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Popular Methodology1. Approaches 4. Techniques 2. Methods 3. Procedures
Grammar Translation: Students weregiven explanations of individual points ofgrammar, and then they were given sentences whichexemplified these points.Direct Method: Translation was abandoned infavor of the teacher and the students speakingtogether.Audiolingualism: Using the stimulus –response-reinforcement model, it attempted, trough acontinuous process of such positive reinforcement, toengender good habits in language learners.
TEACHER: there’s a cup on the table… repeatSTUDENTS: There’s a cup on the table.TEACHER: Spoon.STUDENTS: There’s a spoon on the table.TEACHER: Book.STUDENTS: There’s a book on the table.TEACHER: On the chair.STUDENTS: There’s a book on the chair.ETC.
Presentation Practice Production…In this procedure the teacher introduces a situationwhich contextualizes the language to be taught. Thelanguage, too, is then presented. The students nowpractice the language using accurate reproductiontechniques such as:Choral repetitionIndividual RepetitionCue-response drills
PPP and alternatives toPPP… PRODUCTION PRESENTATION PRACTICE FIGURE 1 Byrnes alternative approach
Engage Engage StudyStudy FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 A Straight A Boomerang arrows lesson Activate lessonActivate procedure procedure
EngageStudyActivate FIGURE 4 An example of a Pathwork lesson procedure
Communicative Language teaching (CLT)Non-communicative activities Communicative activitieso no communicative desire o A desire to communicateo no communicative purpose o A communicative purposeo form no content o Content not formo one language item only o Variety of languageo teacher intervention o No teacher interventiono materials control o No materials control
Task –based learning (TBL) Introduction to topic and task Task-cycle Task Planning Report Language focus Analysis Practice
Four methods1. Communicative Language Learning2. Suggestopaedia3. Total Physical Response4. Silent Way
What methodology? Methods and culture Bargains, postmethod and context-sensitivity Making choices:Affect, input, output, cognitive effort, grammarand lexis, how, why and where.