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Mhr 16

Mhr 16






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    Mhr 16 Mhr 16 Document Transcript

    • Table of content: Executive Summary: ......Error! Bookmark not defined. Task- 1 Different perspective of Human resource management .....................Error! Bookmark not defined. Guest’s model of HRM: ................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.1. Difference between Story’s definition on HRM, personnel and industrial relations:Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.2 Developing a strategic approach to HRM and impact of line managers and employees: ........................................... 5 Task- 2..................... Developing flexibility within workplace 6 2.1 Flexibility model in practice: .................................................. 6 Atkinson’s core and peripheral workforce model: ....... 6 2.2 Types of flexibility for organizations: ..........Error! Bookmark not defined. 2.3 Flexible working practices from employer and employee perspective:Error! Bookmark not defined. 2.4 Impact of changes in labor market on flexible working practice: ............................................................................... 9 Task- 3 ........ Impact of equal opportunities in workplace 10 3.1 Discrimination in workplace: ................................................. 10 3.2 Implication of equal opportunity legislation for organization: ..................Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.3 Differences between managing equal opportunity and diversity………….…12 1|P a g e
    • Task- 4 ............ Approaches to human resource practices. Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.1 Comparing methods of performance management: ...............................................Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.2 Evaluation of employee welfare management: ...............................................Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.4 Impact of topical issue on HR practices: .........Error! Bookmark not defined. Conclusion: .....................Error! Bookmark not defined. References: .....................Error! Bookmark not defined. Executive Summary: Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. HRM can also be performed by line managers. HRM is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. HRM is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization's goals and objectives. 2|P a g e
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    • Task- 1 Different perspective of Human resource management Guest’s model of HRM: David Guest's (1989, 1997) model of HRM has 6 dimensions of analysis: HRM strategy HRM practices HRM outcomes Behavior outcomes Performance outcomes Financial outcomes The model is prescriptive in the sense that it is based on the assumption that HRM is distinctively differentfrom traditional personnel management and rooted in strategic management. It is idealistic, implicitly embodying the belief that fundamental elements of the HRM approach such as commitment have a direct relationship with valued business consequences. However, Guest has acknowledged that the concept of commitment is 'messy' and that the relationship between commitment and high performance is (or, perhaps, was -given the age of this material) difficult to establish. It also employs a 'flow' approach, seeing strategy underpinning practice, leading to a variety of desired outcomes. Unilever is one of the largest Multinational consumer goods company. Its products include foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. It is the world's third-largest consumer goods company measured by 2011 revenues (after Procter & Gamble and Nestlé) and the world's largest manufacturer of ice cream. One of the oldest multinational companies, it currently has operations in over 100 countries. Unilever established its HR strategies based on the firm‘s organizational goals, core competencies and competitive advantages. 4|P a g e
    • 1.1 Difference between Story’s definition on HRM, personnel and industrial relations: HRM: Human Resource Management is the management of the employees of an organization. Simply speaking, it is putting right people to the right task thereby making maximum use of the employees' talent and abilities. Human resource management is responsible for how people are treated in an organization. Personnel Management: Personnel management refers to the managerial function of estimating and classifying of human resources requirements for meeting organizational goals. It involves strategies that ensure sufficient staff, a right combination of talent and performance in jobs. Industrial Relations: Industrial relations is a multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship.[Industrial relations is increasingly being called employment relations or employee relations because of the importance of non-industrial employment relationships; this move is sometimes seen as further broadening of the human resource management trend. Indeed, some authors now define human resource management as synonymous with employee relations. 5|P a g e
    • 1.2 Developing a strategic approach to HRM and impact of line managers and employees: The whole approach towards HRM has undergone a sea change over the years and is continuing to do so. In the initial stages, HRM, guided by humanistic considerations, was seen as a philosophy that development of people in an organization is a prime responsibility of management. Over the years, emerged a modified: partly humanistic and partly business oriented approach. Which regards development of people as the most important asset for improving performance of the organization? In this respect the emphasis shifted to developing roles, role relationships, appraisal systems, training, job design and the like Line managers are responsible for HRM implementation in an organization since they have to execute the HRM practices on the work floor. Nevertheless, research has indicated that line managers find implementing HRM practices difficult because of several limitations they experience in implementing HRM. HRM practices can be developed properly, but if line managers fail to implement them successfully on the work floor they are still not effective. Some of the strategies which are being followed by HR managers- Generate desires. Develop capabilities. Develop proficiency. Deliver provision. HR concern. Maintaining growth. 6|P a g e
    • Task- 2 Developing flexibility within workplace 2.1 Flexibility model in practice: Current debates about changing patterns of work tend to be structured around Atkinson's model of the flexible firm, which is similar to Loveridge's model of firmspecific labour markets. Two spring 1987 national surveys, of workers and of employers, are analysed to show that the balance between core and periphery in the workforce is indeed changing, but that this labour force restructuring is due primarily to traditional and opportunistic approaches to the use of peripheral workers among employers. Employers with a conscious core- periphery manpower strategy constitute a small minority and they do not employ disproportionate numbers of peripheral workers. They are distinguished by a more thoroughgoing reorganisation of work, with greater use of subcontractors, the self-employed and agency workers. The long-term implications are considered. The use of terms such as ‗core‘ and ‗periphery‘ todescribe the workforce has received substantial criticisminignoring the heterogeneityof both the core and the peripheral workforces (Walsh and Deery, 1997), while Allenand Du Gay (1994) question the relevance ofthe model to the service industry. Thispaper continues this questioning of the model; in particular, it investigates themeanings and implications of the term ‗peripheral work‘. From the employee perspective, it is better to be part of the core than the periphery since the former has greater job security, better remuneration and conditions of work, and better prospects. In addition to the core and periphery employees, the flexible firm model also identifies the importance of external workers—in particular, subcontracted workers who typically undertake activities such as cleaning and catering, which are not core to the business, although important to its running. 7|P a g e
    • 2.2 Types of flexibility for organizations: For several decades a variety of scholars have described or documentedincreasing levels of competition in the business context and particularly, D‘Aveni‘s notion ofhypercompetition has become quite popular in scholarly and managerial literature (Zaccarelli 1988). Hypercompetitive environments show discontinuous change, with competitorsacting boldly and aggressively to disrupt the status quo and severe penalties forfirms failing to respond appropriately. According to Atkinson four strategies can be used for brining symmetry flexibility in workforce of Unilever. Atkinson and Meager‘s model of ‗flexible firm‘ identifies four types of flexibility that companies seek: 1. Functional: This refers to a firm‘s ability to adjust and deploy the skills of its employees to match the tasks required by its changing workload, production methods. This is done by multi-skilling / dual skilling / dismantling of traditional rigidities between occupational groups (horizontal and vertical flexibility). This is designed to improve efficiency and reduce costs. This is a core area of traditional conflict within the division of labour between distinct skilled groups and between the skilled and the non-skilled (Penn, 1985). 2. Numerical: This refers to a firm‘s ability to adjust the level of labour inputs to meet fluctuations in outputs. There is increased use of part-timers, temporary, short-term contract staff, job sharers and agency workers. There is a contrast between ‗core‘ permanent workforce and ‗peripheral‘ nonpermanent. The general idea is that an increasing mixture of non-standard employment forms will be more efficient and cheaper. 3. Distancing Strategies: This refers to the increased use of other firms that undertake non-core activities such as catering, cleaning and transport. Such a strategy will be cheaper. 4. Financial: This refers to achievement of flexibility through the pay and reward structure. 5. Temporal flexibility: It is concerned with the pattern of hours worked and linked to 8|P a g e
    • the demands of the business. Seasonal or demand work is provided leading to Flexitime systems. In addition, annual hours contracts allotted with increase in evening working. 2.3 Flexible working practices from employer and employee perspective: From both the employer and employee viewpoint there are some flexibility practices that are commonly used in workplace. Flexible working is arguably the way forward for businesses to increase productivity and attract and retain the best talent – a win-win for employees and employers. So why aren‘t all businesses doing it? Because despite the well cited benefits, many questions and uncertainties still remain. Flexible working arrangements include: Changing hours of work (eg. working less hours or changing start or finish times) Changing patterns of work (eg. working ‗split shifts‘ or job sharing) Changing the place of work (eg. working from home). Different flexible working practices are done through Flextime Flextime is the most requested, easiest to manage and most affordable type of FWA. Flextime offers flexibility in arrival, departure and/or lunch times, typically with a designated core time during the day which all staff are present. Compressed Work Week This option allows employees to work a 40-hour work week in less than the traditional 8-hour day, 5-day work week. 9|P a g e
    • Job Sharing Job sharing is a work arrangement in which two people work part-time and share the responsibilities of one full-time job. Telecommuting Telecommuting is a work arrangement in which an employee carries out all or some of the duties of the job at home or another alternate work location. While most positions at the University require staff to report to University locations, some employees can accomplish the duties of their jobs while working off-campus. Reduced-Time/Part-Time A part-time working arrangement means working fewer than 40 hours per week. Salary is prorated for the actual number of hours worked. Eligibility for benefits, vacation, and sick leave may be affected. 2.4 Impact of changes in labor market on flexible working practice: The organizational dilemma of creating a flexible workforce whilst still attempting to elicit discretionary effort amongst its employees through the establishment of a positive psychological contract is a micro-version of a wider policy problem. Neoliberal economic policy argues that economic responsive-ness via the flexibility and adaptability of its institutions, including the labor market, is key to prosperity in a turbulent global economy. Flexibility of labor is reflected in an employer‘s ability to: recruit or dispose of labor as required; alter labor costs in line with market needs; allocate labor efficiently within the firm; and, fix working hours to suit business requirements. 10 | P a g e
    • Task- 3 Impact of equal opportunities in workplace 3.1 Discrimination in workplace: Discrimination happens when an employer treats one employee less favorably than others. It could mean a female employee being paid less than a male colleague for doing the same job, or an employee from a minority ethnic community being refused the training opportunities offered to other colleagues. There are specific laws against some types of discrimination (called 'unlawful discrimination'). If any employer treats any employees less favorably for an unlawful reason, he/she may be able to take action. If employer treats the employees unfairly for any other reason, this is not unlawful discrimination. There are laws against discrimination on the basis of different discrimination: gender marriage or civil partnership gender reassignment pregnancy and maternity leave sexual orientation disability race color ethnic background nationality religion or belief age Labor market discrimination is defined as the different treatment of two equally qualified individuals on account of their gender, race, agedisability and Religion etc. Discrimination is harmful since it affects the economic outcomes of equally productive workers directly and indirectly through feedback effects. 11 | P a g e
    • 3.2 Implication of equal opportunity legislation for organization: Legislation protects employees from discrimination of different types. Direct discriminationDirect discrimination happens when an employer treats an employee less favorably than someone else because of one of the above reasons. For example, it would be direct discrimination if a driving job was only open to male applicants (Carlopio 2012). Indirect discriminationIndirect discrimination is when a working condition or rule disadvantages one group of people more than another. For example, saying that applicants for a job must be clean shaven puts members of some religious groups at a disadvantage. Managers should bring some steps to stop the discrimination at work and should establish some right of the employees:  rights to a written statement of employment particulars  protection from unlawful deductions from wages  rights to paid holiday  limits on your working hours  the right to join a trade union 3.3 Differences between managing equal opportunity and diversity: Both equality and diversity are keys to advance today's modern society towards being a more peaceful, joyful and meaningful entity. However, diversity that managers can all celebrate and embrace cannot be achieved without achieving equality first. 12 | P a g e
    • One of the core differences between managing diversity and equal opportunity is associated with the force for change.Whereas external forces, such as government legislations, social fairness, ethical and humanrights etc..Another difference between these two approaches is their goals. The goal of equalopportunity has been mentioned as social justice and rectifying errors that have been made previously in the past: ―to correct an imbalance, an injustice, a mistake‖. On the other hand the main goal of managing diversity is discussed in much broader terms; that is to treat employees as individuals, acknowledge that each of them has uniqueneeds and therefore will need different sorts of assistance in order to succeed. 13 | P a g e
    • Task- 4 Approaches to human resource practices. 4.1 Comparing methods of performance management: The methods of appraisal that can be used in evaluating quality and quantity of performance are given below: Checklist Scale A checklist method for performance evaluations lessens the subjectivity, although subjectivity will still be present in this type of rating system. Critical Incident Appraisals This method of appraisal, while more time-consuming for the manager, can be effective at providing specific examples of behavior. With a critical incident appraisal, the manager records examples of the employee‘s effective and ineffective behavior during the time period between evaluations, which is in the behavioral category. Ranking Methods In a ranking method system (also called stack ranking), employees in a particular department are ranked based on their value to the manager or supervisor. This system is a comparative method for performance evaluations (Waddell 2000). Management by Objectives (MBO) Management by objectives (MBOs) is a concept developed by Peter Drucker in his 1954 book The Practice of Management. This method is results oriented and similar to the work standards approach, with a few differences. First, the manager and employee sit down together and develop objectives for the time period. 14 | P a g e
    • Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) A BARS method first determines the main performance dimensions of the job, for example, interpersonal relationships. Then the tool utilizes narrative information, such as from a critical incidents file, and assigns quantified ranks to each expected behavior. 4.2 Evaluation of employee welfare management: As a business, managers have to provide various benefits to ensure the employees' welfare. While this may increase the business expense and negatively affect the bottom line, looking after the employees will benefit organizations in other ways. In fact, in this day and age, it's almost impossible to operate a business without offering a basic set of benefits for the employees' welfare. The welfare manager at a company is responsible for maintaining the welfare services and activities for that company‘s employees. This includes a very wide range of duties, from arranging medical examinations and first aid, to broadening the company‘s entertainment services by installing new accommodations and facilities. Employee welfare managers are also responsible for organizing social activities for the company‘s employees, such as dance events or excursions (Cavanaugh 1956). 4.3 Implication of health and safety legislation on HR: Occupational health and safety legislation regulates the standards of workplace health and safety with the aim to prevent workplace accidents, injuries and diseases, and outlines consequences for breaches of those standards (Aragon 2013). It details responsibilities of employers, supervisors, and employees HR‘s mandate with respect to occupational health and safety is to support line management and the organization as a whole by creating and overseeing policies, procedures and 15 | P a g e
    • programs, dealing with regulatory compliance and reporting requirements, and advising, coaching and training line managers and employees. 4.4 Impact of topical issue on HR practices: HRM deals with the employees and topical issues can create some impact on the practices of the human resources managers. Topical social, political, economic issues can have impact on the decisions of increasing productivity , hiring employees, employees turnover, policy making, motivation facilities etc. Conclusion: HR is now making some vast impact on the working style and presentation at market of the organizations. Because it‘s the work recital of the employees which will stimulate the performance of the organization in the market. To increase the attractiveness of the firm to the labor market, employers practice HR activities inside the firm to recruit and retain skilled and proficient workers. Now-a-days to manage the human resources more efficient and experienced way specialized HR mangers are needed than that of in the previous decades. 16 | P a g e
    • References: Aragon, I, & Valle, R 2013, 'Does training managers pay off?', International Journal Of Human Resource Management, 24, 8, pp. 1671-1684, Education Research Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 March 2013. Carlopio, J, Andrewartha, G, Whetten, D, & Cameron, K 2012, Developing Management Skills : A Comprehensive Guide For Leaders / James Carlopio And Graham Andrewartha ; Adapted From The Text By Whetten And Cameron, n.p.: Frenchs Forest, N.S.W. : Pearson Australia, 2012. Cavanaugh, RM 1956, 'Development of Managers--Training in a Research Division', Administrative Science Quarterly, 1, 3, pp. 373-381, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 March 2013. Waddell, D, & Stewart, D 2000, Training And Management Development Of Quality Managers / Dianne Waddell And Deb Stewart, n.p.: Caulfield East, Vic. : Dept. of Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, 2000, CQUniversity Library Catalogue, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 March 2013. Zaccarelli, HE 1988, Training Managers To Train : A Practical Guide To Improving Employee Performance / By Herman E. Zaccarelli, n.p.: Los Altos, Calif : Crisp, c1988., CQUniversity Library Catalogue, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 March 2013. 17 | P a g e