up the problem:<br />Remove salts by leaching with water<br />

×