An
Assignment on
Managing Human Resource

Submitted by:
Name:
Id:

Submitted to:

Date of Submission:

I
Table of content:
Contents

page

Executive Summary:

III

Task- 1
1.1 Guest’s model of HRM:

4

1.2 Difference between St...
Executive Summary:
HR managers perform the responsibilities of managing employees, skill development and
satisfying both o...
Task- 1

Different standpoint of Human resource management

1.1 Guest’s model of HRM:
This HR model was developed by David...
1.2 Difference between Story’s definition on HRM, workforces and
industrial relations:
HRM

Personnel management

Industri...
b. Develop competency: Training facilities should be organized for their HR
competency and skill development and this will...
2.2 Typesof flexibility for firms:
Flexibility in workplace means how quickly the workforce can adjust to changes and
fluc...


Tele-workers: Tele-communication is mainly used by the teleworkers for the task but
they do it from any places except t...
- Discrimination of age:Difference in ages has created discrimination in receiving
opportunities, authority, reward and pr...
Direct:Staffs are discriminated from other employees comparing their differences in
characteristics and background and edu...
Task- 4

Approaches to human resource practices.

4.1 Comparing techniques of performance management:
Performance evaluati...


Control the demand and force of labor unions.



Build more friendly and co-operative relation among employees.

To fi...
4.4 Effectof topical issue on HR applications:
There are some critical issues related with the HR during the process of de...
References:
Atkinson, J. and Meager, N. (1986) Changing Working Patterns: How companies achieve
flexibility to meet new ne...
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Mhr 13

  1. 1. An Assignment on Managing Human Resource Submitted by: Name: Id: Submitted to: Date of Submission: I
  2. 2. Table of content: Contents page Executive Summary: III Task- 1 1.1 Guest’s model of HRM: 4 1.2 Difference between Story’s definition on HRM, workforces and industrial relations: 5 1.3 Developing a strategic method to HRM and effect of line managers and staffs: 5 Task- 2 2.1 Flexibility model in practice: 6 2.2 Types of flexibility for firms: 7 2.3 Flexible working practices from manager and worker viewpoint: 7 2.4 Effect of changes in labor market on flexible working practice: 8 Task- 3 3.1 Workplace discrimination: 8 3.2 Implication of equal opportunity legislation in workplace: 9 3.3 Dissimilarities between equal opportunity and diversity: 10 Task- 4 4.1 Comparing techniques of performance management: 11 4.2 Assessment of workforce welfare management: 11 4.3 Implication of HR health and safety law: 12 4.4 Effect of topical issue on HR applications: 13 References: 14 II
  3. 3. Executive Summary: HR managers perform the responsibilities of managing employees, skill development and satisfying both organizational and employee needs. HRM is considered as the most vital part of a firm because every other department requires effective employee selection and management for being successful in achieving objectives. The prime objectives and activities of HRM are conducting effective recruitment, progressing performance, motivating workers and ensuring employee benefits. HR managers need to concern for managing flexibility in work environment, safety during operation, discriminations and motivation of workers. For maintaining a lucrative image in the labor market, HR policies and approaches need to ensure equal opportunity at workplace disregarding gender issue, age variations and other variance factors. Labor market demographics have made the firm to undertake developed and improved HR strategies and responsibilities. Both the employers and employees need to contribute and participate to fulfill HR requirements of an organization. Working environment, safety in machinery tools handling, supportive management; all are essential to satisfy the employees and build long term commitment. III
  4. 4. Task- 1 Different standpoint of Human resource management 1.1 Guest’s model of HRM: This HR model was developed by David Guest (1997) which is a superior modelincomparison to other HR models. Guest’s model explains that a HR manager should comeup with different approaches for which particular applications that bring some output as aresult. There are six sequences of HR approach- Human Resource strategies, Human Resource practices, Human Resource outcomes, Behavioral outcomes, Performance result and Economic consequences. Among the biggest multinational consumer producers Unilever is one of them. They focus on to achieve a more viable and sustaining growth, make the profit increased to double and minimize their impact on environment to halve. The application of Guest’s model in HR policies of Unilever is To comply with the core structural mission and policy, Unilever establishes HR structure.  Planned and developedstaffs in supply chain, gender-friendly environment, lessened personnel turnover, equal privileges, and maintain child labor policy.  As a result workforces are encouraged, more action-oriented and satisfied in operational work.  Worker performance progressed and performance follows the corporate value and purposes.  Workercommitment, customer coordination, relation resulted in progressiveeconomiceffect with betterrevenue, customer and market share. 4
  5. 5. 1.2 Difference between Story’s definition on HRM, workforces and industrial relations: HRM Personnel management Industrial relations Definition: Definition: Definition: It’s the application of HR PM is a managerial role Correlation and collaboration includes all related people like which tries to maintain between the employee, managers, employees, customer effectiveness in work and managers and government. and supplier. performance. The activities are to standard, commitment ensure and motivation of people to reach organizational goal. Unilever conducts events and Unilever arranges trainings, Unilever keeps good control programs on health & hygiene of provide guideline and keeps over general people, consults with performance experts, suppliers to record labor-unions to employees by and good create improve and develop the relationship effective relationship among the skills. and communication. stakeholders. 1.3 Developing a strategic method to HRM and effect of line managers and staffs: HRM is a broad set of recruitment, training, development and management of people inside and outside of the firm related to the business. To manage personnel in continuously changing surrounding factors, Unilever HR managers give effort on choosing and recruiting right and skilled candidates to confirm performance that should understand the corporate value and culture. The HR management has immense responsibilities to complete HR tasks in these continuous changes in environmental factors. The following system can assist the staffs and line managers of Unilevera. Create desire:The sector have to create a feeling and aspiration of HR activity significance for the line managers. To implement the HR activities in work floor more effectively, they must have desire to perform HR practice. 5
  6. 6. b. Develop competency: Training facilities should be organized for their HR competency and skill development and this will give them courage and motivation c. Provide support: The HR manager’s support and assistance is significant and is really motivating and useful for the line managers to practice HR activities in their operation. d. Develop capacity:Line managers possess operational and short term responsibilities which don’t encourage them to build HR capacity. The employee’s HR capacity should be triggered along with their operational activity. e. HR responsibility: For a more clear understanding of the context of HR, the significance, rules and responsibilities should be elaborated and justified. Task- 2 Developing flexibility within work environment 2.1 Flexibility model in practice: Atkinson’s model of core and peripheral workforce:The balance between core and periphery workers varies if the peripheral workers are used more in number in top management position. Maintaining right core-periphery workforce stability, make balanced staff selection is a critical responsibility of a HR manager. Core workforce:Highly skilled workers provide excellent performance, significant responsibility and secured job. The appropriate method for core workforce is described by flexibility function. Guest (1987) defined the core workers as high commitment personnel. Peripheral workforce: Workers from periphery work zone do daily and continuous works of business operation and transaction. Their works are not essential part of a firm. 6
  7. 7. 2.2 Typesof flexibility for firms: Flexibility in workplace means how quickly the workforce can adjust to changes and fluctuations in demand and supply of labor market. Atkinson defined the most appropriate flexibility pattern in workplace. According to Atkinson four strategies can be used for bringing equilibrium flexibility in workforce of Unilever. a. External numerical flexibility: It means the adjustment of labor inflow from the external market. It consists the activities like hiring temporary workers, fixed-term based contract, Relaxation of Employment security legislations to fire permanent workers as organizational need. b. Temporal flexibility: Temporal flexibility includes adjustment of working schedule, working shifts, flexi time, overtime of currently working employees. c. Functional flexibility: It includes the shifting of workers from one activity to other activities and responsibilities within the organization. It deals with the training of workers and outsourcing of activities. d. Financial flexibility: This flexibility means more variation in wage level from individual to individual but not fixed collectively. Financial flexibility can be attained by evaluation based payment, performance based payment. Locational flexibility: This is another type of flexibility which can be achieved by working of employees outside of usual workplace. 2.3 Flexible working practices from manager and workerviewpoint: Some basic types of flexibilities are applied and offered by firms to bring workplace satisfaction and safety for both managers and employees Part-time: People normally works usually not more than 35 hours a week which is less than full time personnel.  Staggered hours: In staggered hours system employees arrive and leave the workplace at different time but they a create overlaps.  Zero hour contract: In this agreement no work limit, obligations are predetermined between the workers and employers. Employers are free to offer a work or not to the workers. Workers also have the option of accepting or rejecting a job offered. 7
  8. 8.  Tele-workers: Tele-communication is mainly used by the teleworkers for the task but they do it from any places except the work place.  Job sharing: A task is shared by two workers rather than one person and time is split among both of them.  Home-workers: These type of workers work and accomplish tasks from their home and don’t appear at the workplace. 2.4 Effect of changes in labor market on flexible working practice: In recent times there are too many changes we can see in the labor market mainly because of the economic and environmental changes and modifications. For a successful goal oriented recruitment process, managers try to pick skilled labor for suitable position. Workplace flexibility has always been changing the forms because of the labor market fluctuations. Demography in labor market: The demographic trend has always been determining the supply-demand ratio of the labor market. The labor supply of fresh and young people decreases because of the dropping birth rates. Increasing rate of longevity period is raising the supply of aged people in the workplace. Women are increasingly participating in the workplace and this scenario has changed the gender ratio and policy development in workplace. Flexibility strategies are being adapted with the demographic changes for the successful and desired workplace behavior and output. Task- 3 Impact of equal opportunities in workplace 3.1 Workplace discrimination: We can find discriminations of many kinds in occupational working environment. Due to the racial, age difference, gender variance, differences in background and characteristics, discrimination takes place among the workers and employers. If a firm can’t diminish the presence of discrimination in the working environment, the HR development is hampered, humiliation takes place, workers fail to achieve performance standard and as a whole the firm fall behind in achieving their targeted goal. 8
  9. 9. - Discrimination of age:Difference in ages has created discrimination in receiving opportunities, authority, reward and promotion. Equal chance of getting promoted, evaluation criteria, reward and promotion opportunity should be provided to all employees based on performance and respective roles. - Discrimination of gender:In receiving dignity, support, power and authority women are often neglected and undermined compared to the male co-workers. Women in this situation are less inspired and feared to utilize their capability in working or even to participate in the economic development. To motivate those women in their participation and performance, firm should provide equal opportunity, security and flexibility in workplace. - Discrimination of disability: Sometimes persons with disabilities are considered as less capable and skilled in their performance and eligibility evaluation. But disable people are very capable of performing essential job with excellence. They should be given adequate facilities, flexibilities and chances in their selection and performance. - Discrimination of background: Some organization and its management discriminate people by their family and educational background. People from special or specific background type are more privileged and prioritized in the recruitment and work place. Background shouldn’t be a concern in the evaluation of an employee’s skill or acceptability. They must be equally judged with all other employees by their skills and performances. - Discrimination of religion: Difference in religion has an impact on the employee relation and flexibility. A person from a minority religious belief might find it impossible or difficult to adapt to a corporate culture or behavior. Firm should predetermine a flexible and adaptable corporate culture, policy and relation to make them feel easy and motivated to perform at a standard level. 3.2 Implication of equal opportunity legislation in workplace: Equal opportunity legislations are developed and introduced to diminish the impact and frequency of discrimination in work environment. In all the related operational sectors and activities like recruitment, compensation, promotion, reward, transfer, the right and opportunity of employees are protected with the help of legislation. Direct and indirect discrimination in organizational policies can be specified- 9
  10. 10. Direct:Staffs are discriminated from other employees comparing their differences in characteristics and background and education. Indirect:In this case, a standardized policy or practice is built for all staffs but that law might be impossible or tough to oblige because of their heterogeneity in their history and belief. In various aspects of organizational structure and operations managers need to ensure equality and safety for all employees.  Reduce and control unlawful acts like workplace harassment.  Equal opportunity of salary and promotion based on performance.  Maintain workplace legislation act.  Provide flexibility to those who lack certain capabilities or characteristics.  Build and maintain a better co-ordination and relation among all staffs. 3.3 Dissimilarities between equal opportunity and diversity: Managing diversity is considered differently than the equal opportunity method. Equal opportunity helps to control and reduce discriminations. A firm manages diversity to fully utilize the diversified workforce and diversity is taken as a blessing. Managing equal opportunity Managing diversity Factors External factors Internal factors Discrimination occurs Considering Group Individual consideration Concerned with Processing Outcome of performance Knowledge Narrower Wider Condition is considered as A problem to be solved Assets or advantageous Structure Operational structure Strategic structure Suggested activity Integration Mainstream adaptation 10
  11. 11. Task- 4 Approaches to human resource practices. 4.1 Comparing techniques of performance management: Performance evaluation can be very helpful to manage the activities and performance of personnel. Various appraisal systems can be useful for different types of operations and requirements. For the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of performance can be stated below Psychological appraisal:Psychological tests, interview and other knowledge related evaluations are used to measure the experience, capabilities and requirements. The method measures the emotional and motivational impact, skills, tolerance and personality which have impact on their own behavior and performance.  360 degree feedback: Evaluation is made by multiple assessors including the supervisors, colleagues, customers and self. It provides multiple judgments with more accuracy and findings and more appropriate self-development.  Assessment centers:Real life work simulation tests and exercises are conducted be experts and managers join in the process. In this system simulated work situation and case is given to analyze the decision making capacity, leadership, creativity, capability, planning quality and adaptability. It is a more realistic and dependable system to evaluate future prospect and requirements of performance and development.  MBO: Performance standard is set to compare the actual performance and take corrective adjustment and changes. Performance is measured by how much it achieved the firm’s goal. 4.2 Assessment of workforce welfare management: The activities that include the improvement of workers life, safety measurements and facilities are commonly known as employee welfare management. The activities of EWM include safety, motivation, medical and other facilities, cultural events and beneficial services. The reasons of conducting EWM in workplace are Healthy working condition.  Enhance job attraction.  Create job satisfaction.  Minimize worker turnover. 11
  12. 12.  Control the demand and force of labor unions.  Build more friendly and co-operative relation among employees. To find out the impact and output of EWM, a manager needs to evaluate the cost & benefit ratio and compare expectation and actual impact.  Different services and facilities depending on the individuals. This is also known as the cafeteria approach.  Whether the programs identify and fulfill needs and requirements of staffs.  Feedback will analyze the success and necessities of the welfare management.  The numerical return and investment should be positive otherwise reasons should be specified. 4.3 Implication of HR health and safety law: The main purpose of the health and safety law is to regulate and control the security, health and hygiene issue in work place. To reduce the severity and frequency of accidents, injuries or violations at workplace, managers and supervisors have to implement the safety regulation and rules successfully. Staffs might feel unsecured and dissatisfied if the working condition is not safe and good. Firm loses their positive impression and appeal to the available skilled and appropriate employees. To sustain in the market with a positive outlook and potentialities for the labor market, a company must secure its regulation and safety issues. The fundamental values of security and welfare at workplace and the duties of employers and all other stakeholders who possess a stake in the firm are defined as Health and safety at work act (1974). 12
  13. 13. 4.4 Effectof topical issue on HR applications: There are some critical issues related with the HR during the process of developing efficiency, preventing discrimination and recruiting effectively. The main and typical issues in HR can be Effective and appropriate recruitment.  Efficiency in production.  Resolving the conflict and violations.  Training events.  Safety and security maintenance.  Managing discrimination.  Benefit and opportunity for the staffs. The activities and attempts related to those HR concerns force to modify and reshape the HR policy and motive. Diversity in workforce is a major driver of changes in HR activities. 13
  14. 14. References: Atkinson, J. and Meager, N. (1986) Changing Working Patterns: How companies achieve flexibility to meet new needs, Institute of Manpower Studies, National Economic Development Office, London. Beechey, V. and Perkins, T. (1987) A Matter of Hours: Women, Part-time Work and the Labor Market, Cambridge: Polity Press Boxall, P F (1996) the strategic HRM debate and the resource-based view of the from, Human Resource Management Journal, 6 (3), pp. 59–75 Burnes B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organizational Dynamics, 3d ed., London, Prentice Hall Chen L., Liaw S. and Lee S. (2003) Using an HRM pattern approach to examine the productivity of manufacturing firms – an empirical study, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 24 Issue 3, pp.299-318 Dahrendorf, R. Kohler, E. and Piotet, F. (1986) New Forms of Work and Activity, Dublin: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Fowler, A (1987) when chief executives discover HRM, Personnel Management, January, p 3 Guest, D E (1987) Human resource management and industrial relations, Journal of Management Studies, 24 (5), pp. 503–21 Hewstone, M. & Brown, R. (Eds.). (1986). Contact and conflict in intergroup encounters. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd. Nerb, G. (1986) `Employment Problems: Views of Businessmen and the Workforce - Results of an Employee and Employer Survey on Labor Market Issues in the Member States'. Story, D.J. and Johnson, S. (1987) Are Small Firms the Answer to Unemployment? London: Employment Institute. 14

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