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New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
New Anglia's Rural Economy
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New Anglia's Rural Economy

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Profile of the rural economy within the New Anglia LEP area

Profile of the rural economy within the New Anglia LEP area

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  • 1. The rural economy in New Anglia LEPFinal report v1.3March 2011
  • 2. About the Evidencing Rural Need resource 2About the Evidencing Rural Need resourceEvidencing Rural Need AcknowledgementsEvidencing Rural Need is a new resource that shows the real picture of socio- For their valuable help with the Evidencing Rural Need project, ACRE wouldeconomic issues across rural areas of England, and will enable organisations like to thank the members of the steering group:to influence decisions about policies and services more effectively. Building on  Julie Bowers (Rural Action East Midlands)the pioneering work with the Rural Community Action Network, ACRE  Jon Clemo (Norfolk RCC)commissioned Oxford Consultants for Social Inclusion (OCSI) to further  Peter Harding (Community Council of Devon)develop a set of the reports for all rural areas across England.  Michael Hunt (Community Impact Bucks)Evidencing Rural Need comprises a series of reports, prepared for a range of  Simon Kiley (Action in Rural Sussex)geographies, initially highlighting the incidence of deprivation in rural  Richard Quallington (Community First)communities throughout England but now including the rural economy and  Roger Roberts (Action with Communities in Cumbria)access to services. Although there is a great deal of data available for villages,  Jean Roberts-Jones (Surrey Community Action)hamlets and smaller towns, this information has not been brought together so  Linda Watson (Oxfordshire RCC)succinctly in a single resource for all settlements in rural England.  Stephen Wright (South West ACRE Network)The reports are available through RCAN members but the full range and ACRE would also like to thank DEFRA for their support and provision ofbackground information can be viewed at www.rural-evidence.org.uk. Ordnance Survey data and licensing, OS license number 100022861. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011. This report, or any part thereof, may be reproduced in any format or medium, provided that is reproduced accurately and not used in a misleading context. The source of the material must be identified and the title of the publication specified with the copyright status acknowledged. Oxford Consultants for Social Inclusion (OCSI) Address 15-17 Middle St, Brighton, BN1 1AL Tel: +44 1273 201 345 Email: info@ocsi.co.uk Web: www.ocsi.co.uk The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 3. Introduction 31 IntroductionBackgroundThe Coalition government has emphasised the importance of greater localinfluence on services and decisions 1 . Although it is not yet clear how (and atwhat level) this influence will operate in practice, robust evidence can helppartners demonstrate the importance of rural issues to local authorities, localenterprise partnerships and other service commissioners operating in a climateof scarce resources.There is considerable information on the rural economy at national level 2 ,however comparatively little at local level. This report provides information forrural New Anglia LEP, assessing the local rural economy on a number of keyindicators.What does this rural economy profile contain?  Section 2 explores employment and jobs in rural New Anglia LEP including employment rates and jobs by sector and occupation.  Section 3 sets out the strength of the local economy, including the number, type and size of local business units, and levels of small and large businesses.  Section 4 highlights levels of unemployment and worklessness in the local rural economy, showing which groups (age and gender) are most likely to be receiving out-of-work benefits.  Appendix A lists the data sources and indicators used in the report (including details of the methodology).  Appendix B outlines the different geographies for which data is available.  Appendix C is a “help” resource, showing how to read the tables and charts in the report.1 For example, see the 2011 Localism Bill.2 Including the State of the Countryside series and other publications from theCommission for Rural Communities. The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 4. Employment and occupations in rural New Anglia LEP 42 Employment and occupations in rural New Anglia LEP came from large firms (those employing 250 or more people). BetweenThe local picture 2008 and 2009 there was a marked reduction in employment in all ruralThis section highlights the local rural economy in terms of employment and and urban categories for those micro businesses employing 1 to 2 people.occupations, including employment rates, and jobs by industry sector andoccupation: Useful datasets on employment and occupations in local rural areas  How do employment levels in rural New Anglia LEP compare with other Up-to-date information on employment and jobs for local rural areas is scarce. The areas? regularly published Annual Population Survey (APS) provides data for local authorities,  What are the main occupations and what industry sectors do residents in but not for smaller areas. Census 2001 includes information for local areas, but is now rural New Anglia LEP work in? 10 years out-of-date. For the analysis in this section we have combined the local areaSee the “Useful datasets” box below and Appendix A for details of the data data from Census 2001 together with up-to-date information from the APS, to estimate information on employment and jobs for local rural areas (see Appendix A for details).The national context Overall employment rate and self employment rateNationally, rural analysis from the State of the Countryside3 identifies: The proportion of people who are in employment in local areas (including self employment) has been estimated from the Census 2001 combined with the APS. For  Higher employment levels in rural areas: The overall employment rate is more information see http://www.data4nr.net/resources/594. notably higher in rural areas than in urban, and by the fourth quarter of 2009 the employment rate in rural areas had returned to similar levels to The proportion of people who are self-employed in local areas has been estimated from early 2007 (ie, before the impact of the downturn). the Census 2001 combined with the APS. For more information see  Largest sectors: In 2009 the property and business services sector was http://www.data4nr.net/resources/841. the largest employer in both rural and urban areas, accounting for 16% Employment by occupational group and industry of employment and 20% of all employment respectively.  Employment sectors affected by the downturn: Between 2008 and 2009 Information on occupational group is available from the Census and APS, for example the sector in rural areas with the largest decline in number employed was managerial, professional or elementary occupations. The Standard Occupation the education sector (3,615) whilst in urban areas the manufacturing Classification (SOC2000) is coded from the full title of each person’s main job and the sector recorded the largest reduction in employment. description of what is done in that job (the ‘main’ job is where that person usually  Employment by business size: In 2009 around a quarter of all employment works). For more information see http://www.data4nr.net/resources/329. in rural areas was generated by those businesses employing 10 to 49 Information on industry of employment identifies the main sectors worked in by people. In hamlets and isolated dwellings a further fifth of all employment residents, for example manufacturing, health, education, or agriculture. For more information see http://www.data4nr.net/resources/327.3 Commission for Rural Communities (2010). State of the Countryside 2010. Availablefrom http://ruralcommunities.gov.uk/2010/07/06/state-of-the-countryside-2010/. The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 5. Employment and occupations in rural New Anglia LEP 5 Employment levels in New Anglia LEP and rural comparatorsHow do employment levels in rural New Anglia LEP compare with Loca l ly, the employmentother areas? ra te i s similar i n urban 52% of 48% of a ll employed a reas a nd rural a reas empl oyed people in New Anglia 70The tables and charts on this page compare the overall employment rate people live i n LEP live in rural a reas urba n areasacross rural and urban areas in New Anglia LEP, and in rural areas across the 60region and England as a whole. Employment rate (%) 50  The employment rate is similar in rural and urban areas in New Anglia 40 LEP, with 64% of adults in rural areas in employment, compared with 64% 64.2 64.1 64.3 in urban areas and 64% in New Anglia LEP as a whole. 30  In total, 48% of those people in employment in New Anglia LEP live in 20 rural areas (324,660 people). 10  Rural areas in New Anglia LEP have a lower employment rate (64%) than the average for rural areas across England as a whole (66%). 0 Tota l Rura l Urba n Number of people Employment rate % of all employed in employment (%) people in the The employment ra te is lower i n The employment ra te is lower i n area rura l New Anglia LEP tha n across rura l New Anglia LEP tha n the ruralNew Anglia LEP 675,300 64.2 rura l a reas i n the region Engl and average - Rural 324,660 64.1 48.1 80 - Urban 350,640 64.3 51.9 70 Empl oyment ra te (%)East of England 2,588,730 66.6 60 - Rural 799,400 66.9 30.9 50 - Urban 1,789,330 66.5 69.1 40 30 64.2 64.1 64.3 66.6 66.9 66.5 63.5 65.9 63.0England 22,567,850 63.5 20 - Rural 4,445,200 65.9 19.7 10 - Urban 18,122,650 63.0 80.3 0 Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates Ea s t of England Engl and - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n - Urba n - Urba n New Anglia LEP Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 6. Employment and occupations in rural New Anglia LEP 6 Self-employment levels in New Anglia LEP and rural comparatorsHow do self-employment levels in rural New Anglia LEP compare Loca l ly, s elf employment levels a re hi gher in rural a reas than 39 % of s el f 61 % of a l l self-with other areas? urba n areas empl oyed empl oyed people in 14 New Anglia LEP l ive people live inThe tables and charts on this page compare the self-employment rate across 12 urba n areas i n rura l areasrural and urban areas in New Anglia LEP, and in rural areas across the region Self employment (%)and England as a whole. 10  Self employment levels are higher in rural areas in New Anglia LEP than 8 urban areas, with 60,640 people in rural areas self employed (12.0%), 6 12.0 compared with 7.0% in urban areas and 9.4% in the area as a whole. 9.4 4  In total, 61% of self employed people in New Anglia LEP live in rural 7.0 areas. 2  Rural areas in New Anglia LEP have a similar self employment rate 0 compared with the average across rural England as a whole (12.5%). Tota l Rura l Urba n Number of Proportion of % of self people self people self employed Sel f employment levels a re similar Sel f employment levels a re similar employed employed people in a cros s rural areas in New Anglia a cros s rural areas in New Anglia LEP LEP a nd rura l a reas a cross the a nd the rural England average the area regi onNew Anglia LEP 98,720 9.4 - 14 - Rural 60,640 12.0 61.4 12 Sel f employment (%) - Urban 38,080 7.0 38.6 10East of England 359,110 9.3 - 8 - Rural 144,100 12.1 40.1 6 12.0 12.1 12.5 9.4 9.3 8.3 - Urban 215,010 8.0 59.9 4 7.0 8.0 7.3England 2,954,990 8.3 - 2 - Rural 841,930 12.5 28.5 0 Ea s t of England Engl and - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n - Urba n - Urba n New Anglia LEP - Urban 2,113,060 7.3 71.5 Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 7. Employment and occupations in rural New Anglia LEP 7What are the main occupations and industry sectors for residents Industry of employment Rural Urban N % N %in rural New Anglia LEP? Agriculture, hunting and forestry 18,700 5.8 4,610 1.3The tables and charts on this page compare occupational group (people aged Fishing 220 0.1 150 0.016 to 74 in employment by their occupation4) and industry of employment (key Mining and quarrying 1,180 0.4 1,560 0.4sectors of employment) for employed residents across rural and urban areas in Manufacturing 47,210 14.6 55,350 15.9New Anglia LEP. Electricity, gas and water supply 2,420 0.7 2,920 0.8 Construction 26,390 8.2 25,380 7.3  In terms of occupation, people in rural areas in New Anglia LEP are more Wholesale and retail 53,500 16.5 64,600 18.5 likely to be working in managerial roles than any other occupation, with Hotels and catering 16,840 5.2 18,610 5.3 15.8% of workers in rural areas working managerial roles. By contrast in Transport storage and communication 18,440 5.7 28,210 8.1 urban areas, a higher proportion of people are working in elementary Financial intermediation 11,720 3.6 16,810 4.8 occupations compared with other occupation groups. Real estate, renting and business activities 33,020 10.2 34,650 9.9  In terms of industry sector, people in both rural and urban areas in New Public administration and defence 20,390 6.3 17,150 4.9 Anglia LEP are more likely to be working in wholesale and retail than any Education 22,010 6.8 21,150 6.1 other employment sector, with 16.5% of people in rural areas and 18.5% in urban areas working in wholesale and retail. Health and social work 33,870 10.5 38,840 11.1Occupation group Rural Urban Other employment 17,850 5.5 19,040 5.5 N % N % Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimatesManagers & senior officials 51,010 15.8 43,820 12.6Professional occupations 30,550 9.4 30,280 8.7Associate professional & technical occupations 41,560 12.8 43,130 12.4Administrative & secretarial occupations 36,440 11.3 43,370 12.4Skilled trades occupations 50,110 15.5 44,590 12.8Personal service occupations 23,540 7.3 26,050 7.5Sales and customer service occupations 20,340 6.3 31,330 9.0Process, plant & machine operatives 28,740 8.9 35,690 10.2Elementary occupations 41,520 12.8 50,820 14.6 Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates4 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) level 2 coded from census responses. The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 8. Employment and occupations in rural New Anglia LEP 8Occupations for those in employment in New Anglia LEP Qualification levels of working age adults in New Anglia LEP 18 A l ower % of people in rural a reas A hi gher % of people i n rural areas % of a dults in employment 16 Rural ha ve no qualifications compared with ha ve degree qualifications compared 14 people in urban areas wi th people in urban a reas Urban 30 12 10 25 % of people aged 16-74 8 Rural 15.8 15.5 14.6 12.6 12.812.4 12.8 12.8 6 11.312.4 20 Urban 4 9.4 8.7 9.0 8.9 10.2 7.3 7.5 6.3 2 15 0 26 24 21 23 21 10 20 Profes sional Ma na gers & s enior s ervi ce occupations ma chine operatives Pers onal s ervice Sa l es and customer Ski lled trades technical occupations occupa tions occupa tions Admi nistrative & El ementary occupa tions 17 Proces s, plant & occupa tions occupa tions 15 s ecretarial professional & offi cials 5 As s ociate 8 9 8 8 0 Peopl e with Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4/5 Qua l ification no qua lifications qua lifications qua lifications qua lifications l evel qua lifications unknown Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimatesHow well qualified are working age residents in rural and urbanNew Anglia LEP?The tables and charts below compare qualification levels of working agepeople across rural and urban areas in New Anglia LEP. Rural UrbanWorking age residents N % N %People with no qualifications 97,000 23.7 117,400 25.7Level 1 qualifications 82,710 20.2 97,020 21.3Level 2 qualifications 92,030 22.5 97,660 21.4Level 3 qualifications 33,440 8.2 39,470 8.6Level 4/5 qualifications 70,550 17.3 70,600 15.5Qualification level unknown 33,000 8.1 34,270 7.5 The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 9. Employment and occupations in rural New Anglia LEP 9 Working age people with no qualifications in New Anglia LEP and rural comparatorsHow does the proportion of people with no qualifications in rural Loca l ly, the % of people 45% of a l l people 55% of people wi th no qualifications is wi th noNew Anglia LEP compare with other areas? hi gher i n urban areas wi th no qua lifications in New qua lifications 30 Angl ia LEP l ive in l i ve in urbanThe tables and charts on this page compare the proportion of people of a reas rura l a reasworking age with no qualifications across rural and urban areas in New Anglia 25LEP, and in rural areas across the region and England as a whole. No qua lifications (%) 20  The proportion of people with no qualifications is lower in rural areas in 15 New Anglia LEP compared with urban areas. 97,000 people in rural areas 25.7 24.8 23.7 have no qualifications (24%), compared with 26% in urban areas and 25% 10 in New Anglia LEP as a whole.  In total, 45.2% of people with no qualifications in New Anglia LEP live in 5 rural areas. 0  Rural areas in New Anglia LEP have a higher proportion of people with no Tota l Rura l Urba n qualifications (24%) compared with the average for rural areas across England as a whole (20.5%). The % of people wi th no qualifications is higher The % of people wi th no qualifications is Number of Proportion of % of all with i n rura l New Anglia LEP than across rural a reas in hi gher i n rural New Anglia LEP than the people with no people with no no the regi on rura l England average 30 qualifications qualifications qualifications in the area 25 No qua lifications (%)New Anglia LEP 214,390 24.8 - 20 - Rural 97,000 23.7 45.2 15 24.8 25.7 - Urban 117,400 25.7 54.8 23.7 21.8 21.0 22.1 23.0 23.6 10 20.5East of England 714,610 21.8 - 5 - Rural 208,210 21.0 29.1 0 - Urban 506,400 22.1 70.9 - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n - Urba n - Urba n Engl and Ea s t of England New Anglia LEPEngland 6,946,950 23.0 - - Rural 1,143,590 20.5 16.5 - Urban 5,803,360 23.6 83.5 Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 10. Employment and occupations in rural New Anglia LEP 10How does the proportion of people with degree level People with degree level qualifications in New Anglia LEP and rural comparators Loca l ly, the % of people wi thqualifications in rural New Anglia LEP compare with other areas? degree level qualifications is 50% of people 50% of a l l people hi gher i n rural areas than urban wi th degree level wi th degree l evel 20The tables and charts on this page compare levels of degree qualifications a reas qua lifications qua lifications i n 18across rural and urban areas in New Anglia LEP, and in rural areas across the l i ve in urban New Anglia LEP 16 a reas l i ve in rural areasregion and England as a whole. Degree qualifications (%) 14  The proportion of people with degree level qualifications is higher in rural 12 areas in New Anglia LEP compared with urban areas. 70,550 people in 10 rural areas have degree level qualifications (17.3%), compared with 8 16.3 17.3 15.5 15.5% in urban areas and 16.3% in New Anglia LEP as a whole. 6  In total, 50% of people with degree level qualifications in New Anglia LEP 4 live in rural areas. 2  Rural areas in New Anglia LEP have a lower proportion of people with 0 degree level qualifications (17.3%) compared with the average for rural Total Rura l Urba n areas across England as a whole (22.1%). Number of Proportion of % of all with The % of people wi th degree level The % of people wi th degree level people with people with degree level qua lifications is l owerin rural New Anglia qua lifications is l ower in rural New Anglia LEP tha n a cross rural areas in the region LEP tha n the rural England average degree level degree level qualifications qualifications qualifications in the area 25 Degree qualifications (%)New Anglia LEP 141,140 16.3 - 20 - Rural 70,550 17.3 50.0 15 - Urban 70,600 15.5 50.0 21.2 22.1 21.0East of England 633,510 19.3 - 10 19.3 20.4 18.8 16.3 17.3 15.5 - Rural 201,870 20.4 31.9 5 - Urban 431,640 18.8 68.1 0England 6,411,210 21.2 - Engl and Engl and New Anglia - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n - Urba n - Urba n Ea s t of - Rural 1,232,140 22.1 19.2 - Urban 5,179,070 21.0 80.8 LEP Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 11. Employment and occupations in rural New Anglia LEP 11 People with working from home in New Anglia LEP and rural comparators Loca l ly, the % of people working 38 % of peopl e 62% of a l l peopleHow do levels of home working in rural New Anglia LEP compare from home is higher in rural worki ng from worki ng from 14 a reas than urban areas home live in home i n Newwith other areas? urba n areas Angl ia LEP l ive in 12 rura l a reasThe tables and charts on this page compare the levels of home working acrossrural and urban areas in New Anglia LEP, and in rural areas across the region 10 Home working (%)and England as a whole. 8  The proportion of people working from home is higher in rural areas in 6 13.1 New Anglia LEP compared with urban areas, with 42,460 people in rural 10.3 4 areas working from home (13.1%), compared with 7.6% in urban areas 7.6 and 10.3% in New Anglia LEP as a whole. 2  In total, 62% of people working from home in New Anglia LEP live in rural 0 areas. Tota l Rura l Urba n  Rural areas in New Anglia LEP have a similar proportion of people working from home (13.1%) compared with the average for rural areas across England as a whole (13.7%). The % of people working from home is The % of people working from home is s imilar a cross rural areas in New Anglia s imilar across rural areas in New Anglia Number of people Proportion of % of all home LEP a nd rura l a reas a cross the region LEP a nd the rural England average working from home people working workers in the area 16 14 Home working (%) from home 12New Anglia LEP 68,960 10.3 - 10 8 - Rural 42,460 13.1 61.6 13.1 13.7 6 12.5 10.3 9.4 - Urban 26,520 7.6 38.4 4 7.6 8.1 9.2 8.0East of England 243,490 9.4 - 2 0 - Rural 99,590 12.5 40.9 Engl and Engl and New Anglia - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n - Urba n - Urba n Ea s t of - Urban 143,900 8.1 59.1 LEPEngland 2,055,220 9.2 - - Rural 605,920 13.7 29.5 - Urban 1,449,300 8.0 70.5 Source: OCSI (2011), Census 2001 Source: OCSI (2011), Census 2001 The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 12. Employment and occupations in rural New Anglia LEP 12How do average household incomes in rural New Anglia LEP Average household income in rural and urban New Anglia LEPcompare with other areas? Loca l ly, a verage household i ncome is higher i n rural areas tha n urban areasThe tables and charts on this page compare the average household income Avera ge weekly household income (£) 700across rural and urban areas in New Anglia LEP, and in rural areas across the 600region and England as a whole. 500  The average household income is higher in rural areas in New Anglia LEP 400 compared with urban areas, with an average household income of £657 in £657 rural areas, compared with £599 in urban areas and £627 in New Anglia 300 £627 £599 LEP as a whole. 200  Rural areas in New Anglia LEP have a lower average household income (£657) compared with the average for rural areas across England as a 100 whole (£712). 0 Tota l Rura l Urba n Average weekly Average houseprice to household income annual earnings ratioNew Anglia LEP £627 3.3 The a verage household income is l ower in The a verage household income is l ower rura l New Anglia LEP tha n across rural i n rura l New Anglia LEP than across rural - Rural £657 3.2 a reas i n England a reas i n the region - Urban £599 3.4 Avera ge weekly household income (£) 800East of England £703 3.8 700 - Rural £735 3.5 600 500 - Urban £689 3.9 400 £735England £673 3.5 £657 £703 £689 £673 £712 £663 300 £627 £599 - Rural £712 3.7 200 100 - Urban £663 3.5 0 Source: OCSI (2011), Modelled estimates - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n Ea s t of England - Urba n - Urba n Engl and New Anglia LEP Source: OCSI (2011), Modelled estimates The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 13. Employment and occupations in rural New Anglia LEP 13How does housing affordability in rural New Anglia LEP compare Housing affordability in New Anglia LEP and rural comparatorswith other areas? Loca l ly, the ra tio of houseprices toThe tables and charts on this page compare housing affordability across rural ea rnings is higher i n urban areas than ruraland urban areas in New Anglia LEP, and in rural areas across the region and a reas Medi an houseprice to annual earnings ra tio 4.0England as a whole. 3.5  Housing is more affordable in rural areas in New Anglia LEP compared 3.0 with urban areas, with the average houseprice 3.2 times the average 2.5 annual household earnings in rural areas, compared with 3.4 in urban 2.0 areas and 3.3 in New Anglia LEP as a whole. 3.3 3.2 3.4 1.5  Rural areas in New Anglia LEP have a lower ratio of average house prices 1.0 to average earnings (3.2) compared with the average for rural areas across England as a whole (3.7). 0.5 0.0 Tota l Rura l Urba n The ra tio of houseprices to earnings is The % ra tio of houseprices to earnings l ower in rural New Anglia LEP tha n i s l ower in rural New Anglia LEP than a cros s rural areas in the region a cros s rural areas in England Medi an houseprice to annual earnings ra tio 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Ea s t of England Engl and - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n - Urba n - Urba n New Anglia LEP Source: OCSI (2011), Modelled estimates The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 14. Businesses in rural New Anglia LEP 143 Businesses in rural New Anglia LEP  Growing and declining sectors: Finance, Health, Construction, Post andThe local picture Telecommunications, Property and business services and AgricultureThis section highlights the profile of the types of businesses operating in rural have overall sustained the greatest growth since 2005. Mining/quarryingNew Anglia LEP, including the number, type and size of local business units, and utilities, Manufacturing and Education have experienced the greatestand levels of small and large businesses: decline for the same period.  Startups: The sectors with the greatest count of business start ups in rural  How do businesses vary by size and sector in New Anglia LEP? areas were Legal, accountancy, business consultancy and other business  How do micro-business levels in rural New Anglia LEP compare with other activities (including research and development), Personal and community areas? service activities and Construction.  How do large business levels in rural New Anglia LEP compare with other areas?See the “Useful datasets” box below and Appendix A for details of the data. Useful datasets on businesses in local rural areas Reasonably up-to-date information on businesses for local rural areas is availableThe national context through the Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR), a database of businesses that are registered for VAT and/or operating a PAYE scheme. Data from the IDBR isNationally, rural analysis from the State of the Countryside 5 identifies: published for local authorities by urban and rural areas, and also for small areas such  Greater levels of micro-business: 88% of businesses (registered for VAT as MSOAs. and/or PAYE) in rural areas employ less than 10 people, compared to Local business units by size 81% in urban areas. Since 2005, there has been an 8% increase in micro- businesses in rural areas (6% increase in urban areas). This dataset provides a count of VAT-registered local business units taken from the  Largest sectors: The three sectors with the largest numbers of rural IDBR and grouped into four employment size bands (0-4, 5-9, 10-19 and 20+ paid businesses are: Property and business services (150,000 businesses employees). For more information see http://www.data4nr.net/resources/365. nationally), Agriculture (92,000) and Construction (62,000). The three Local business units by broad industry group largest employers in rural areas are: Property, Manufacturing and Public administration and other services. Again taken from the IDBR database, this shows numbers of local businesses under 16  Business stability: The highest proportions of businesses trading for 10 broad industry groups. The groups are derived from the Standard Industrial years or greater are in the most rural areas. In contrast the highest Classification (UKSIC 2003). For more information see proportions of those businesses that have been trading for less than two http://www.data4nr.net/resources/364. years are in urban areas.5 Commission for Rural Communities (2010). State of the Countryside 2010. Availablefrom http://ruralcommunities.gov.uk/2010/07/06/state-of-the-countryside-2010/. The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 15. Businesses in rural New Anglia LEP 15 VAT-registered local units per 10,000 working age population in New Anglia LEP andHow do business levels in rural New Anglia LEP compare with rural comparatorsother areas? Loca l ly, the l evel of VAT-registered l oca l units per head is higher in rural 46 % of VAT- 54 % of a l l VAT-The tables and charts on this page compare the level of VAT-registered local a reas than urban areas regi stered regi stered enterprisesunits in rural and urban areas in New Anglia LEP, to rural areas across the 1,000 a re l ocated in urban enterprises i n VAT-regi stered l ocal business units (per New Anglia LEPregion and England as a whole. 900 a reas a re l ocated in 800 rura l a reas  The level of VAT-registered local units per head is higher in rural areas in 700 10,000 popul ation) New Anglia LEP than urban areas, with 910 units per 10,000 working age 600 population, compared with 627 in urban areas and 754 in New Anglia LEP 500 as a whole. 400 910 754  In total, 54% of local units in New Anglia LEP are located in rural areas 300 627 (68,800 businesses). 200  Rural areas in New Anglia LEP have a lower level of business units per 100 head (910 per 10,000 working age population) compared with the average 0 for rural areas across England as a whole (1,000 per 10,000 working age Tota l Rura l Urba n population). The l evel of VAT-registered l ocal units per The l evel of VAT-registered l ocal units per VAT-registered VAT-registered % of all VAT- hea d is l ower in rural New Anglia LEP than hea d is l ower in rural New Anglia LEP than local units (N) local units (rate per registered VAT-regi stered local business units (per a cros s rural areas in the region the rura l England average 10,000 working age local units 1,200 population) located in the 1,000 10,000 popul ation) area 800New Anglia LEP 68,800 753.5 - 600 939.8 999.5 - Rural 37,230 909.6 54.1 400 753.5 909.6 626.7 742.3 661.1 697.3 632.3 - Urban 31,570 626.7 45.9 200East of England 259,130 742.3 0 - Rural 95,540 939.8 36.9 Engl and Engl and - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n - Urba n - Urba n New Anglia Ea s t of - Urban 163,590 661.1 63.1 LEPEngland 2,237,560 697.3 - Rural 567,660 999.5 25.4 - Urban 1,669,900 632.3 74.6 Source: ONS, Business Registers Unit (BRU), Small Business Service 2009 Source: ONS, Business Registers Unit (BRU), Small Business Service 2009 The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 16. Businesses in rural New Anglia LEP 16How do businesses vary by size and sector in New Anglia LEP? VAT-registered local units by size in New Anglia LEP A hi gher % of rural businesses are s mall A l ower % of rural businesses a re largeThe tables and charts on this page compare the size and industrial structure of compa red with businesses in urban compa red with urban businessesVAT-registered local business units across rural and urban areas in New a reas 80Anglia LEP. VAT registered local business units (%) 70VAT-registered local units Rural Urban 60 Rural N % N %By sector 50 UrbanAgriculture 5,570 19.6 310 1.3 40Construction 5,050 17.8 3,530 15.0 30Education 870 3.1 730 3.1 20Finance 480 1.7 940 4.0 10Health 1,440 5.1 2,070 8.8 0Hotels and catering 2,100 7.4 2,390 10.2 Empl oying 0-4 peopleEmpl oying 5-9 people Empl oying 10-19 Empl oying 20 orMotor trades 1,280 4.5 1,220 5.2 people more peoplePost & telecommunications 1,500 5.3 1,480 6.3Production 2,690 9.5 2,050 8.7 Source: ONS, Business Registers Unit (BRU), Small Business Service 2009Property and business 1,060 3.7 1,130 4.8Public administration 270 1.0 350 1.5Retail 3,010 10.6 4,510 19.2Transport 1,310 4.6 1,350 5.7Wholesale 1,730 6.1 1,450 6.2By sizeEmploying 0-4 people 27,660 74.3 19,060 60.4Employing 5-9 people 5,030 13.5 5,570 17.6Employing 10-19 people 2,520 6.8 3,230 10.2Employing 20 or more people 2,030 5.5 3,710 11.8 Source: OCSI 2011, Office for National Statistics (ONS) Business Registers Unit (BRU), Small Business Service 2009 The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 17. Businesses in rural New Anglia LEP 17 VAT-registered local units employing less than five people in New Anglia LEP andHow do micro-business levels in rural New Anglia LEP compare rural comparatorswith other areas? Loca l ly, businesses a re more l i kely to be s maller i n rural 41 % of s ma ll 59 % of a l l VAT l oca l units employi ng less than 5 peopleThe tables and charts on this page compare the level of micro-businesses a reas than urban areas enterprises a re s ma ll 100 l oca ted i n enterprises i n(employing less than five people) in rural and urban areas in New Anglia LEP, urba n areas New Anglia LEP 90to rural areas across the region and England as a whole. a re l ocated in 80 rura l a reas  The proportion of VAT-registered local business units employing less than 70 5 people is higher in rural areas in New Anglia LEP compared with urban 60 (%) areas, with 74% of VAT-registered local business units in rural areas 50 employing fewer than five people, compared with 60% in urban areas and 40 74.3 67.9 68% in New Anglia LEP as a whole. 30 60.4  In total, 59% of these smaller businesses in New Anglia LEP are located 20 in rural areas (27,660 businesses). 10  A higher proportion of businesses located in rural areas in New Anglia 0 LEP employ fewer than five people (74%) compared with the average for Tota l Rura l Urba n rural areas across England as a whole (76%). The proportion of enterprises employing The proportion of enterprises VAT-registered VAT-registered % of all local l ess than 5 people i s higher i n rural New empl oying l ess than 5 people is higher local units local units units employing VAT l oca l units employi ng less than 5 Angl ia LEP tha n a cross rural a reas i n the i n rura l New Anglia LEP than the rural employing 0-4 employing 0-4 0-4 people regi on Engl and average 100 people (N) people (%) located in the 90 area 80 70 people (%)New Anglia LEP 46,710 67.9 - 60 50 - Rural 27,660 74.3 59.2 40 74.3 76.1 75.9 30 67.9 60.4 70.2 66.7 68.6 66.0 - Urban 19,060 60.4 40.8 20 10East of England 181,820 70.2 0 Engl and New Anglia - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n - Urba n - Urba n - Rural 72,735 76.1 40.0 Ea s t of England LEP - Urban 109,085 66.7 60.0England 1,533,935 68.6 - Rural 431,055 75.9 28.1 - Urban 1,102,880 66.0 71.9 Source: Office for National Statistics (ONS), Business Registers Unit (BRU), Small Business Service 2009 Source: ONS, Business Registers Unit (BRU), Small Business Service 2009 The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 18. Businesses in rural New Anglia LEP 18How do large business levels in rural New Anglia LEP compare VAT-registered local units employing more than 20 people in New Anglia LEP and rural comparatorswith other areas? Loca l ly, businesses a re 35 % of a l l large 65 % of l a rgeThe tables and charts on this page compare the level of large businesses more l ikely to be larger i n enterprises a re enterprises i n(employing more than 20 people) in rural and urban areas in New Anglia LEP, urba n areas than rural New Anglia LEP VAT l oca l units employi ng 20+ people (%) 14 l oca ted i n urban a reas a re l ocated into rural areas across the region and England as a whole. a reas 12 rura l a reas  The proportion of VAT-registered local business units employing more 10 than 20 people is lower in rural areas in New Anglia LEP than urban areas, with 5.5% of VAT-registered local business units in rural areas 8 employing more than 20 people, compared with 11.8% in urban areas and 6 11.8 8.3% in New Anglia LEP as a whole. 4 8.3  In total, 35.4% of these larger businesses in New Anglia LEP are located 5.5 in rural areas (2,030 businesses). 2  A similar proportion of businesses located in rural areas in New Anglia 0 LEP employ more than 20 people (5.5%) compared with the average for Tota l Rura l Urba n rural areas across England as a whole (5.4%). VAT-registered local VAT-registered local % of all VAT-registered The proportion of enterprises employing The proportion of enterprises employing units employing 20+ units employing 20+ local units employing 20+ more tha n 20 people i s similar across rural more tha n 20 people i s similar across VAT l oca l units employi ng 20+ people people (N) people (%) people in the area a reas i n New Anglia LEP a nd rural areas rura l a reas i n New Anglia LEP a nd the 14 a cros s the region rura l England averageNew Anglia LEP 5,740 8.3 - 12 - Rural 2,030 5.5 35.4 10 - Urban 3,710 11.8 64.6 8 6 11.8East of England 20,925 8.1 (%) 8.3 9.7 8.7 9.8 4 8.1 - Rural 4,985 5.2 23.8 2 5.5 5.2 5.4 - Urban 15,940 9.7 76.2 0 Engl and Engl and New Anglia - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n - Urba n - Urba nEngland 194,885 8.7 Ea s t of LEP - Rural 30,485 5.4 15.6 - Urban 164,400 9.8 84.4 Source: Office for National Statistics (ONS), Business Registers Unit (BRU), Small Business Service 2009 Source: ONS, Business Registers Unit (BRU), Small Business Service 2009 The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 19. Unemployment and worklessness in rural New Anglia LEP 194 Unemployment and worklessness in rural New Anglia LEP employment). This was mainly driven by an 89% increase in the numberThe local picture of workers who wanted to work longer hours in their current job.Being out-of-work can have a severe impact on an individual’s quality of life,  Rural younger groups at-risk: Between 2007 and 2008 there was a rise inboth in terms of the economic implications and in terms of the wider social proportion of NEETS (Not in Employment, Education or Training) in allexclusion implications. The impacts will be felt not only by the individual, but rural classifications, compared with falls in larger urban and major urbanalso by partners and dependent children. districts.In this section we highlight: Useful datasets on unemployment in local rural areas  How does unemployment in rural areas compare with urban areas in New The international measure of unemployment is based on an agreed definition by the Anglia LEP? International Labour Organisation (ILO). This measure counts those looking for work  How does unemployment in rural New Anglia LEP compare with other and available for work, rather than those who qualify for specific benefits. The regularly- rural areas? published Annual Population Survey provides unemployment and economic inactivity  What are the age and gender characteristics of unemployed people in data based on the ILO definition for local authorities, but not for smaller areas. New Anglia LEP? For local rural areas, out-of-work benefits data are used as a measure of  How do levels of work limiting illness in rural New Anglia LEP compare unemployment and worklessness, although groups who are unemployed but not eligible with other areas? for benefits will not be counted in this measure. Data is published by the Department forSee the “Useful datasets” box below and Appendix A for details of the data. Work and Pensions with regular updates, and is available to LSOA level (LA level for Employment Support Allowance).The national context Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA)Nationally, rural analysis from the State of the Countryside 6 identifies: Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA) is paid to individuals who are unemployed and actively seeking work. JSA can be either ‘income based’ (where an applicant qualifies due to  Impact of the downturn: During the recession the unemployment rate satisfying the means test) or ‘contribution based’ (where the applicant qualifies due to increased by 2.1 percentage points in rural areas, equivalent to an having paid sufficient National Insurance contributions), or a combination of both. See increase of 108,000 unemployed people. By the 4th quarter of 2009, the http://www.data4nr.net/resources/301 for more information. rate of redundancies in rural areas exceeded that in urban areas by rising to 7.4 (per thousand employees). Incapacity Benefit (IB) and Employment Support Allowance (ESA)  Increasing ‘underemployment’: The level of underemployment in rural Incapacity Benefit (IB) is a non means-tested benefit paid to people who are incapable areas peaked in the 3rd quarter of 2009 at 532,000 (11% of all in of work due to ill health and who have paid sufficient National Insurance contributions. From November 2008, Employment Support Allowance (ESA) replaced IB for new claimants. See http://www.data4nr.net/resources/72 for more information.6 Commission for Rural Communities (2010). State of the Countryside 2010. Availablefrom http://ruralcommunities.gov.uk/2010/07/06/state-of-the-countryside-2010/. The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 20. Unemployment and worklessness in rural New Anglia LEP 20How do unemployment benefit claimant levels in rural areas Jobseeker’s Allowance claimants in rural and urban New Anglia LEPcompare with urban areas in New Anglia LEP? Loca l ly, JSA claimant levels a reThe tables and charts on this and the following page compare Jobseeker’s hi gher i n urban areas than rural 30 % of a l l JSA a reas cl a imants in NewAllowance (JSA) claimant rates for rural and urban areas in New Anglia LEP. 4.5 Angl ia LEP l ive in Jobs eekers Al lowance claimants (%) 4.0 rura l a reas  Jobseekers Allowance claimant levels are lower in rural areas in New 70 % of JSA 3.5 Anglia LEP compared with urban areas, with 8,460 people in rural areas cl a imants live 3.0 i n urban areas receiving Jobseekers Allowance (2.1% of working age adults), compared with 3.9% in urban areas and 3.1% in New Anglia LEP as a whole. 2.5  In total, 30.0% of those people receiving Jobseekers Allowance in New 2.0 3.9 Anglia LEP live in rural areas (8,460 people). 1.5 3.1  Between 2004 and 2010, the number of people receiving Jobseekers 1.0 2.1 Allowance in rural areas in New Anglia LEP increased from 4,720 in 2004 0.5 to 8,310 in 2010, an increase of 81%. This represented an increase in the 0.0 proportion of people claiming Jobseekers Allowance from 1.1% in 2004 to Tota l Rura l Urba n 2.1% in 2010 (an increase of 0.9%). By comparison, rates in urban areas increased by 1.5% over the same period .  However real unemployment levels are likely to be higher. Nationally it is 5.0 Rural estimated that 2.5 million are unemployed using the wider ILO definition, 4.5 Urban Jobs eekers Al llowance cl aimants (%) while only 1.5 million are receiving Jobseeker’s Allowance. In other words, 4.0 Total across England less than 60% of people who are unemployed are 3.5 receiving JSA benefit 7. 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5  1.0 (Increase following 0.5 recession) 0.0 Source: OCSI 2010, Department for Work and Pensions 2004-20107 ONS unemployment estimates (October-December 2010) compared with JSAclaimant data (February 2011) The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 21. Unemployment and worklessness in rural New Anglia LEP 21How do unemployment benefit claimant levels in rural New Anglia Jobseeker’s Allowance claimants in rural and urban New Anglia LEP JSA cl a imant levels a re similar a crossLEP compare with other rural areas? rura l a reas i n New Anglia LEP a nd rural JSA cl a imant levels a re similar a cross rura l a reas i n New Anglia LEP a nd the a reas a cross the region rura l England averageThe tables and charts on this page compare Jobseeker’s Allowance claimant 4.5 Jobs eekers Al lowance claimants (%)rates between rural areas in New Anglia LEP and rural areas across the region 4.0and England as a whole. 3.5 3.0  Rural areas in New Anglia LEP have a similar proportion of people 2.5 claiming Jobseekers Allowance (2.1%) compared with the average for 2.0 3.9 3.6 4.0 3.4 rural areas across England as a whole (1.9%). 1.5 3.1 3.0 1.0 2.1 2.0  30.0% of people receiving Jobseekers Allowance in New Anglia LEP live 1.9 0.5 in rural areas, compared with 19.0% of such claimants in the East of 0.0 England region and 9.3% in England as a whole. Engl and Engl and New Anglia - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n - Urba n - Urba n Ea s t of LEP Number of JSA Proportion of % of all JSA claimants 2010 people claimants in claiming JSA the area 2010New Anglia LEP 28,230 3.1 - 3.0 New Anglia LEP - Rural East of England - Rural - Rural 8,460 2.1 30.0 Jobs eekers Al llowance cl aimants (%) 2.5 England - Rural - Urban 19,770 3.9 70.0East of England 104,450 3.0 - 2.0 - Rural 19,800 2.0 19.0 - Urban 84,650 3.4 81.0 1.5England 1,161,850 3.6 - - Rural 108,370 1.9 9.3 1.0  (Increase - Urban 1,053,480 4.0 90.7 following Source: Department for Work and Pensions 2010 0.5 recession) 0.0 Source: Department for Work and Pensions 2004-2010 The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 22. Unemployment and worklessness in rural New Anglia LEP 22 Jobseeker’s Allowance claimants by age and gender in New Anglia LEPWhat are the age and gender characteristics of unemployed 100% A higher % of JSA claimants are agedpeople in New Anglia LEP? 90% 50+ in rural areas than urban areas 80%The tables and charts on this page compare the age and gender breakdowns Aged 50+ JSA cl a imants by a ge (%) 70%of Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA) claimants in New Anglia LEP. A lower % of JSA claimants are aged Aged 25-49 60% Aged 16-24 25-49 in rural areas than urban areas  Men make up a significantly higher proportion of JSA claimants than 50% females in rural New Anglia LEP, 70% of JSA claimants. 40%  A lower proportion of Jobseekers Allowance claimants in rural areas in New Anglia LEP are aged under 25 (28.4%) compared with in urban areas 30% (30.0%). By comparison, a higher proportion of Jobseekers Allowance 20% A lower % of JSA claimants are aged claimants in rural areas in New Anglia LEP are aged over 50 (21.9%) than 10% under 25 in rural areas than urban in urban areas (16.2%). 0% areas Rura l Urba nJobseekers Allowance claimants Rural Urban N % N % 100%Claimants by age Males make up a lower % of JSA 90% claimants in rural areas than urban areasAged 16-24 2,780 28.4 6,100 30.0 MaleAged 25-49 4,860 49.7 10,960 53.9 80% JSA cl a imants by gender (%) FemaleAged 50+ 2,140 21.9 3,290 16.2 70%Claimants by gender 60%Female 2,480 30.4 5,600 28.6 50%Male 5,700 69.6 13,970 71.4 40% Source: Department for Work and Pensions 2010 30% 20% 10% Females make up a higher % of JSA claimants in rural areas than urban areas 0% Rura l Urba n Source: OCSI 2010, Department for Work and Pensions 2010 The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 23. Unemployment and worklessness in rural New Anglia LEP 23 Incapacity Benefit claimants in rural and urban New Anglia LEPHow do levels of work limiting illness in rural New Anglia LEP Inca pacity Benefit cl a imant levels a re highercompare with urban areas? i n urban areas than rural 39% of a l l Inca pacity Benefit 6.0 a reas cl a imants in NewThe tables and charts on this page compare levels of work limiting illness, Angl ia LEP l ive in Incapacity Benefit claimants (%)measured as the proportion of people receiving Incapacity Benefits, for rural 5.0 rura l a reasand urban areas in New Anglia LEP. 4.0 61% of Inca pacity  Incapacity Benefit claimant levels are lower in rural areas in New Anglia Benefit claimants LEP compared with urban areas, with 4.2% of working age adults in rural 3.0 5.5 l i ve in urban a reas areas receiving Incapacity Benefit, compared with 5.5% in urban areas 4.9 4.2 2.0 and 4.9% in New Anglia LEP as a whole.  In total, 38.5% of those people receiving Incapacity Benefit in New Anglia 1.0 LEP live in rural areas (17,210 people). 0.0  Between 2000 and 2010, the number of people receiving Incapacity Tota l Rura l Urba n Benefit has fallen from 20,130 in 2000 to 17,210 in 2010, a fall of 15%. This represented a fall in the proportion of people claiming Incapacity Benefit from 4.9% in 2000 to 4.2% in 2010 (a fall of 0.7%). By comparison, 8.0 rates for urban areas fell by 1.2% over the same period. Inca pacity Benefit cl aimants (%) 7.0From November 2008, Employment Support Allowance (ESA) replaced 6.0Incapacity Benefit for new claimants. By May 2010, there were 438,000Employment Support Allowance claimants across England as a whole, 5.0compared with 1,730,000 Incapacity Benefit claimants. In other words 4.0approximately 25% of all people out of work and receiving sickness benefits 3.0receive Employment Support Allowance8. However, data on ESA is not New claimants start topublished at SOA level, so has not been included into the analysis presented 2.0 Rural receive Empl oymenthere. 1.0 Urban Support Allowance Total 0.0 Source: OCSI 2010, Department for Work and Pensions 2000 to 20108 Employment Support Allowance is not available at sub-LA level so has not beenincluded in the analysis presented here. The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 24. Unemployment and worklessness in rural New Anglia LEP 24How do levels of work limiting illness in rural New Anglia LEP Incapacity Benefit claimants in rural and urban New Anglia LEP Inca pacity Benefit cl aimant l evels a re Inca pacity Benefit cl aimant l evels a recompare with other rural areas? hi gher i n rural New Anglia LEP than hi gher i n rural New Anglia LEP than the a cros s rural areas in the region rura l England averageThe tables and charts on this page compare Incapacity Benefit claimant ratesfor rural New Anglia LEP to rural areas across the region and England as a 6.0 Inca pacity Benefit cl aimants (%)whole. 5.0 4.0  Rural areas in New Anglia LEP have higher Incapacity Benefit claimant rates (4.2%) compared with the average for rural areas across England as 3.0 5.7 5.5 5.4 4.9 4.5 a whole (3.9%). 2.0 4.2 4.2 3.5 3.9  38.5% of the population receiving Incapacity Benefit in New Anglia LEP 1.0 live in rural areas, compared with 24.1% of such claimants in the East of 0.0 England region and 12.8% in England as a whole. Engl and - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n - Urba n - Urba n Ea s t of England New Anglia LEP Number of Proportion of % of all Incapacity Benefit Incapacity Incapacity claimants 2010 Benefit Benefit claimants 2010 claimants in the area 6.0New Anglia LEP 44,660 4.9 - 5.0 Inca pacity Benefit cl aimants (%) - Rural 17,210 4.2 38.5 - Urban 27,460 5.5 61.5 4.0East of England 147,290 4.2 - - Rural 35,570 3.5 24.1 3.0 - Urban 111,720 4.5 75.9England 1,728,790 5.4 - 2.0 New Anglia LEP - Rural - Rural 221,260 3.9 12.8 New claimants start to East of England - Rural 1.0 receive Employment - Urban 1,507,530 5.7 87.2 England - Rural Support Allowance Source: Department for Work and Pensions 2010 0.0 Source: Department for Work and Pensions 2000 to 2010 The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 25. Unemployment and worklessness in rural New Anglia LEP 25 Jobseekers per available job in rural and urban New Anglia LEPHow does competition for jobs in rural New Anglia LEP compare The ra tio of unemployment claimants to available jobs is higher i n urban areas than rural areaswith urban areas? 3.0 Cl a i mants to va cancies ratioThe tables and charts on this page compare the number of unemployed 2.5people per available job (the ratio of Jobseeker’s Allowance claimants to thenumber of Job vacancies notified to Jobcentre Plus), for rural and urban areas 2.0in New Anglia LEP. 1.5  The ratio of unemployment benefit claimants to Job Centre vacancies is 2.7 2.6 2.8 lower in rural areas in New Anglia LEP compared with urban areas, with 1.0 2.6 unemployed benefit claimants per available job in rural areas, compared with 2.8 in urban areas and 2.7 in New Anglia LEP as a whole. 0.5  Between 2004 and 2010, the ratio of unemployed people to available jobs 0.0 in rural areas increased from 2.1 in 2004 to 2.6 in 2010, an increase of Tota l Rura l Urba n 22%. By comparison, the ratio of unemployed people to available jobs for urban areas for urban areas increased by 50% over the same period. 5.0 Unemployment to Job 4.5 Rural Centre vacancies Ratio Urban 4.0 2010 Cl a i mants to va cancies ratio TotalNew Anglia LEP 2.7 3.5 - Rural 2.6 3.0 - Urban 2.8 2.5East of England 2.3 2.0 - Rural 2.5 1.5 - Urban 2.3 1.0England 2.8 0.5 - Rural 2.1 0.0 - Urban 2.9 Source: Department for Work and Pensions 2010/Jobcentre Plus 2010 Source: Jobcentre Plus Department for Work and Pensions 2004 to 2010 The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 26. Unemployment and worklessness in rural New Anglia LEP 26How does competition for jobs in rural New Anglia LEP compare 5.0 New Anglia LEP - Rural East of England - Ruralwith other rural areas? 4.5 England - Rural 4.0 Cl a i mants to va cancies ratioThe tables and charts on this page compare the number of unemployed 3.5people per available job (the ratio of Jobseeker’s Allowance claimants to the 3.0number of job vacancies notified to Jobcentre Plus) for rural New Anglia LEP 2.5to rural areas across the region and England as a whole. 2.0  Rural areas in New Anglia LEP have a higher ratio of unemployment 1.5 benefit claimants to available jobs (2.6) compared with the average for 1.0 rural areas across England as a whole (2.1 claimants per job). 0.5 0.0Jobseekers per available job in rural and urban New Anglia LEP The ra ti o of unemployment claimants to The ra tio of unemployment claimants to a va ilable jobs is similar a crossrural a reas a va ilable jobs is higher i n rural New i n New Anglia LEP a nd rural areas across Angl ia LEP tha n a cross rural a reas i n Source: Jobcentre Plus Department for Work and Pensions 2004 to 2010 the regi on Engl and 3.5Cl a i mants to va cancies ratio 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.3 1.0 2.1 0.5 0.0 - Rura l - Rura l - Rura l - Urba n Ea s t of England - Urba n - Urba n Engl and New Anglia LEP The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 27. Unemployment and worklessness in rural New Anglia LEP 27 Distance from job centres in rural New Anglia LEP and comparatorsAccess to a job centre in rural New Anglia LEP 100% 90%The tables and charts on this page compare the access to a job centre in rural 20km plusNew Anglia LEP. The stacked bar chart compares the breakdown of 80% % of rural households 18-20kmhouseholds in terms of distance to job centre across rural New Anglia LEP and 70% 16-18kmcomparators. The bar chart compares the proportion of people living more than 60%10km from a job centre across rural New Anglia LEP, and comparators. 50% 14-16km 12-14km  9% of households (27,838 households) in rural areas in New Anglia LEP 40% 10-12km live within 2km of the nearest job centre; by contrast, 450 households are 30% 8-10km 18km or more from the nearest job centre. 20% 6-8km  A higher proportion of people live more than 10km from a job centre in 10% 4-6km rural New Anglia LEP (34%) than across rural England as a whole (30%). 0% 2-4km Rura l New Anglia LEP Rura l East of England Rura l England Less than 2km Rural New Anglia LEP Rural East of England Rural England N % N % N %Less than 2km 27,840 9% 31,700 4% 170,570 4%2-4km 21,330 7% 62,260 8% 467,340 11%4-6km 40,170 12% 131,490 18% 824,410 20% Rura l New Anglia LEP ha s a higher Rura l New Anglia LEP ha s a higher proportion of people more than 10km proportion of people more than 10km6-8km 61,020 19% 152,770 21% 758,770 18% from a job centre compared with the from a job centre compard with the8-10km 65,020 20% 137,380 19% 656,160 16% rural regional average rural England average10-12km 45,430 14% 97,920 13% 481,420 12% Hous eholds 10km + from a job centre 40%12-14km 39,790 12% 75,450 10% 327,540 8% 35%14-16km 19,450 6% 33,990 5% 195,760 5% 30%16-18km 3,750 1% 7,970 1% 101,750 2% 25%18-20km 450 0% 1,590 0% 73,710 2% 20%20km plus 0 0% 540 0% 62,930 2% 15% 10% 5% 0% Rural New Anglia LEP Rura l East of England #N/A Source: OCSI 2011, CRC 2009 The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 28. Appendix A: Indicators and data sources 28Appendix A: Indicators and data sourcesIndicator Description Date Source ReferenceOverall employment The proportion of people who are in employment in local areas (including self employment) 2009 Census 2001/ Annual Population http://www.data4nr.net/resourrate as a proportion of all people of working age. The rate for rural areas has been estimated Survey (APS) 2009 ces/594 from the Census 2001 combined with the APS.Self employment rate The proportion of people who are self-employed in local areas has been estimated from the 2009 Census 2001/ Annual Population http://www.data4nr.net/resour Census 2001 combined with the APS. Survey (APS) 2009 ces/841Employment by Information on occupational group is available from the Census and APS, for example 2009 Census 2001/ Annual Population http://www.data4nr.net/resouroccupational group managerial, professional or elementary occupations. The Standard Occupation Survey (APS) 2009 ces/329 Classification (SOC2000) is coded from the full title of each person’s main job and the description of what is done in that job (the ‘main’ job is where that person usually works).Employment by This dataset shows the usual resident population aged 16 to 74 in employment by the 2009 Census 2001/ Annual Population http://www.data4nr.net/resourindustry sector industrial sector they work in, e.g. Manufacturing, Health, Education, Agriculture etc. Data Survey (APS) 2009 ces/327 been estimated from the Census 2001 combined with the APS.Qualifications Qualification levels of the working age population. The categories are as follows: No 2009 Census 2001/ Annual Population http://www.data4nr.net/resour Qualifications: No academic, vocational or professional qualifications. Level 1: 1+‘O’ level Survey (APS) 2009 ces/224 passes, 1+CSE/GCSE any grades, NVQ level 1, Foundation GNVQ. Level 2: 5+‘O’ level passes, 5+CSEs (grade 1). 5+GCSEs (grades A-C), School Certificate, 1+’A’ levels/AS levels, NVQ level 2, Intermediate GNVQ. Level 3: 2+‘A’ levels,4+AS levels, Higher School certificate, NVQ level 3, Advanced GNVQ. Level 4/5: First degree, Higher degree, NVQ levels 4 and 5, HNC, HND, Qualified Teacher status, Qualified Medical Doctor, Qualified Dentist, Qualified Nurse, Midwife, Health Visitor. Other qualifications/level unknown: Other qualifications (e.g. City and Guilds, RSA/OCR, BTEC/Edexcel), Other Professional Qualifications.People working from Proportion of people aged 16-74 who self reported that they work from home. 2001 Census 2001 http://www.statistics.gov.uk/chome ensus2001/access_results.as p The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 29. Appendix A: Indicators and data sources 29 http://www.data4nr.net/resourAverage weekly Model-based estimates of Income, using ONS modelled estimates at MSOA level 2007/08 ONS 2007/08, OCSI 2011 ces/396household incomes http://www.data4nr.net/resourHouse-price to Average household income estimates/MSOA level average house-price (land registry data). 2007/08 ONS 2007/08, OCSI 2011, Land ces/396earnings ratio Registry http://www.data4nr.net/resour ces/50Local business units This dataset provides a count of VAT-registered local business units taken from the IDBR 2009 Office for National Statistics http://www.data4nr.net/resourby size and grouped into four employment size bands (0-4, 5-9, 10-19 and 20+ paid employees). (ONS), Business Registers Unit ces/365 (BRU), Small Business Service 2009Local business units Taken from the Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR) database, this shows 2009 Office for National Statistics http://www.data4nr.net/resourby broad industry numbers of local businesses by 16 broad industry groups. The groups are derived from the (ONS), Business Registers Unit ces/365group Standard Industrial Classification (UKSIC 2003). (BRU), Small Business Service 2009Jobseeker’s Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA) is paid to individuals who are unemployed and actively 2004-2010 Department for Work and http://www.data4nr.net/resourAllowance (JSA) seeking work. JSA can be either ‘income based’ (where an applicant qualifies due to Pensions (DWP) ces/301 satisfying the means test) or ‘contribution based’ (where the applicant qualifies due to having paid sufficient National Insurance contributions), or a combination of both.Incapacity Benefit Incapacity Benefit (IB) is a non means-tested benefit paid to people who are incapable of 2000 to 2010 Department for Work and http://www.data4nr.net/resour(IB) and Employment work due to ill health and who have paid sufficient National Insurance contributions. From Pensions (DWP) ces/72Support Allowance November 2008, Employment Support Allowance (ESA) replaced IB for new claimants.(ESA)Distance to job Service availability and accessibility has been a key rural policy issue for many years. In 2009 Commission for Rural http://www.data4nr.net/resourcentres order to monitor changing levels of service availability, these datasets combine information Communities (CRC) ces/820 on service localities, together with postcode level information on the distribution of households, to calculate numbers of households within distance of key service indicators. “Crow flies” distance from households to various services is presented as the proportion of households living within specified distances (2km bands) of these services. This data is developed at Output Area level (areas covering 150 to 300 people) and therefore enables finer grained analysis of individual pockets and small settlements. This dataset was The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 30. Appendix A: Indicators and data sources 30 collected for 2009 so provides an up-to-date picture of accessibility issues.OCSI Modelled In work for the Department of Communities and Local Government9, the OCSI team Varies OCSI, based on Census 2001 -estimates explored a range of statistical modeling techniques for converting datasets between and Annual Population Survey different geographies. This included case studies of using Census data to model Annual 2001-2010 Population Survey (APS) and other recent datasets to small area level. We have used ‘apportioning’ to combine Census and APS data to produce small area estimates of APS data, which are then aggregated up to rural and non-rural areas. In this case, apportioning applies the Census 2001 small area distribution to the local authority level APS data.9 OCSI (2011), Understanding performance in a flexible decentralised approach to delivery: A practical guide to converting data between geographies.http://www.communities.gov.uk/archived/general-content/corporate/researcharchive/volume1/ The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 31. Appendix B: Geographies 31Appendix B: Geographies Unlike wards, LSOAs are designed to produce areas of approximately equalThe rural-urban classification population size, with the mean population of lower layer SOAs beingIn this project we have used the rural-urban area classifications developed approximately 1,500 people. Although there remains a degree of variationunder a joint project sponsored by the Office for National Statistics, around this mean of 1,500 persons (the smallest lower layer SOA population inDepartment for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Office for the Deputy England is just under 1,000 whilst the highest population is over 6,000), thePrime Minister, the Countryside Agency and National Assembly for Wales. large majority of lower layer SOAs have populations close to 1,500. This standardised population size makes the lower layer SOA geography wellThe classifications are available for a range of geographical scales, including suited to identifying smaller pockets of deprivation that may be averaged outOutput Areas, Super Output Areas (both Lower and Middle Layer), and Wards. over large wards. There are 32,482 lower layer SOAs in England.The classification can be used to analyse and report on the very wide range ofdata sets that are now geographically referenced.The classifications are categorised into four categories 10: ‘urban’ - based on allsettlements over 10,000 population; ‘town & fringe’ ‘village or hamlet’; and‘isolated dwelling’. For the analysis in this project, we have combined the ‘town& fringe’, ‘village or hamlet’ and ‘isolated dwelling’ categories into a single non-urban ‘rural’ category. In other words, our rural area analysis is based on allareas outside settlements with populations of more than 10,000 people.For further details on the classifications, seewww.statistics.gov.uk/geography/nrudp.asp.Census Super Output AreasCensus Super Output Areas (SOAs) are a statistical geography created for thepurpose of presenting the 2001 Census, the Indices of Deprivation 2004, andother neighbourhood statistics. There are two layers to the SOA geography:‘lower layer’ and ‘middle layer’. All SOA level data presented within this reportis based on ‘lower layer’ SOA boundaries (LSOAs). See the 2001 Censuswebsite referenced above for further details of the different SOA layers.10 There is a second dimension of categorisation, where areas are classifiedinto “sparse” and “less sparse” – for the purposes of this project we havecombined these two categories. The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 32. Appendix C: How to interpret the charts and tables in this report 32 Appendix C: How to interpret the charts and tables in this report Overall employment rate in Bath and North East Somerset and rural comparators The overall employment rate is higher in rural Pie-charts are used to illustrateBar-charts are used to show how areas than urban areas how the group is split between 80 25 % of employedthe level of a particular issue people live in rural areas rural and urban areas. 70varies for local rural and urban Overall employment rate(%) 60areas. In this example for Bath and 50 North East Somerset, the chartIn this example for Bath and North 40 shows that, of all the people 75 % of employedEast Somerset, the chart shows 30 people live in urban areas employed, 25% live in rural areasthat the employment rate (% of 20 (the “rural share”) and 75% inworking-age people who are in urban areas. 10employment) is higher in rural 0areas than urban areas. Total Rural Urban The overall employment rate is higher in The overall employment rate is higher in Key messages are highlighted in rural Bath and North East Somerset rural Bath and North East Somerset the chart, and also in the than across rural areas in the region than the rural England average accompanying text description 80 70 Employment rate 60 50 40 30 20 10This bar-chart shows how the 0 The source highlights whereproportion of the group affected the data comes from, in this South West England - Urban - Urban - Urban East Somerset Bath and North - Rural - Rural - Ruralvaries for local rural and urban case the modelled estimatesareas, compared with all rural and created by OCSI. Appendix Aurban areas across the region and gives more details.England. Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011
  • 33. Appendix C: How to interpret the charts and tables in this report 33 Occupational group and industry sector profiles in Bath and North East Somerset Occupation profile 100%Stacked bar-charts show how a 90%particular group is broken down Elementary occupationsinto sub-groups, and how this 80% Process; plant & machine operativesdiffers between local rural and 70% Sales and customer service occupationsurban areas. 60% Personal service occupations Skilled trades occupations 50%In this example for Bath and North Administrative & secretarial occupationsEast Somerset, all people aged 16- 40% Associate professional & technical occupations74 in employment are shown by 30% Professional occupationstheir occupational group, 20% Managers & senior officialshighlighting what % of people in 10%employment are working in 0%managerial (and other) roles. Rural UrbanThe relative sizes of the blocks in Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimatesthe rural and urban ‘stacks’ identifywhether each occupational group is The accompanying tables provide Number of Employment % of allmore common in rural or urban the data for the charts, showing people in rate (%) employedareas (larger blocks identify that  how the group (in this employment people inthe group makes up a larger example, “people who are in the areacomponent of all employed employment”) is split betweenpeople). Bath and North East Somerset rural and urban areas; and 80,703 65.5  how the proportion of the - Rural 20,180 68.3 25.0 group affected (“% of working- - Urban 60,500 64.6 75.0 age people who are in South West 2,295,463 64.9 employment”) varies for local - Rural 769,897 64.7 33.5 rural and urban areas, - Urban 1,525,566 65.1 66.5 compared with all rural and England urban areas across the region 22,567,852 63.5 and England. - Rural 4,445,204 65.9 19.7 - Urban 18,122,648 63.0 80.3 Source: OCSI (2011) Modelled estimates The rural economy in New Anglia LEP. ©ACRE/RCAN/OCSI 2011

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