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Mhr 9

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  • 1. ASSIGNMENT ON MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCE Submitted by: Date i
  • 2. Table of content: Contents page Executive Summary: iii Task- 1 1.1 Guest’s model of HRM: 4 1.2 Dissimilarities between Story’s definition on HRM, personnel and industrial 5 relations: 1.3 Developing a strategic method to HRM and effect of line managers and workers: 6 Task- 2 2.1 Flexibility model in exercise: 7 2.2 Types of flexibility for organizations: 7 2.3 Flexible practices from employer and worker perspective: 8 2.4 Impact of fluctuations in labor market on flexible working practice: 8 Task- 3 3.1 Discrimination in workplace: 9 3.2 Application of equal opportunity legislation for business: 10 3.3 Dissimilarities between management of equal opportunity and diversity: 10 Task- 4 4.1 Comparing approaches of performance management: 11 4.2 Assessment of employee welfare management: 11 4.3 Application of health and safety legislation on HR: 12 4.4 Effect of topical issue on HR practices: 12 References: 13 ii
  • 3. Executive Summary: HR management is the most vital and critical part of a firm which involves the activities of managing staffs, development and improvement of skills and fulfilling structural requirements and mission. To achieve the firm’s objective, HR managers need to control and develop an effective employee management system. The activities and responsibilities of HR managers are the arrangement of effective and successful recruitment and training, managing and developing performance and controland guidance of workplace behavior. The workers are provided with numerous facilities like flexibility, security, motivational reward and discrimination free workplace. A firm must consider applying appropriate HR strategies for its employees in order to create a value of the firm which will attract the future talents and skilled workers from the labor market. There are some discriminatory factors like age, gender, belief which need to be fixed in the HR development process. The demographic stages of labor market are the drivers of HR policy modification and development. all the related people in a firm possess a responsibility to contribute in the successful HR strategy implementation and result. The managers of other sectors need the support and guidance from the HR management to perform HR tasks in their own operations. iii
  • 4. Task- 1 Different perspective of Human resource management 1.1 Guest’s model of HRM: An appropriate HR strategic model was first introduced by David Guest (1997) which is considered a better model than any other HR models exist. He introduced several approaches which state a manager should apply some basic approaches as to gain a desired output. The application is a sequential approach of six stages Strategies to human resource.  Behavioral outcome.  Practices of human resource.  Result in performance.  HR outcome.  Economic benefits. Unilever is a huge and one of the largest consumer goods manufacturing companies in the world. The objective and mission of Unilever is to gain a sustainable growth, make the environmental impact half and make their profit double. The Guest’s HR model is useful tool for Unilever in setting successful HR policiesUnilever forms HR strategies following their core organizational policy and mission. More settled workforce in supply chain, discrimination-free environment, increased job duration, equality in service and maintained policy on child labor. Workers get enthusiasm and become more objective-oriented and get satisfied in activities. The performance of personnel is improved and become more corporate value and goal oriented. Employee co-ordination, commitment and job place motivation results in positive economic impact, more revenue, increasing market and customer share. 4
  • 5. 1.2 Dissimilarities between Story’s definition on HRM, personnel and industrial relations: HRM Personnel Management HR management is the most Personnel vital and critical part of a thus firm which involves basically the administrative activities of managing staffs, keeping development Management Industrial Relationship is Relationship and co-ordination an among the management and the record- employees. function, at the and operational level. Personnel improvement of skills and Management fulfilling structural maintain requirements and mission. attempts fair terms to and conditions of employment, while at the same time, efficiently personnel managing activities for individual departments etc. (Boxall, P.F,1992) The sustainable living plan Unilever conducts various Unilever maintains a better was initiated by Unilever types of training facilities, relation which entails the seminars and appropriate with the labor union and each for performance and every employee in order to suppliers and improvement. advice from experts to bring productivity communication including guideline stakeholders customers, and and motivate them and make them perform as the firm requires. smooth relationship with customers. 5
  • 6. 1.3 Developing a strategic method to HRM and effect of line managers and workers: HRM is an extensive set of activities that includes the process of recruitment, skill development and management of personnel. To find a better and fast way to achieve the firm’s core value and objectives, Unilever HR management tries to recruit and train appropriate and competent staffs and to change structure and policies with the revolving surrounding. As the internal and external factors are changing continuously, HR management faces challenges accomplishing their HR responsibility. The given approaches can aid the line managers and staffs in performing the HR tasks- a. Create desire:The HR managers must try to create an aspiration and feeling of importance in the mind of line managers. The desire for HR responsibility will make the implementation a successful one. b. Provide support: The HR executives should support the line managers in understanding the importance and requirements of HR tasks as they can set vision and utilization of HR knowledge. c. Develop capacity:Line managers have to perform their operational tasks and they are not motivated to extend their capacity. If their HR capacity is improved and identified, line managers will be able to perform HR task effectively addition to their operational responsibility. d. HR responsibility: The line manager should understand the HR responsibility criteria and the rules and strategies should be clarified and justified to the line managers to enhance their HR knowledge. e. Develop competency: The HR competency of the line managers can be developed by training them. This will encourage them to perform HR tasks. 6
  • 7. Task- 2 Developing flexibility within workplace. 2.1 Flexibility model in exercise: Atkinson’s model of core and peripheral workforce:The core and peripheral workforces need to be in balance in an organizational setting. This balance might fluctuate if the use of peripheral workers in top management level. To maintain a perfect core-periphery workforce ratio, make appropriate staff selection at all organizational level is a crucial and significant role of HR managers. Core workforce:these workers are highly competent provide high level of performance, carry high responsibility and enjoy a more secured job. The most perfect approach for core workforces can be explained by the flexibility function. In tough changing situations core workers face greater challenges and responsibilities. Peripheral workforce: These workers perform continuous and small types of operations which is less significant than the core responsibility. According to Atkinson the context of peripheral workforce is much more complex than previously thought. 2.2 Types of flexibility for organizations: Flexibility is the capacity of a firm to adapt to environmental changes and structural pressures by adjusting the composition, pattern, cost and receptiveness of personnel. By the definition of Atkinson (1984) there exist four kinds of flexibility that can help Unilever to build a balanced workforce. a. External numerical flexibility:it is the change in number of labor inflow from the external source. It includes the actions and strategies like employing temporary workers, contractual agreement with employees, easing the employment safety legislation to discharge permanent staffs as firm require. b. Functional flexibility:This explains the movement of workforces from one task to other tasks within the organizational setting. It includes the worker training and outsourcing of tasks. 7
  • 8. c. Financial flexibility: Financial flexibility defines the difference in salary level depending on the position and performance but not fixed as a whole. The compensation is determined by performance evaluation. d. Temporal flexibility: This flexibility pattern entails adaptation of working schedule, hour shift, and overtime opportunity of presently working employees. Locational flexibility: Locational flexibility means the working of staffs outside of typical workplace. 2.3 Flexible practices from employer and worker perspective: There are some flexibility patterns that are useful and presented by organizations to build satisfaction and security at workplace for the employers and employees Job sharing: Two workers share a job and split the time among themselves to complete the work at shared compensation rate.  Part-time: Staffs work normally less than the permanent workers and spend less than the full time.  Zero hour contract: Work schedule, duties are not predetermined by the managers. This is an agreement between the employers and staffs where both the parties are free to offer admit or reject a project.  Tele-workers: Workers complete their tasks operating from their home through telecommunication.  Home-workers: Employees work their tasks away from the usual workplace but don’t attend at the working zone. 2.4 Impact of fluctuations in labor market on flexible working practice: In present times a more frequent change can be observed in labor market largely because of the changes in economic and market condition. Management tend to hire employees in the most effective manner and select the most appropriate candidates. The flexibility patterns for workplace changes due to the fluctuations in labor market. 8
  • 9. Labor marketDemography:The demographic stages affect and determine the labor market conditions. The supply and demand ratio needs to be adjusted with the transition in demographic stages. Women’s more involvement in the workplaces changing the contribution ratio and organization’s HR policies. Drop in birthrates reduces the fresh labor supply to the market. Moreover an increase in life expectancy increases the availability of old workers even working after retirements. For such demographic transitions the flexibility patterns in practice are always restructured and adjusted with the market demand and condition. Task- 3 Effect of equal opportunities in workplace 3.1 Discrimination in workplace: International Labor Organization defines ‘discrimination’ as the imbalanced treatment. There is some basic characteristics discrimination that can happen at workplaces like age, gender, background, racial differences among the workers. Systemic Discrimination This is a long-term based and extensive discrimination. It takes place for a specific group due to their common characteristic like race, sex, color. It’s a vital part of workplace practice, policy or corporate culture. Direct Discrimination Direct discrimination means when manager considers an individual less favorably because of his/her difference in age, color, race or sex. In this way an individual is solely separated from other working people. If a person with adequate caliber is rejected due to his/her different characteristic will be considered as discrimination and illegal. Indirect Discrimination This is a kind of discrimination where rules, provisions are applicable for all but which in fact affect a particular group adversely and unethical for them to comply with the law. For instance, unnecessary obligation of age or gender might discriminate women or fresh candidates. 9
  • 10. 3.2 Application of equal opportunity legislation for business: To meet the expected and predetermined organizational goal more or less all the organizations try to build a workplace with equal opportunities for all the staffs and with no discriminatory behavior and policies. Employees get motivation and their performance is increased which will in turn reach the job standard. The following tasks can be very helpful to maintain equal opportunity:  Introduce and maintain EEO policy and regulations to handle harassment and make all the employees understand the context.  Equal compensation and opportunity of getting promoted.  Provide a comfortable and flexible environment.  Adjustment of facilities for those who don’t possess certain characteristic. 3.3 Dissimilarities between managementof equal opportunity and diversity: Diversity exists when groups of people bring their own backgrounds and experiences to an organization or workplace. Managing diversity involves using these resources and experiences for the benefit of the organization. When an organization hires people, they also hire diversified characteristic, background, personality and other factors. Diversified personnel are considered as an asset and organization utilize the diversity to get the best outputs of it. Factors Managing Equal Managing Diversities Opportunities Concentration processing output Driver Peripheral Internal Approach Structure Operational Strategic Emphases on Group Discrimination Individual differences Knowledge base Narrower base Wider base Suitable for Integration Conventional Adaption Task- 4 Methods to human resource practices. 10
  • 11. 4.1 Comparing approaches of performance management: Management of performance is an essential part of workplace through which management team and supervisors can identify the performance level and determine how much improvement is required to fulfill firm’s expectation. The measurement techniques are of different patterns suitable for different organizational setting. 360-Degree Feedback:360-degree feedback means the assessment of individual performance derived from all other related parties including peer group, managers, supervisors, colleagues and self. Management by Objective (MBO):This method is called as the objective based assessment process. In this method managers and staffs are given specified and practical goals with a preset deadline. The appraiser can detect the performance deviation and problems by comparing it with the standard performance level. Assessment Centers:In an assessment center managers and employees participate in a performance based exercise and the activity is judged and assessed by expert observers. Physiological Appraisal:The assessment technique identifies the skills, tolerance level, rationality and other characteristics. Managers can identify which employee is best suited to a position and responsibility. 4.2 Assessment of employee welfare management: The procedure of improving the employee life, safety issues and benefits is widely recognized as employee welfare management. The EWM activities involve safety, facilities and motivational rewards which improve the job conditions. The causes of applying EWM at workplace are Enhance value and image of the firm.  Enhance productivity.  Maintaining a healthy work environment.  Minimize employee turnover.  Build job satisfaction.  Good relation and liaison with labor unions. 11
  • 12. Managers have to identify and analyze the benefit-cost ratio and the actual outcome to decide whether the EWM has positive impact on the performance.  Detect whether the system fulfilled the staff and organizational needs.  The effect on profit should be clarified with proper reasoning.  Cafeteria approach which provides varied facilities for diversified work group.  Feedback can be very helpful to identify the success and requirements of welfare management. 4.3 Application of health and safety legislation on HR: Health and safety legislation controls and sets the workplace health and safety standard aiming at preventing accident, injuries and harassments taking place at the work environment. It explains the responsibilities of supervisors, employers and staffs to successfully manage workplace behavior. Actually the legislation indicates that an employer should be ready to take any actions necessary to protect the safety and health of the staffs at work environment. The law of health and safety in UK is recognized as “HASWA” is a formation that explains ultimate structure to motivate, enforce and regulate the health, welfare and safety issues within firm’s work environment. 4.4 Effect of topical issue on HR practices: The topical and critical issues in HR arise during the process of enhancing productivity, reducing discrimination and employing in a effective way. The most common topical issues in HR are Safety and security of workers.  Appropriate employment.  Solving violations and conflict.  Enhanced productivity.  Training facilities.  Management of discrimination.  Benefit and services for the employees. 12
  • 13. References: Atkinson, J. and Meager, N. (1986) Changing Working Patterns: How companies achieve flexibility to meet new needs, Institute of Manpower Studies, National Economic Development Office, London. Boxall, P.F. (1992) Strategic Human Resource Management: Beginning of a new theoretical sophistication? Human Resource Management Journal, 2(3): 60–79. Delery, J.E. (1998) Issues of Fit in Strategic Human Resource Management: Implications for research. Human Resource Management Review, 8: 289–309 Fowler, A (1987) when chief executives discover HRM, Personnel Management, January, p 3 Guest, D.E. (1999). Human Resource Management: The Workers’ Verdict, Human ResourceManagement Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 5-25 Guest, D.E. (2001) Human Resource Management: When research confronts theory. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12: 1092–1106. Hayton, J.C. (2005), Promoting Corporate Entrepreneurship through Human Resource Management Practices: A Review of Empirical Research, Human Resource Management Review, 15(1), pp-21-41. Kay, J. (1993) Foundations of Corporate Success: How Business Strategies Add Value. New York: Oxford University Press Legge, K. (1989). Human Resource Management: A Critical Analysis, in J. Storey (ed.) EwPerspectives in Human Resource Management, Routledge, London Storey,J (1995).Is HRM catching on?International journal of manpower.Vol,16.No.4 13